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Page Outline

  1. Introduction
  2. Photosynthesis as an Endergonic Redox (Oxidation Reduction) Reaction
  3. Quiz: Photosynthesis the Big Picture

1. Introducing Photosynthesis

Start by labeling the diagram below. Use a process of elimination if you get stuck.

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-PSN, Inputs and Outputs Diagram”]

[h]Interactive Diagram: Photosynthesis inputs and outputs

[q labels = “top”]

 

[l]carbohydrate

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]carbon dioxide

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]light

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]oxygen

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]water

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[/qwiz]

For a minute, let’s think about life.

Living things are entities that, chemically speaking, are profoundly out of equilibrium with their environment. We (meaning people, cacti, sea anemones, redwood trees, bacteria, and every other organism) are systems that are highly organized. On a molecular level, we’re composed of highly reduced compounds, each buzzing with energetic electrons. Order and potential energy like that doesn’t happen spontaneously. It needs an energy source to sustain it.

That energy source is the sun (“1”), and photosynthesis is the biological process that brings that energy and highly organized matter into living systems. Life’s chemical energy is stored in a variety of forms: immediately as ATP, a form of energy that, for the most part, is locked within individual cells, and can’t be transferred from one cell to another. A form that can be transferred from cell to cell is sugar, and that’s one of photosynthesis’s most direct products. The sugars made by photosynthesis are simple carbohydrates, and plants can convert them into more complex carbohydrates such as starches and cellulose (plant fiber: the material that makes up cell walls). In the diagram above, carbohydrate is represented by number 5. Essentially, it’s the plant itself.

Carbohydrates (along with proteins and fats) constitute one output of the photosynthetic process. Another one is oxygen (shown at “4”). All of the oxygen in our atmosphere is there because of photosynthesis, which has been bubbling oxygen into the air for the past 3.5 billion years. Life can exist without atmospheric oxygen. But we can’t. If you get excited by anything connected with multicellular life (which ranges from the shape of an orchid to conflict resolution among primates), then you can thank photosynthesis for creating the oxygen that made the complexity of multicellular aerobic life possible.

So, that’s what comes out. Let’s think about what goes in. Photosynthesis involves carbon fixation, which involves taking carbon dioxide gas (“2” in the diagram above) and rendering it into a solid form as carbohydrate (and, through other reactions, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids). You can think of fixation as fixing into place.

Carbon dioxide is a minor component of our atmosphere. At the start of the industrial revolution (let’s say 1800), carbon dioxide’s atmospheric concentration was about 280 parts per million. Now it’s above 400, a product of human combustion of fossil fuels (click here for my climate change songs). During photosynthesis, plants and other photosynthetic organisms (including algae and photosynthetic bacteria), absorb carbon dioxide into their cells and combine it with electrons and protons ripped away from water molecules (water is the second input, shown above at “3”).

Taking unorganized, randomly moving molecules in the air and organizing them into cells and multicellular organisms is a massive push against entropy. To try to envision this, just take a look at your hand: an organized structure. The bone, skin, and muscle in your hand is mostly protein. Protein, like every other biological molecule, is a carbon-based molecule. Every one of the carbon atoms making up the molecules that make up the cells that make up the tissues that make up your hand, was once, not very long ago floating freely in the air.

It’s a good thing that the sun puts out so much energy. This is not something that most people can imagine, but think about all the energy that human beings use in a year: all the electricity powering all of the lights and machines; all of the fossil fuel derived combustion that heats our homes and moves our vehicles, all of the energy required to make everything we use. That amount, all over our planet, sustaining our civilization, is equal to an hour and a half of sunlight striking the earth (based on the Sandia Labs Solar FRQ. The calculation was based on human energy consumption the year 2001. We undoubtedly consume more energy now, so maybe it would take the sun two hours in 2017).

In what follows, we’ll drop down to the cellular and molecular details of how photosynthesis work. Let’s go.

2. Photosynthesis as an endergonic redox (oxidation reduction) reaction

Photosynthesis is a complex process, with many intermediate steps that we’ll learn about in this and the coming modules. But let’s make sure we understand the big picture first. Here’s the chemical equation for photosynthesis:

6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy –> C6H12O6 + 6O2.

