Link to Chemistry for Biology Students: Study Guide/Student Worksheet

1. What you’ve learned in these chemistry tutorials

These tutorials covered the following topics. The links next to the topics take you back to the specific areas of the tutorial that you might want to review.

  1. The structure of atoms (Atoms)
  2. The chemical symbols of the most common atoms (Drawing Atoms)
  3. How to read a chemical formula (Drawing Atoms)
  4. Key chemistry terms
    1. element (Atoms)
    2. compound (Elements, Compounds, Formulas and Molecules)
    3. molecule (Elements, Compounds, Formulas and Molecules)
    4. ions (Ionic Bonds)
  5. The “Octet Rule” for electron configuration (Drawing Atoms)
  6. Ionic Bonds (Ionic Bonds)
  7. Covalent Bonds (Covalent Bonds)
  8. Structural Formulas (Covalent Bonds)

2. A Basic Chemistry Final Quiz

If you learned the material above, you should do pretty well on the post-test below. Good luck!

[qwiz repeat_incorrect=”true”; style = “border: 3px solid black; ” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Basic Chemistry Final quiz (M3)”]

[h] Final Quiz: Basic Chemistry
[i] This quiz covers key concepts and terms in this series of tutorials on basic chemistry. After each question you’ll get feedback about your answer.

 

[!]QUESTION 1 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”atomic structure and drawing atoms”]The building block of matter is the

[c] nucleus

[c*] atom

[c] proton

[c] electron

[f] No. The nucleus is the central part of the building block of matter. What would you call the unit that makes up the nucleus plus the electrons?

[f] Correct. Atoms are the building blocks of matter.

[f] No. Protons are found in the nucleus. What would you call the unit that makes up the nucleus plus the electrons?

[f] No. Electrons orbit outside the nucleus. What would you call the unit that makes up the nucleus plus the electrons?

 

[!]QUESTION 2 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”atomic structure and drawing atoms”]Electrons are found in

[c] the nucleus

[c*] energy levels

[f] No. The nucleus is the central part of the atom, where protons and neutrons are found.

[f] Correct. Electrons are found in energy levels or shells.

[!]QUESTION 3 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]An element is composed of

[c*] Only one type of atom

[c] At least two types of atoms

[c] Only atoms that have lost their electrons

[f] Yes. An element is a substance that is composed of only one type of atom.

[f] No. Substances composed of two or more types of atoms are compounds (and we’ll learn more about them later.

[f] No. While an atom might temporarily lose its electrons (more about that later), there are no substances that are composed of atoms that have lost their electrons.

[!]QUESTION 4 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]Which of the following could NOT be the chemical symbol for an element

[c] Fe

[c*] Heg

[c] I

[c] Mn

[f] No. Chemical symbols consist of one or two letters. The first (or only) letter is capitalized. The second letter is lower case. “Fe” is a perfectly legitimate symbol…the symbol for the letter Iron.

[f] Yes: “Heg” could NOT be a chemical symbol for an element. Chemical symbols consist of one or two letters. The first (or only) letter is capitalized. The second letter is lower case. With three letters, “Heg” is not a legitimate chemical symbol. 

[f] No. Chemical symbols consist of one or two letters. The first (or only) letter is capitalized. The second letter is lower case. “I” is a perfectly legitimate symbol…the symbol for the element Iodine.

[f] No. Chemical symbols consist of one or two letters. The first (or only) letter is capitalized. The second letter is lower case. “Mn” is a perfectly legitimate symbol…the symbol for the element Manganese

[!]QUESTION 5a ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]”Ca” is the chemical symbol for

[c]Cadmium

[c]Carbon

[c]Canadium

[c*]Calcium

[f] No. Cadmium is a soft, bluish white metal that you’ll hear very little about in basic biology courses. Its symbol is “Cd.”

[f] No. Carbon’s symbol is “C.” You should learn this well, because carbon is probably the most important element in biology.

[f] No. There’s no such element as Canadium!

[f] Yes. The chemical symbol for calcium is “Ca.”

