Link to Chemistry for Biology Students: Study Guide/Student Worksheet

1. What you’ve learned in these chemistry tutorials

These tutorials covered the following topics. The links next to the topics take you back to the specific areas of the tutorial that you might want to review.

  1. The structure of atoms (Atoms)
  2. The chemical symbols of the most common atoms (Drawing Atoms)
  3. How to read a chemical formula (Drawing Atoms)
  4. Key chemistry terms
    1. element (Atoms)
    2. compound (Elements, Compounds, Formulas and Molecules)
    3. molecule (Elements, Compounds, Formulas and Molecules)
    4. ions (Ionic Bonds)
  5. The “Octet Rule” for electron configuration (Drawing Atoms)
  6. Ionic Bonds (Ionic Bonds)
  7. Covalent Bonds (Covalent Bonds)
  8. Structural Formulas (Covalent Bonds)

2. A Basic Chemistry Final Quiz

If you learned the material above, you should do pretty well on the post-test below. Good luck!

[qwiz repeat_incorrect=”true”; style = “border: 3px solid black; ” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Basic Chemistry Final quiz (M3)”]

[h] Final Quiz: Basic Chemistry
[i] This quiz covers key concepts and terms in this series of tutorials on basic chemistry. After each question you’ll get feedback about your answer.

 

 

[q topic=”atomic structure and drawing atoms”]The building block of matter is the

[c]IG51Y2xldXM=

[c]IGF0 b20=

[c]IHByb3Rvbg==

[c]IGVsZWN0cm9u

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbnVjbGV1cyBpcyB0aGUgY2VudHJhbCBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBidWlsZGluZyBibG9jayBvZiBtYXR0ZXIuIFdoYXQgd291bGQgeW91IGNhbGwgdGhlIHVuaXQgdGhhdCBtYWtlcyB1cCB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cyBwbHVzIHRoZSBlbGVjdHJvbnM/

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIEF0b21zIGFyZSB0aGUgYnVpbGRpbmcgYmxvY2tzIG9mIG1hdHRlci4=

[f]IE5vLiBQcm90b25zIGFyZSBmb3VuZCBpbiB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cy4gV2hhdCB3b3VsZCB5b3UgY2FsbCB0aGUgdW5pdCB0aGF0IG1ha2VzIHVwIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzIHBsdXMgdGhlIGVsZWN0cm9ucz8=

[f]IE5vLiBFbGVjdHJvbnMgb3JiaXQgb3V0c2lkZSB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cy4gV2hhdCB3b3VsZCB5b3UgY2FsbCB0aGUgdW5pdCB0aGF0IG1ha2VzIHVwIHRoZSBudWNsZXVzIHBsdXMgdGhlIGVsZWN0cm9ucz88L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cD4mbmJzcDs8L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJCb2R5IiBzdHlsZT0ibWFyZ2luLXJpZ2h0OiA1OC41cHQ7Ij48c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0iZm9udC1zaXplOiAxMi4wcHQ7Ij48c3Ryb25nPsKgPC9zdHJvbmc+

[q topic=”atomic structure and drawing atoms”]Electrons are found in

[c]IHRoZSBudWNsZXVz

[c]IGVuZXJneS BsZXZlbHM=

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbnVjbGV1cyBpcyB0aGUgY2VudHJhbCBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBhdG9tLCB3aGVyZSBwcm90b25zIGFuZCBuZXV0cm9ucyBhcmUgZm91bmQu

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIEVsZWN0cm9ucyBhcmUgZm91bmQgaW4gPGVtPmVuZXJneSBsZXZlbHM8L2VtPiBvciA8ZW0+c2hlbGxzLjwvZW0+PC9zcGFuPjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9IkJvZHkiPjxzdHJvbmc+wqA8L3N0cm9uZz4=