In words, that means that six molecules of carbon dioxide are combined with six molecules of water, producing one molecule of glucose and six molecules of oxygen. Two things about this equation tell us that the reaction is endergonic (not spontaneous, requiring an input of energy to move it forward).

  1. The fact that energy isn’t coming out, but gets put in. That’s evident in light energy’s place on the left side of the arrow.
  2. The negative entropy change. Twelve molecules go into photosynthesis. Seven molecules come out. That’s a decrease in entropy. If you had twelve piles of things in your room and you organized them into seven piles, you’d have increased your room’s level of organization. Increasing organization requires energy.

For a review of the idea of free energy, read this.

Note that photosynthesis is the inverse of what happens during cellular respiration.

  • Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy –> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  • Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 –>  energy(ATP) + 6CO2 + 6H2O

During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced. That means that carbon dioxide gains energetic electrons. Those electrons come from water, which is oxidized (loses electrons). It’s important to emphasize that water doesn’t power photosynthesis. The power comes from light, and how light powers the oxidation of water is something that we’ll visit later in this series of tutorials. Note that this is, of course, also the inverse of what happens during cellular respiration, where glucose is oxidized as water is reduced.

The reduction of carbon dioxide that happens during photosynthesis is the basis of all of life’s chemical energy. Life is based on highly reduced, energetic molecules. Think of vegetable oil, or a piece of bread. In fact, for an image of a reduced matter, think of a peanut butter sandwich. It’s literally dripping with energy. And that’s what photosynthesis does: it takes highly oxidized carbon dioxide, commonly referred to as exhaust (what comes out of a car’s tailpipe) and transforms it into highly reduced living matter (carbohydrates, which then get transformed into proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids).

05_psn and resp (chlor and mito)Let’s end this section by looking at a diagram that shows the reciprocal relationship between photosynthesis and respiration, and locates these processes in the cellular organelles in which these reactions take place. Note that, for the purpose of showing the reciprocity, the diagram oversimplifies the inputs into cellular respiration.

The key organelles are the chloroplast (“2”), which is the site of photosynthesis; and the mitochondria (“5”) the site of most cellular respiration. Because this is a cycle we could begin anywhere, but let’s start with the inputs of photosynthesis. These are the gas carbon dioxide (“6”) and the liquid water (“7”). Powered by light (“1”), a chloroplast converts these inputs into the simple sugar glucose (“3”) and oxygen gas (“4”). These outputs of photosynthesis become the inputs for cellular respiration, the goal of which is to produce the short term energy molecule ATP, which would appear at “8” in this diagram.

Before entering into more detail about photosynthesis, let’s make sure you’re on top of the material covered above.

3. Quiz: Photosynthesis, the big picture

[qwiz random = “false” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-PSN, Big Picture”]

[h]Photosynthesis: the big picture.

[i]

[q labels = “top” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d2867ebbbc7b4″ question_number=”8″]

The energy for all life is provided by the ______ . Within plant cells, organelles called ______________  take up __________________ (a gas) and  _________. Through the process of __________________, ______________ create the sugar _________  and release _________ as a by-product. In both plant and animal cells,  ________________ take in_________ (gas) and __________. During cellular _____________, mitochondria will produce  ________, and release the gas __________________ and __________. These, in turn, become the inputs for _________________.

[l]ATP

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]carbon dioxide

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]chloroplasts

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]glucose

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]mitochondria

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]oxygen

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]photosynthesis

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]respiration

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]sun

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]water

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

 

[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” question_number=”1″ dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d2c08ea4423b4″] Which number represents the substance that gets reduced during photosynthesis?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]ID I=[Qq]

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[c]ICo=[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[q multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d2b88dbb627b4″ question_number=”2″] In biological processes like respiration and photosynthesis and respiration, substances that are reduced have _______ chemical energy than substances that are oxidized. 

[c]IG1v cmU=[Qq]

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[c]IGFib3V0IHRoZSBzYW1lIGFtb3VudCBvZg==[Qq]

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[c]IGxlc3M=[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d2b121d57bbb4″ question_number=”3″] Which number represents the substance that gets oxidized during photosynthesis?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]ID M=[Qq]

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[c]ICo=[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d2a9b5ef94fb4″ question_number=”4″] Which number represents the reduced product of photosynthesis?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]NQ ==[Qq]

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[c]ICo=[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d2a2b9cbe8fb4″ question_number=”5″]Because photosynthesis requires energy to proceed, it’s considered to be an ____________ process.