[!]QUESTION 5 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q topic=”atomic structure and drawing atoms”] Potassium has 19 protons, 19 neutrons, and 19 electrons. Following the Octet Rule for placing electrons in energy levels, which of the following arrangements is correct?

[c] Ten electrons in the first energy level, nine in the second.

[c*] Two electrons in the first energy level, eight in the second, eight in the third, and one in the fourth.

[c] Two electrons in the first energy level, ten in the second, and seven in the third.

[f] No. To represent the structure of electrons in atoms, keep in mind the capacity of each energy level (two electrons in the first, eight in the  second, and eight in the third). In Potassium, with 19 electrons, the first two electrons go into the first energy level. The next 8 go into the second energy level. The next 8 go into the third energy level. That leaves one electron for the fourth energy level.

[f] Nice job! In Potassium, with 19 electrons, the first two electrons go into the first energy level. The next 8 go into the second energy level. The next 8 go into the third energy level. That leaves one electron for the fourth energy level.

[f] No. To represent the structure of electrons in atoms, keep in mind the capacity of each energy level (two electrons in the first, eight in the  second, and eight in the third). In Potassium, with 19 electrons, the first two electrons go into the first energy level. The next 8 go into the second energy level. The next 8 go into the third energy level. That leaves one electron for the fourth energy level. 

[!]QUESTION 6 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]How many individual atoms are found in a molecule of CH4O?

[c]3

[c]4

[c*]6

[f] No. There are three elements in this molecule: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). The lack of a subscript next to the carbon and oxygen indicates one atom of each. The subscript “4” next to the hydrogen (H4) indicates that there are four hydrogen atoms. 4 + 1 + 1 = 6 total atoms. 

[f] No. You might have been confused by the 4 next to the H (H4). Here’s how it works: There are three elements in this molecule: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). The lack of a subscript next to the carbon and oxygen indicates one atom of each. The subscript “4” next to the hydrogen (H4) indicates that there are four hydrogen atoms. 4 + 1 + 1 = 6 total atoms. 

[f] Yes. There are three elements in this molecule: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). The lack of a subscript next to the carbon and oxygen indicates one atom of each. The subscript “4” next to the hydrogen (H4) indicates that there are four hydrogen atoms. 4 + 1 + 1 = 6 total atoms.

[!]QUESTION 7 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”elements, compounds, molecules, formulas”]The smallest part of a compound that still has the properties of that compound would be a(n)

[c*]molecule

[c]atom

[c]ion

[f] Yes. A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound that still has all of the properties of that compound. 

[f] No. Atoms are the building blocks of matter. But compounds (combinations of chemically bonded atoms) have properties that are very different from the atoms that make them up. The smallest unit of a compound to still have that compound’s chemical properties would be a molecule

[f] No. Ions are atoms that have lost electrons, and thereby gained an electrical charge. Compounds are combinations of chemically bonded atoms. The smallest unit of a compound to still have that compound’s chemical properties would be a molecule.

[!]QUESTION 8 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”ionic bonds”]The type of chemical bond that would result from the electron swapping shown below is a(n)

[c]covalent bond

[c*]ionic bond

[c]hydrogen bond

[f] No. Covalent bonds result when atoms share electrons (as opposed to swapping them, which is what is shown in this diagram). This type of swap is the basis for an ionic bond. 

07_NaCl bonding 4
An ionic bond

[f] Yes. In ionic bonds, atoms swap electrons. Electron swapping results in charged ions, which bond with one another because of their opposite electrical charges. 

07_NaCl bonding 4
An ionic bond

[f] No. A hydrogen bond is a bond between molecules. The kind of electron trading shown above results in charged ions, which bond with one another because of their opposite electrical charges. The resulting bond is an ionic bond (see below)

07_NaCl bonding 4
An ionic bond

s an ionic bond (see below)

[!] QUESTION 9 START+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!]

[q topic=”ionic bonds”]What’s the charge on a calcium ion?