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]An element is composed of

[c]IE9ubHkgb25lIHR5 cGUgb2YgYXRvbQ==

[c]IEF0IGxlYXN0IHR3byB0eXBlcyBvZiBhdG9tcw==

[c]IE9ubHkgYXRvbXMgdGhhdCBoYXZlIGxvc3QgdGhlaXIgZWxlY3Ryb25z

[f]IFllcy4gQW4gZWxlbWVudCBpcyBhIHN1YnN0YW5jZSB0aGF0IGlzIGNvbXBvc2VkIG9mIG9ubHkgb25lIHR5cGUgb2YgYXRvbS4=

[f]IE5vLiBTdWJzdGFuY2VzIGNvbXBvc2VkIG9mIHR3byBvciBtb3JlIHR5cGVzIG9mIGF0b21zIGFyZSBjb21wb3VuZHMgKGFuZCB3ZSYjODIxNztsbCBsZWFybiBtb3JlIGFib3V0IHRoZW0gbGF0ZXIu

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSBhbiBhdG9tIG1pZ2h0IHRlbXBvcmFyaWx5IGxvc2UgaXRzIGVsZWN0cm9ucyAobW9yZSBhYm91dCB0aGF0IGxhdGVyKSwgdGhlcmUgYXJlIG5vIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgdGhhdCBhcmUgY29tcG9zZWQgb2YgYXRvbXMgdGhhdCBoYXZlIGxvc3QgdGhlaXIgZWxlY3Ryb25zLjwvc3Bhbj48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJCb2R5Ij48c3Ryb25nPsKgPC9zdHJvbmc+

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]Which of the following could NOT be the chemical symbol for an element

[c]IEZl

[c]IEhl Zw==

[c]IEk=

[c]IE1u

[f]IE5vLiBDaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2xzIGNvbnNpc3Qgb2Ygb25lIG9yIHR3byBsZXR0ZXJzLiBUaGUgZmlyc3QgKG9yIG9ubHkpIGxldHRlciBpcyBjYXBpdGFsaXplZC4gVGhlIHNlY29uZCBsZXR0ZXIgaXMgbG93ZXIgY2FzZS4gJiM4MjIwO0ZlJiM4MjIxOyBpcyBhIHBlcmZlY3RseSBsZWdpdGltYXRlIHN5bWJvbCYjODIzMDt0aGUgc3ltYm9sIGZvciB0aGUgbGV0dGVyIElyb24u

[f]IFllczogJiM4MjIwO0hlZyYjODIyMTsgY291bGQgTk9UIGJlIGEgY2hlbWljYWwgc3ltYm9sIGZvciBhbiBlbGVtZW50LiBDaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2xzIGNvbnNpc3Qgb2Ygb25lIG9yIHR3byBsZXR0ZXJzLiBUaGUgZmlyc3QgKG9yIG9ubHkpIGxldHRlciBpcyBjYXBpdGFsaXplZC4gVGhlIHNlY29uZCBsZXR0ZXIgaXMgbG93ZXIgY2FzZS4gV2l0aCB0aHJlZSBsZXR0ZXJzLCAmIzgyMjA7SGVnJiM4MjIxOyBpcyBub3QgYcKgbGVnaXRpbWF0ZSBjaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2wuwqA=

[f]IE5vLiBDaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2xzIGNvbnNpc3Qgb2Ygb25lIG9yIHR3byBsZXR0ZXJzLiBUaGUgZmlyc3QgKG9yIG9ubHkpIGxldHRlciBpcyBjYXBpdGFsaXplZC4gVGhlIHNlY29uZCBsZXR0ZXIgaXMgbG93ZXIgY2FzZS4gJiM4MjIwO0kmIzgyMjE7IGlzIGEgcGVyZmVjdGx5IGxlZ2l0aW1hdGUgc3ltYm9sJiM4MjMwO3RoZSBzeW1ib2wgZm9yIHRoZSBlbGVtZW50IElvZGluZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBDaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2xzIGNvbnNpc3Qgb2Ygb25lIG9yIHR3byBsZXR0ZXJzLiBUaGUgZmlyc3QgKG9yIG9ubHkpIGxldHRlciBpcyBjYXBpdGFsaXplZC4gVGhlIHNlY29uZCBsZXR0ZXIgaXMgbG93ZXIgY2FzZS4gJiM4MjIwO01uJiM4MjIxOyBpcyBhIHBlcmZlY3RseSBsZWdpdGltYXRlIHN5bWJvbCYjODIzMDt0aGUgc3ltYm9sIGZvciB0aGUgZWxlbWVudCBNYW5nYW5lc2U8L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0iQm9keSI+PHN0cm9uZz7CoDwvc3Ryb25nPg==