[hangman]

[c]ZW5kZXJnb25pYw==[Qq]

[f]RXhjZWxsZW50LsKgQmVjYXVzZSBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyByZXF1aXJlcyBlbmVyZ3kgdG8gcHJvY2VlZCwgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjb25zaWRlcmVkIHRvIGJlIGFuIA==ZW5kZXJnb25pYw==IHByb2Nlc3Mu

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d29b98677ebb4″ question_number=”6″]Because respiration releases energy for cellular work, it’s considered to be an _____________ process.

[hangman]

[c]ZXhlcmdvbmlj[Qq]

[f]RXhjZWxsZW50LsKgQmVjYXVzZSByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiByZWxlYXNlcyBlbmVyZ3kgZm9yIGNlbGx1bGFyIHdvcmssIGl0JiM4MjE3O3MgY29uc2lkZXJlZCB0byBiZSBhbiA=ZXhlcmdvbmljIHByb2Nlc3Mu

Cg==

Jm5ic3A7

[Qq]

[q labels = “top” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d2911e31fcbb4″ question_number=”7″]

 

[l]ATP

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]carbon dioxide

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]chloroplast

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]glucose

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]light

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]mitochondria

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]oxygen

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]water

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!


[q topic= “cellular_respiration_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d27de8cfe3bb4″ question_number=”9″]The correct chemical reaction for cellular respiration is

[c]IEM=Ng==SA==MTI=Tw==[Qq]6 + 6CO2 + energy(ATP) –> 6CO2 + 6O2

[c]IE M=Ng==SA==[Qq]12O6 + 6O2 –> energy(ATP) + 6CO2 + 6H2O

[c]IDZDTw==Mg==ICsgNkg=[Qq]2O –> Energy(light) + C6H12O6 + 6O2

[c]IDZIMg==TyArIDZP[Qq]2  –> 6CO2 + 6H2O

[f]IE5vLiBGaW5kIGEgcmVhY3Rpb24gdGhhdCBiZWdpbnMgd2l0aCBnbHVjb3NlLCBjb21iaW5lcyBpdCB3aXRoIG94eWdlbiwgYW5kIHJlbGVhc2VzIGVuZXJneSwgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUsIGFuZCB3YXRlci4=[Qq]
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Cg==

[Qq]
[q topic= “cellular_respiration_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d2759d65877b4″ question_number=”10″]The function of cellular respiration is to produce

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRl[Qq]

[c]IGdsdWNvc2U=[Qq]

[c]IG94eWdlbg==[Qq]

[c]IEFU UA==[Qq]

[c]IHdhdGVy[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]
[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d26d9c7ca7bb4″ question_number=”11″]The equation 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy(light) C6H12O6 + 6O2 is for

[c]IGNlbGx1bGFyIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9u[Qq]

[c]IGxhY3RpYyBhY2lkIGZlcm1lbnRhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[c]IHBob3Rvc3 ludGhlc2lz[Qq]

[c]IGFsY29ob2wgZmVybWVudGF0aW9u[Qq]