[c] It has no charge

[c] + 1

[c*] + 2

[c] -1
[f] No. The diagram shows a calcium ion with 20 protons, and 18 electrons (2 + 8 + 8 = 18). The charge on the ion is the number of protons, minus the number of electrons.
[f] No. The diagram is showing calcium with 20 protons, but only 18 electrons. The charge on the ion is the number of protons, minus the number of electrons.
[f] Excellent. The diagram is showing calcium with 20 protons, but only 18 electrons. Its charge has to be +2.

[f] No. The diagram is showing calcium with 20 protons, but only 18 electrons. The charge on the ion is the number of protons, minus the number of electrons.

[!]QUESTION 10 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”covalent bonds and structural formulas”]The bonds holding methane together are ___________  bonds.

[c]ionic

[c]atomic

[c]hydrogen

[c*]covalent

[f] No. If you look at the diagram above, you can see that the carbon and hydrogen are sharing electrons. The bond that involves sharing electrons is a covalent bond. 

[f] No. f you look at the diagram above, you can see that the carbon and hydrogen are sharing electrons. The bond that involves sharing electrons is a covalent bond. 

[f] No. Hydrogen bonds are bonds between molecules. If you look at the diagram above, you can see that the carbon and hydrogen are sharing electrons. The bond that involves sharing electrons is a covalent bond.

[f]Yes. If you look at the diagram above, you can see that the carbon and hydrogen are sharing electrons. The bond that involves sharing electrons is a covalent bond.

[!]QUESTION 11 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”covalent bonds and structural formulas”]The bond between the two carbon atoms in the diagram below is a(n)

[c]ionic bond

[c]single covalent bond

[c*]double covalent bond

[f] No. Ionic bonds involve atoms that have traded elecrons. In this structural formula diagram, the two lines between the carbon atoms (indicated by a C) indicate a double covalent bond, which means two shared pairs of electrons. 

[f] No.In this structural formula diagram, the two lines between the carbon atoms (indicated by a C) indicate a double covalent bond, which means two shared pairs of electrons. 

[f] Yes.In this structural formula diagram, the two lines between the carbon atoms (indicated by a C) indicate a double covalent bond, which means two shared pairs of electrons.

[!]QUESTION 11b ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”ionic bonds”]Of the following atoms, the one most likely to form an ionic bond is

[c*]Fluorine

[c]Carbon

[c]Nitrogen

[f] Exactly.With seven electrons in its outer shell, fluorine is very likely to accept a single electron. That would make fluorine a charged ion, with a -1 charge, setting it up to form an ionic bond with a positive ion. 

 

[f] No.Carbon has four outer electrons. Carbon never gives away or accepts additional electrons to form an ion. Instead, carbon shares electrons, forming covalent bonds. 

[f] No.Nitrogen has five outer electrons. Nitrogen’s most likely move is to share these electrons with other atoms (including other nitrogen atoms), forming forming covalent bonds.

[!]QUESTION 12 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[!]QUESTION 12 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[/!] 

[q topic=”covalent bonds and structural formulas”]Which of the diagrams below is a structural formula?

[c]

[c*]

[c] CH4

[f] No. A structural formula shows the chemical symbols for the atoms in a molecule, and uses dashes to represent the shared pairs of electrons that connect these atoms. The structural formula was this one: 

[f] Yes.In this structural formula diagram, the two lines between the carbon atoms (indicated by a C) indicate a double covalent bond, which means two shared pairs of electrons. 

[f] No. “CH4” is a molecular or chemical formula. A structural formula shows the chemical symbols for the atoms in a molecule, and uses dashes to represent the shared pairs of electrons that connect these atoms. The structural formula was this one:

[x]If you’re happy with your score, congratulations. If not, return to the Chemistry Tutorials Menu for more review.

[/qwiz]

3. Next steps

Congratulations. You’ve learned a good chunk of the basic chemistry that you’ll need to understand biology. In most introductory/AP Biology courses, the next module will be  The Chemistry of Water. Or, use the menus above to choose something else.