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]”Ca” is the chemical symbol for

[c]Q2FkbWl1bQ==

[c]Q2FyYm9u

[c]Q2FuYWRpdW0=

[c]Q2FsY2 l1bQ==

[f]IE5vLiBDYWRtaXVtIGlzIGEgc29mdCwgYmx1aXNoIHdoaXRlIG1ldGFsIHRoYXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIGhlYXIgdmVyeSBsaXR0bGUgYWJvdXQgaW4gYmFzaWMgYmlvbG9neSBjb3Vyc2VzLiBJdHMgc3ltYm9sIGlzICYjODIyMDtDZC4mIzgyMjE7

[f]wqBOby4gQ2FyYm9uJiM4MjE3O3Mgc3ltYm9sIGlzICYjODIyMDtDLiYjODIyMTsgWW91IHNob3VsZCBsZWFybiB0aGlzIHdlbGwsIGJlY2F1c2UgY2FyYm9uIGlzIHByb2JhYmx5IHRoZSBtb3N0IGltcG9ydGFudCBlbGVtZW50IGluIGJpb2xvZ3ku

[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSYjODIxNztzIG5vIHN1Y2ggZWxlbWVudCBhcyBDYW5hZGl1bSE=

[f]IFllcy7CoFRoZSBjaGVtaWNhbCBzeW1ib2wgZm9yIGNhbGNpdW0gaXMgJiM4MjIwO0NhLiYjODIyMTs8L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0iQm9keSIgc3R5bGU9Im1hcmdpbi1yaWdodDogNTguNXB0OyI+PHN0cm9uZz48L3N0cm9uZz4=

[q topic=”atomic structure and drawing atoms”] Potassium has 19 protons, 19 neutrons, and 19 electrons. Following the Octet Rule for placing electrons in energy levels, which of the following arrangements is correct?

[c]wqBUZW4gZWxlY3Ryb25zIGluIHRoZSBmaXJzdMKgZW5lcmd5IGxldmVsLCBuaW5lIGluIHRoZSBzZWNvbmQu

[c]IFR3byBlbGVjdHJvbnMgaW4gdGhlIGZpcnN0wqBlbmVyZ3kgbGV2ZWwsIGVpZ2h0IGluIHRo ZSBzZWNvbmQsIGVpZ2h0IGluIHRoZSB0aGlyZCwgYW5kIG9uZSBpbiB0aGUgZm91cnRoLg==

[c]wqBUd28gZWxlY3Ryb25zIGluIHRoZSBmaXJzdMKgZW5lcmd5IGxldmVsLCB0ZW7CoGluIHRoZSBzZWNvbmQsIGFuZCBzZXZlbiBpbiB0aGUgdGhpcmQu