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[f]IE5vLiBMYWN0aWMgYWNpZCBmZXJtZW50YXRpb24gaXMgYSBraW5kIG9mIGFuYWVyb2JpYyByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4gVGhlIGVxdWF0aW9uIGFib3ZlIHNob3dzIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGJlaW5nIGNvbWJpbmVkIHdpdGggd2F0ZXIgdG8gY3JlYXRlIGdsdWNvc2UsIHdpdGggb3h5Z2VuIGJlaW5nIHJlbGVhc2VkIGFzIGEgYnlwcm9kdWN0LiBXaGF0IHByb2Nlc3MgY3JlYXRlcyBnbHVjb3NlPyBBcyBhIGhpbnQsIG5vdGUgdGhhdCBsaWdodCBkcml2ZXMgdGhlIHJlYWN0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIGVxdWF0aW9uIGFib3ZlIHNob3dzIHRoZSByZWFjdGlvbiBmb3IgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXM6IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGJlaW5nIGNvbWJpbmVkIHdpdGggd2F0ZXIgdG8gY3JlYXRlIGdsdWNvc2UsIHdpdGggb3h5Z2VuIGJlaW5nIHJlbGVhc2VkIGFzIGEgYnlwcm9kdWN0Lg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGNvaG9sIGZlcm1lbnRhdGlvbiBpcyBhIGtpbmQgb2YgYW5hZXJvYmljIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uLiBUaGUgZXF1YXRpb24gYWJvdmUgc2hvd3MgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgYmVpbmcgY29tYmluZWQgd2l0aCB3YXRlciB0byBjcmVhdGUgZ2x1Y29zZSwgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4gYmVpbmcgcmVsZWFzZWQgYXMgYSBieXByb2R1Y3QuIFdoYXQgcHJvY2VzcyBjcmVhdGVzIGdsdWNvc2U/IEFzIGEgaGludCwgbm90ZSB0aGF0IGxpZ2h0IGRyaXZlcyB0aGUgcmVhY3Rpb24u

Cg==

[Qq]
[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d2652bd18d3b4″ question_number=”12″]The energy that powers photosynthesis comes from

[c]IGdsdWNvc2U=[Qq]

[c]IG94eWdlbg==[Qq]

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRl[Qq]

[c]IGxp Z2h0[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHVjb3NlIGlzIHRoZSBwcm9kdWN0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLiBUaGUgZW5lcmd5IHNvdXJjZSBmb3IgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgaXMgYnVpbHQgaW50byB0aGUgd29yZCDigJhwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcy7igJkg4oCYUGhvdG/igJkgcmVmZXJzIHRvIHdoYXQ/[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBPeHlnZW4gaXMgYSBieXByb2R1Y3Qgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMuIFRoZSBlbmVyZ3kgc291cmNlIGZvciBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBpcyBidWlsdCBpbnRvIHRoZSB3b3JkIOKAmHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLuKAmSDigJhQaG90b+KAmSByZWZlcnMgdG8gd2hhdD8=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBpcyBhbiBpbnB1dCBmb3IgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIG5vdCBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIHByb2R1Y3RzLiBUaGUgZW5lcmd5IHNvdXJjZSBmb3IgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgaXMgYnVpbHQgaW50byB0aGUgd29yZCDigJhwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcy7igJkg4oCYUGhvdG/igJkgcmVmZXJzIHRvIHdoYXQ/[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGlnaHQgZW5lcmd5IGlzIHdoYXQgZHJpdmVzIHRoZSByZWFjdGlvbnMgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMu

Cg==

[Qq]
[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d25d50296bbb4″ question_number=”13″]The correct chemical equation for photosynthesis is

[c]IEM=Ng==SA==MTI=Tw==[Qq]6 + 6CO2 + energy(ATP) -> 6CO2 + 6O2

[c]IEM=Ng==SA==MTI=Tw==[Qq]6 + 6O2 -> energy(ATP) + 6CO2 + 6H2O

[c]IDZD Tw==Mg==ICsgNkg=Mg==TyArIEVuZXJneShsaWdodCkgLSZndDsgQw==[Qq]6H12O6 + 6O2

[c]IDZIMg==TyArIDZPMiA=IC0mZ3Q7IDZDTw==[Qq]2 + 6H2O

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcmVhY3Rpb24gYWJvdmUgc2hvd3MgZ2x1Y29zZSBiZWluZyBjb21iaW5lZCB3aXRoIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlLiBJbiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcywgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgaXMgY29tYmluZWQgd2l0aCB3YXRlciB0byBjcmVhdGUgZ2x1Y29zZSwgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4gcmVsZWFzZWQgYXMgYSBieXByb2R1Y3Qu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcywgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgaXMgY29tYmluZWQgd2l0aCB3YXRlciB0byBjcmVhdGUgZ2x1Y29zZSwgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4gcmVsZWFzZWQgYXMgYSBieXByb2R1Y3Qu[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gSW4gcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGlzIGNvbWJpbmVkIHdpdGggd2F0ZXIgdG8gY3JlYXRlIGdsdWNvc2UsIHdpdGggb3h5Z2VuIHJlbGVhc2VkIGFzIGEgYnlwcm9kdWN0Lg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBGaW5kIGEgcmVhY3Rpb24gdGhhdCBiZWdpbnMgd2l0aCBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBhbmQgd2F0ZXIsIGFuZCBjb21iaW5lcyB0aG9zZSBpbnB1dHMgdG8gY3JlYXRlIGdsdWNvc2UsIHdpdGggb3h5Z2VuIHJlbGVhc2VkIGFzIGEgYnlwcm9kdWN0Lg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d255bf02c6bb4″ question_number=”14″]The organelle that carries out photosynthesis in a plant cell is