[f]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

[f]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

[f]IE5vLiBUbyByZXByZXNlbnQgdGhlIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBvZiBlbGVjdHJvbnMgaW4gYXRvbXMsIGtlZXAgaW4gbWluZCB0aGUgY2FwYWNpdHkgb2YgZWFjaMKgZW5lcmd5IGxldmVswqAodHdvIGVsZWN0cm9ucyBpbiB0aGUgZmlyc3QsIGVpZ2h0IGluIHRoZcKgIHNlY29uZCwgYW5kIGVpZ2h0IGluIHRoZSB0aGlyZCkuIEluIFBvdGFzc2l1bSwgd2l0aCAxOSBlbGVjdHJvbnMsIHRoZSBmaXJzdCB0d28gZWxlY3Ryb25zIGdvIGludG8gdGhlIGZpcnN0wqBlbmVyZ3kgbGV2ZWwuIFRoZSBuZXh0IDggZ28gaW50byB0aGUgc2Vjb25kwqBlbmVyZ3kgbGV2ZWwuIFRoZSBuZXh0IDggZ28gaW50byB0aGUgdGhpcmTCoGVuZXJneSBsZXZlbC4gVGhhdCBsZWF2ZXMgb25lIGVsZWN0cm9uIGZvciB0aGUgZm91cnRowqBlbmVyZ3kgbGV2ZWwuwqA8L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0iQm9keSI+PHN0cm9uZz7CoDwvc3Ryb25nPg==

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]How many individual atoms are found in a molecule of CH4O?

[c]Mw==

[c]NA==

[c]Ng ==

[f]IE5vLsKgVGhlcmUgYXJlIHRocmVlIGVsZW1lbnRzIGluIHRoaXMgbW9sZWN1bGU6IGNhcmJvbiAoQyksIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIChIKSwgYW5kIG94eWdlbiAoTykuIFRoZSBsYWNrIG9mIGEgc3Vic2NyaXB0IG5leHQgdG8gdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhbmQgb3h5Z2VuIGluZGljYXRlcyBvbmUgYXRvbSBvZiBlYWNoLiBUaGUgc3Vic2NyaXB0ICYjODIyMDs0JiM4MjIxOyBuZXh0IHRvIHRoZSBoeWRyb2dlbiAoSDxzdWI+NDwvc3ViPikgaW5kaWNhdGVzIHRoYXQgdGhlcmUgYXJlIGZvdXIgaHlkcm9nZW4gYXRvbXMuIDQgKyAxICsgMSA9IDYgdG90YWwgYXRvbXMuwqA=

[f]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

[f]IFllcy7CoFRoZXJlIGFyZSB0aHJlZSBlbGVtZW50cyBpbiB0aGlzIG1vbGVjdWxlOiBjYXJib24gKEMpLCBoeWRyb2dlbiAoSCksIGFuZCBveHlnZW4gKE8pLiBUaGUgbGFjayBvZiBhIHN1YnNjcmlwdCBuZXh0IHRvIHRoZSBjYXJib24gYW5kIG94eWdlbiBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgb25lIGF0b20gb2YgZWFjaC4gVGhlIHN1YnNjcmlwdCAmIzgyMjA7NCYjODIyMTsgbmV4dCB0byB0aGUgaHlkcm9nZW4gKEg8c3ViPjQ8L3N1Yj4pIGluZGljYXRlcyB0aGF0IHRoZXJlIGFyZSBmb3VyIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGF0b21zLiA0ICsgMSArIDEgPSA2IHRvdGFsIGF0b21zLjwvcD4KPHAgY2xhc3M9IkJvZHkiPjxzdHJvbmc+wqA8L3N0cm9uZz4=

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]The smallest part of a compound that still has the properties of that compound would be a(n)

[c]bW9sZW N1bGU=

[c]YXRvbQ==

[c]aW9u

[f]IFllcy7CoEEgbW9sZWN1bGXCoGlzIHRoZSBzbWFsbGVzdCB1bml0IG9mIGEgY29tcG91bmQgdGhhdCBzdGlsbCBoYXMgYWxsIG9mIHRoZSBwcm9wZXJ0aWVzIG9mIHRoYXQgY29tcG91bmQuwqA=

[f]IE5vLiBBdG9tcyBhcmUgdGhlIGJ1aWxkaW5nIGJsb2NrcyBvZiBtYXR0ZXIuIEJ1dCBjb21wb3VuZHMgKGNvbWJpbmF0aW9ucyBvZiBjaGVtaWNhbGx5IGJvbmRlZCBhdG9tcykgaGF2ZSBwcm9wZXJ0aWVzIHRoYXQgYXJlIHZlcnkgZGlmZmVyZW50IGZyb20gdGhlIGF0b21zIHRoYXQgbWFrZSB0aGVtIHVwLiBUaGUgc21hbGxlc3QgdW5pdCBvZiBhIGNvbXBvdW5kIHRvIHN0aWxsIGhhdmUgdGhhdCBjb21wb3VuZCYjODIxNztzIGNoZW1pY2FsIHByb3BlcnRpZXMgd291bGQgYmUgYSA8c3Ryb25nPm1vbGVjdWxlPC9zdHJvbmc+LsKg

[f]wqBOby4gSW9ucyBhcmUgYXRvbXMgdGhhdCBoYXZlIGxvc3QgZWxlY3Ryb25zLCBhbmQgdGhlcmVieSBnYWluZWQgYW4gZWxlY3RyaWNhbCBjaGFyZ2UuIDxlbT5Db21wb3VuZHM8L2VtPiBhcmUgY29tYmluYXRpb25zIG9mIGNoZW1pY2FsbHkgYm9uZGVkIGF0b21zLsKgVGhlIHNtYWxsZXN0IHVuaXQgb2YgYSBjb21wb3VuZCB0byBzdGlsbCBoYXZlIHRoYXQgY29tcG91bmQmIzgyMTc7cyBjaGVtaWNhbCBwcm9wZXJ0aWVzIHdvdWxkIGJlIGEgPHN0cm9uZz5tb2xlY3VsZTwvc3Ryb25nPi48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJCb2R5Ij48c3Ryb25nPsKgPC9zdHJvbmc+

[q topic=”ionic bonds”]The type of chemical bond that would result from the electron swapping shown below is a(n)

[c]Y292YWxlbnQgYm9uZA==

[c]aW9uaWMg Ym9uZA==

[c]aHlkcm9nZW7CoGJvbmQ=

[f]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

[f]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

[f]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

[q topic=”ionic bonds”]What’s the charge on a calcium ion?

[c]IEl0IGhhcyBubyBjaGFyZ2U=

[c]ICsgMQ==

[c]ICsg Mg==

[c]IC0x
[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBzaG93cyBhwqBjYWxjaXVtIGlvbiB3aXRoIDIwIHByb3RvbnMsIGFuZMKgMTggZWxlY3Ryb25zICgyICsgOCArIDggPSAxOCkuwqBUaGUgY2hhcmdlIG9uIHRoZSBpb24gaXMgdGhlIG51bWJlciBvZiBwcm90b25zLCBtaW51cyB0aGUgbnVtYmVyIG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4=
[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBpcyBzaG93aW5nIGNhbGNpdW0gd2l0aCAyMCBwcm90b25zLCBidXQgb25seSAxOCBlbGVjdHJvbnMuwqBUaGUgY2hhcmdlIG9uIHRoZSBpb24gaXMgdGhlIG51bWJlciBvZiBwcm90b25zLCBtaW51cyB0aGUgbnVtYmVyIG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4=
[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gaXMgc2hvd2luZyBjYWxjaXVtIHdpdGggMjAgcHJvdG9ucywgYnV0IG9ubHkgMTggZWxlY3Ryb25zLiBJdHMgY2hhcmdlIGhhcyB0byBiZSArMi48L3A+Cg==

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBpcyBzaG93aW5nIGNhbGNpdW0gd2l0aCAyMCBwcm90b25zLCBidXQgb25seSAxOCBlbGVjdHJvbnMuwqBUaGUgY2hhcmdlIG9uIHRoZSBpb24gaXMgdGhlIG51bWJlciBvZiBwcm90b25zLCBtaW51cyB0aGUgbnVtYmVyIG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucy48L3A+CjxwIGNsYXNzPSJCb2R5Ij48c3Ryb25nPsKgPC9zdHJvbmc+

[q topic=”covalent bonds and structural formulas”]The bonds holding methane together are ___________  bonds.