[c]IHRoZSB2YWN1b2xl[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBjaGxv cm9wbGFzdA==[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBudWNsZXVz[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdmFjdW9sZeKAmXMgcm9sZSBpcyBzdG9yYWdlIG9mIHdhdGVyIGFuZCBvdGhlciBzdWJzdGFuY2VzLiBGb3IgYSBoaW50IGFib3V0IHRoZSBvcmdhbmVsbGUgdGhhdCBkb2VzIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLCB0aGluayBvZiB0aGUgZ3JlZW4gcGlnbWVudCDigJhjaGxvcm9waHlsbC7igJkgV2hpY2ggb3JnYW5lbGxlIGhhcyBhIHNpbWlsYXIgc291bmQ/[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0LCB3aGljaCBnZXRzIGl0cyBuYW1lIGZyb20gdGhlIHBpZ21lbnQgY2hsb3JvcGh5bGwsIGlzIHRoZSBvcmdhbmVsbGUgdGhhdCBjYXJyaWVzIG91dCBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbnVjbGV1cyBpcyB0aGUgY2VsbOKAmXMgY29udHJvbCBjZW50ZXIuIEZvciBhIGhpbnQgYWJvdXQgdGhlIG9yZ2FuZWxsZSB0aGF0IGRvZXMgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIHRoaW5rIG9mIHRoZSBncmVlbiBwaWdtZW50IOKAmGNobG9yb3BoeWxsLuKAmSBXaGljaCBvcmdhbmVsbGUgaGFzIGEgc2ltaWxhciBzb3VuZD8=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIHBsYXkgYSBrZXkgcm9sZSBpbiBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4gRm9yIGEgaGludCBhYm91dCB0aGUgb3JnYW5lbGxlIHRoYXQgZG9lcyBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcywgdGhpbmsgb2YgdGhlIGdyZWVuIHBpZ21lbnQg4oCYY2hsb3JvcGh5bGwu4oCZIFdoaWNoIG9yZ2FuZWxsZSBoYXMgYSBzaW1pbGFyIHNvdW5kPw==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d24dbe19e6fb4″ question_number=”15″]From a plant’s perspective, the purpose of photosynthesis is production of

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRl[Qq]

[c]IGxpZ2h0[Qq]

[c]IHdhdGVy[Qq]

[c]IGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0 ZSAoZ2x1Y29zZSk=[Qq]

[c]IG94eWdlbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBpcyBhbiBpbnB1dCBmb3IgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMuIEZyb20gYSBwbGFudOKAmXMgcGVyc3BlY3RpdmUsIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGlzIGFib3V0IG1ha2luZyBmb29kLiBXaGljaCBzdWJzdGFuY2UgaXMgYSBmb29kPw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMaWdodCBpcyB0aGUgZW5lcmd5IHRoYXQgZHJpdmVzIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLiBGcm9tIGEgcGxhbnTigJlzIHBlcnNwZWN0aXZlLCBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBpcyBhYm91dCBtYWtpbmcgZm9vZC4gV2hpY2ggc3Vic3RhbmNlIGlzIGEgZm9vZD8=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXYXRlciBpcyBhbiBpbnB1dCBmb3IgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMuIEZyb20gYSBwbGFudOKAmXMgcGVyc3BlY3RpdmUsIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGlzIGFib3V0IG1ha2luZyBmb29kLiBXaGljaCBzdWJzdGFuY2UgaXMgYSBmb29kPw==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gRnJvbSBhIHBsYW504oCZcyBwZXJzcGVjdGl2ZSwgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgaXMgYWJvdXQgbWFraW5nIGZvb2Q7IHRoYXQgZm9vZCBpcyBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGUsIHR5cGljYWxseSBnbHVjb3NlLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBPeHlnZW4gaXMgYSBieXByb2R1Y3Qgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMuIFdoaWxlIHdl4oCZcmUgdmVyeSBncmF0ZWZ1bCBmb3IgcGxhbnRzIGZvciBjcmVhdGluZyBveHlnZW4sIGl04oCZcyBub3QgdGhlIGdvYWwgb2YgdGhlIHByb2Nlc3MuIEZyb20gYSBwbGFudOKAmXMgcGVyc3BlY3RpdmUsIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGlzIGFib3V0IG1ha2luZyBmb29kLiBXaGljaCBzdWJzdGFuY2UgaXMgYSBmb29kPw==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d245bd31073b4″ question_number=”16″]The carbon that photosynthesis puts into carbohydrates comes from

[c]IGNhcmJvbi BkaW94aWRl[Qq]

[c]IGxpZ2h0[Qq]

[c]IEFUUA==[Qq]

[c]IGdsdWNvc2U=[Qq]

[c]IG94eWdlbg==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gQ2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgaXMgdGhlIHNvdXJjZSBvZiB0aGUgY2FyYm9uIHRoYXQgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgcHV0cyBpbnRvIGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMaWdodCBpcyB0aGUgZW5lcmd5IHRoYXQgZHJpdmVzIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLiBGb3IgdGhlIHNvdXJjZSBvZiB0aGUgY2FyYm9uIHRoYXQgZ29lcyBpbnRvIGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXMsIGxvb2sgZm9yIHRoZSBjaG9pY2UgdGhhdCBpcyBib3RoIGFuIGlucHV0IGZvciBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcywgYW5kIHdoaWNoIGhhcyB0aGUgZWxlbWVudCBjYXJib24gaW4gaXQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBVFAgaXMgYW4gZW5lcmd5IHNvdXJjZSBmb3IgY2VsbHMsIGJ1dCBpdOKAmXMgbm90IGEgY2FyYm9uIHNvdXJjZS4gRm9yIHRoZSBzb3VyY2Ugb2YgdGhlIGNhcmJvbiB0aGF0IGdvZXMgaW50byBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGVzLCBsb29rIGZvciB0aGUgY2hvaWNlIHRoYXQgaXMgYm90aCBhbiBpbnB1dCBmb3IgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBoYXMgdGhlIGVsZW1lbnQgY2FyYm9uIGluIGl0Lg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHVjb3NlIGlzIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgcHJvZHVjdHMgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIG5vdCB0aGUgZW5lcmd5IHNvdXJjZSBvciBjYXJib24gc291cmNlLiBGb3IgdGhlIHNvdXJjZSBvZiB0aGUgY2FyYm9uIHRoYXQgZ29lcyBpbnRvIGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXMsIGxvb2sgZm9yIHRoZSBjaG9pY2UgdGhhdCBpcyBib3RoIGFuIGlucHV0IGZvciBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcywgYW5kIHdoaWNoIGhhcyB0aGUgZWxlbWVudCBjYXJib24gaW4gaXQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBPeHlnZW4gaXMgYSBieXByb2R1Y3Qgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMuIEZvciB0aGUgc291cmNlIG9mIHRoZSBjYXJib24gdGhhdCBnb2VzIGludG8gY2FyYm9oeWRyYXRlcywgbG9vayBmb3IgdGhlIGNob2ljZSB0aGF0IGlzIGJvdGggYW4gaW5wdXQgZm9yIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLCBhbmQgd2hpY2ggaGFzIHRoZSBlbGVtZW50IGNhcmJvbiBpbiBpdC4=

Cg==

[Qq]
[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d23de188e5bb4″ question_number=”17″]Photosynthesis has changed our atmosphere by adding

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRl[Qq]

[c]IG94eW dlbg==[Qq]