[c]aW9uaWM=

[c]YXRvbWlj

[c]aHlkcm9nZW4=

[c]Y292YW xlbnQ=

[f]IE5vLsKgSWYgeW91IGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYWJvdmUsIHlvdSBjYW4gc2VlIHRoYXQgdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhbmQgaHlkcm9nZW4gYXJlIHNoYXJpbmcgZWxlY3Ryb25zLiBUaGUgYm9uZCB0aGF0IGludm9sdmVzIHNoYXJpbmcgZWxlY3Ryb25zIGlzIGEgPHNwYW4gc3R5bGU9InRleHQtZGVjb3JhdGlvbjogdW5kZXJsaW5lOyI+Y292YWxlbnQ8L3NwYW4+IGJvbmQuwqA=

[f]IE5vLsKgZiB5b3UgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBhYm92ZSwgeW91IGNhbiBzZWUgdGhhdCB0aGUgY2FyYm9uIGFuZCBoeWRyb2dlbiBhcmUgc2hhcmluZyBlbGVjdHJvbnMuIFRoZSBib25kIHRoYXQgaW52b2x2ZXMgc2hhcmluZyBlbGVjdHJvbnMgaXMgYSA8c3BhbiBzdHlsZT0idGV4dC1kZWNvcmF0aW9uOiB1bmRlcmxpbmU7Ij5jb3ZhbGVudDwvc3Bhbj4gYm9uZC7CoA==

[f]wqBOby4gSHlkcm9nZW4gYm9uZHMgYXJlIGJvbmRzIDxlbT5iZXR3ZWVuPC9lbT4gbW9sZWN1bGVzLsKgSWYgeW91IGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYWJvdmUsIHlvdSBjYW4gc2VlIHRoYXQgdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhbmQgaHlkcm9nZW4gYXJlIHNoYXJpbmcgZWxlY3Ryb25zLiBUaGUgYm9uZCB0aGF0IGludm9sdmVzIHNoYXJpbmcgZWxlY3Ryb25zIGlzIGEgPHNwYW4gc3R5bGU9InRleHQtZGVjb3JhdGlvbjogdW5kZXJsaW5lOyI+Y292YWxlbnQ8L3NwYW4+IGJvbmQu

[f]WWVzLsKgSWYgeW91IGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYWJvdmUsIHlvdSBjYW4gc2VlIHRoYXQgdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhbmQgaHlkcm9nZW4gYXJlIHNoYXJpbmcgZWxlY3Ryb25zLiBUaGUgYm9uZCB0aGF0IGludm9sdmVzIHNoYXJpbmcgZWxlY3Ryb25zIGlzIGEgPHNwYW4gc3R5bGU9InRleHQtZGVjb3JhdGlvbjogdW5kZXJsaW5lOyI+Y292YWxlbnQ8L3NwYW4+IGJvbmQuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0iQm9keSI+PHN0cm9uZz7CoDwvc3Ryb25nPg==

[q topic=”covalent bonds and structural formulas”]The bond between the two carbon atoms in the diagram below is a(n)

[c]aW9uaWMgYm9uZA==

[c]c2luZ2xlIGNvdmFsZW50IGJvbmQ=

[c]ZG91YmxlIGNvdm FsZW50IGJvbmQ=

[f]IE5vLsKgSW9uaWMgYm9uZHMgaW52b2x2ZSBhdG9tcyB0aGF0IGhhdmUgdHJhZGVkIGVsZWNyb25zLiBJbiB0aGlzIHN0cnVjdHVyYWwgZm9ybXVsYSBkaWFncmFtLCB0aGUgdHdvIGxpbmVzIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhdG9tcyAoaW5kaWNhdGVkIGJ5IGEgPGVtPkM8L2VtPikgaW5kaWNhdGUgYSBkb3VibGUgY292YWxlbnQgYm9uZCwgd2hpY2ggbWVhbnMgdHdvIHNoYXJlZCBwYWlycyBvZiBlbGVjdHJvbnMuwqA=