[c]IHdhdGVyIHZhcG9y[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyByZW1vdmVzIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGZyb20gdGhlIGF0bW9zcGhlcmUuIFdoYXQgZ2FzIGRvZXMgaXQgYWRkIHRvIHRoZSBhdG1vc3BoZXJlPw==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gUGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgaXMgcmVzcG9uc2libGUgZm9yIHRoZSB1bmlxdWUsIG94eWdlbi1yaWNoIGF0bW9zcGhlcmUgb2Ygb3VyIHBsYW5ldC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXYXRlciBpcyBhbiBpbnB1dCBmb3IgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMuIEFsc28sIG9uIG91ciB3YXRlci1yaWNoIHdvcmxkLCBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBoYXNu4oCZdCBhbHRlcmVkIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2Ygd2F0ZXIgdmFwb3IgaW4gdGhlIGFpci4gV2hhdCBnYXMgaXMgYW4gb3V0cHV0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzPw==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d23605e0c43b4″ question_number=”18″]A photosynthesizing plant is placed in a sealed chamber from which no air can enter or leave. The lights are kept continuously on, and the plant is provided with enough water. If the level of gases in the chamber is measured, which of the following should be true?

[c]IE94eWdlbiBsZXZlbHMgZ28gZG93biwgYW5kIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGxldmVscyBnbyB1cC4=[Qq]

[c]IE94eWdlbiBsZXZlbHMgZ28gdXAsIGFuZCBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBsZXZlbHMgZ28gdXAu[Qq]

[c]IE94eWdlbiBsZXZlbHMgZ28gdXAsIGFuZCBjYX Jib24gZGlveGlkZSBsZXZlbHMgZ28gZG93bi4=[Qq]

[c]IE94eWdlbiBsZXZlbHMgZ28gZG93biwgYW5kIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGxldmVscyBnbyBkb3duLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyByZW1vdmVzIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGZyb20gdGhlIGFpciwgYW5kIGFkZHMgb3h5Z2VuLiBIb3cgd291bGQgdGhpcyBhZmZlY3QgZ2FzIGxldmVscyBpbiB0aGUgY2hhbWJlcj8=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3XigJlyZSByaWdodCBhYm91dCBveHlnZW4gbGV2ZWxzLCBidXQgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgcmVtb3ZlcyBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBmcm9tIHRoZSBhaXIuIEhvdyB3b3VsZCB0aGlzIGFmZmVjdCBnYXMgbGV2ZWxzIGluIHRoZSBjaGFtYmVyPw==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gUGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgcmVtb3ZlcyBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBmcm9tIHRoZSBhaXIsIGFuZCBhZGRzIG94eWdlbi4gVGhhdCB3aWxsIGNhdXNlIHRoZSBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBsZXZlbCB0byBmYWxsLCBhbmQgdGhlIG94eWdlbiBsZXZlbCB0byByaXNlLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3XigJlyZSByaWdodCBhYm91dCBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSwgYnV0IHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGFkZHMgb3h5Z2VuIHRvIHRoZSBhdG1vc3BoZXJlLiBIb3cgd291bGQgdGhpcyBhZmZlY3QgZ2FzIGxldmVscyBpbiB0aGUgY2hhbWJlcj8=[Qq]


[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d22e4f7960fb4″ question_number=”19″]In the diagram below, which number shows a mitochondrion?

[c]IDEgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]IDIgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]ID U=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMSByZWZlcnMgdG8gdGhlIHN1bi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgMiByZWZlcnMgdG8gYSBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdC4=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTnVtYmVyIDUgc2hvd3MgYSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uLg==[Qq]


[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d22673d13f7b4″ question_number=”20″]In the diagram below, number 4 would have to be

[c]IG94eW dlbg==[Qq]

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRl[Qq]

[c]IGdsdWNvc2U=[Qq]