[f]IE5vLkluIHRoaXMgc3RydWN0dXJhbCBmb3JtdWxhIGRpYWdyYW0sIHRoZSB0d28gbGluZXMgYmV0d2VlbiB0aGUgY2FyYm9uIGF0b21zIChpbmRpY2F0ZWQgYnkgYSA8ZW0+QzwvZW0+KSBpbmRpY2F0ZSBhIGRvdWJsZSBjb3ZhbGVudCBib25kLCB3aGljaCBtZWFucyB0d28gc2hhcmVkIHBhaXJzIG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucy7CoA==

[f]IFllcy5JbiB0aGlzIHN0cnVjdHVyYWwgZm9ybXVsYSBkaWFncmFtLCB0aGUgdHdvIGxpbmVzIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIGNhcmJvbiBhdG9tcyAoaW5kaWNhdGVkIGJ5IGEgPGVtPkM8L2VtPikgaW5kaWNhdGUgYSBkb3VibGUgY292YWxlbnQgYm9uZCwgd2hpY2ggbWVhbnMgdHdvIHNoYXJlZCBwYWlycyBvZiBlbGVjdHJvbnMuPC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0iQm9keSI+PHN0cm9uZz7CoDwvc3Ryb25nPg==

[q topic=”ionic bonds”]Of the following atoms, the one most likely to form an ionic bond is

[c]Rmx1b3JpbmU8L3NwYW4+PC9wPgo8cCBjbGFzcz0iQm9keSIgc3R5bGU9Im1hcmdpbi1yaWdodDogNTguNXB0OyI+PHNwYW4gc3R5bGU9ImZvbnQtc2l6ZTogMTIuMHB0OyI+PGlucHV0IG5hbWU9InF3aXpfaW1nIiBjbGFzcz0iYWxpZ25ub25lIHdwLWltYWdlLTI0NzEiIHNyYz0iaHR0cHM6Ly9sZWFybi1iaW9sb2d5LmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxNC8wNy8xNV9mbHVvcmluZS5wbmciIGFsdD0iMTVfZmx1b3JpbmUiIHdpZHRoPSIxMzIiIGhlaWdodD0iMTE3IiBzcmNzZXQ9Imh0dHBzOi8vbGVhcm4tYmlvbG9neS5jb20vd3AtY29udGVudC91cGxvYWRz LzIwMTQvMDcvMTVfZmx1b3JpbmUucG5nIDM0OHcsIGh0dHBzOi8vbGVhcm4tYmlvbG9neS5jb20vd3AtY29udGVudC91cGxvYWRzLzIwMTQvMDcvMTVfZmx1b3JpbmUtMzAweDI2My5wbmcgMzAwdywgaHR0cHM6Ly9sZWFybi1iaW9sb2d5LmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxNC8wNy8xNV9mbHVvcmluZS0yNjB4MjI4LnBuZyAyNjB3LCBodHRwczovL2xlYXJuLWJpb2xvZ3kuY29tL3dwLWNvbnRlbnQvdXBsb2Fkcy8yMDE0LzA3LzE1X2ZsdW9yaW5lLTE2MHgxNDAucG5nIDE2MHciIHNpemVzPSIobWF4LXdpZHRoOiAxMzJweCkgMTAwdncsIDEzMnB4IiAvPg==

[c]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

[c]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[q topic=”covalent bonds and structural formulas”]Which of the diagrams below is a structural formula?

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[c]wqA8L3NwYW4+Q0g8c3ViPjQ8L3N1Yj4=

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[x]If you’re happy with your score, congratulations. If not, return to the Chemistry Tutorials Menu for more review.

[/qwiz]

3. Next steps

Congratulations. You’ve learned a good chunk of the basic chemistry that you’ll need to understand biology. In most introductory/AP Biology courses, the next module will be  The Chemistry of Water. Or, use the menus above to choose something else.