[c]wqB3YXRlcg==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTnVtYmVyIDQgaXMgYSBnYXMgdGhhdOKAmXMgY29taW5nIG91dCBvZiBhIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0LiBUaGUgZ2FzIHJlbGVhc2VkIGZyb20gYSBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdCB3b3VsZCBoYXZlIHRvIGJlIG94eWdlbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBnb2VzIElOIHRvIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cy4gTnVtYmVyIDQgc2hvd3MgYSBnYXMgbGVhdmluZyBhIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0LiBXaGljaCBnYXMgY29tZXMgb3V0IG9mIGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3Q/[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCBpcyBsYWJlbGVkIGFzIGEgZ2FzLCBhbmQgZ2x1Y29zZSBpcyBhIHNvbGlkLiBIb3dldmVyLCB5b3XigJlyZSBvbiB0aGUgcmlnaHQgdHJhY2ssIGluc29mYXIgYXMgeW914oCZcmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3Igb25lIG9mIHRoZSBvdXRwdXRzIG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIE51bWJlciA0IGlzIGEgZ2FzIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjb21pbmcgb3V0IG9mIGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QuIFdhdGVyIGlzIGEgbGlxdWlkIHRoYXQgZ29lcyBpbnRvIGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QuIFdoYXQgZ2FzIGRvZXMgYSBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdCByZWxlYXNlPw==[Qq]


[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d21e2866e33b4″ question_number=”21″]In the diagram below, number 6 would have to be

[c]IG94eWdlbg==[Qq]

[c]IGNhcmJvbi BkaW94aWRl[Qq]

[c]IGdsdWNvc2U=[Qq]

[c]wqB3YXRlcg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBPeHlnZW4gY29tZXMgb3V0IG9mIGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QgKDIpLCBhbmQgZ29lcyBpbnRvIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uICg1KS4gTnVtYmVyIHNpeCBpcyBhIGdhcyB0aGF0IGlzIGFuIGlucHV0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGFuZCBhbiBvdXRwdXQgb2YgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24uIFdoYXQgc3Vic3RhbmNlIGNvdWxkIHBsYXkgdGhvc2UgdHdvIHJvbGVzPw==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTnVtYmVyIDYgaXMgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUsIHdoaWNoIGdvZXMgaW50byBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMgYXMgYW4gaW5wdXQgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIGFuZCBjb21lcyBvdXQgb2YgdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24gYXMgYSB3YXN0ZSBwcm9kdWN0IG9mIGNlbGx1bGFyIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHVjb3NlIGlzIGEgc29saWQgdGhhdCBjb21lcyBvdXQgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIGFuZCBnb2VzIGludG8gdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24gKDUpLiBOdW1iZXIgc2l4IGlzIGEgZ2FzIHRoYXQgaXMgYW4gaW5wdXQgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgYW5kIGFuIG91dHB1dCBvZiByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4gV2hhdCBzdWJzdGFuY2UgY291bGQgcGxheSB0aG9zZSB0d28gcm9sZXM/[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBPeHlnZW4gY29tZXMgb3V0IG9mIHRoZSBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdCAoMiksIGFuZCBnb2VzIGludG8gdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24gKDUpLiBOdW1iZXIgc2l4IGlzIGEgZ2FzIHRoYXQgaXMgYW4gaW5wdXQgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgYW5kIGFuIG91dHB1dCBvZiByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4gV2hhdCBzdWJzdGFuY2UgY291bGQgcGxheSB0aG9zZSB0d28gcm9sZXM/[Qq]


[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d216277e037b4″ question_number=”22″]In the diagram below, number 7 would have to be

[c]IG94eWdlbg==[Qq]

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRl[Qq]

[c]IGdsdWNvc2U=[Qq]

[c]IHdh dGVy[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBPeHlnZW4gaXMgc2hvd24gYXQgNC4gSXTigJlzIGEgZ2FzIHRoYXQgY29tZXMgb3V0IG9mIGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QgKDIpLCBhbmQgZ29lcyBpbnRvIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uICg1KS4gV2hhdCBsaXF1aWQgZ29lcyBpbnRvIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGFuZCBjb21lcyBvdXQgb2YgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24/[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBpcyBzaG93biBhdCA2LiBXaGF0IGxpcXVpZCBnb2VzIGludG8gcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgYW5kIGNvbWVzIG91dCBvZiByZXNwaXJhdGlvbj8=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHVjb3NlIGlzIGEgc29saWQgdGhhdCBjb21lcyBvdXQgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIGFuZCBnb2VzIGludG8gdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24uIEl04oCZcyBzaG93biBhdCAzLiBXaGF0IGxpcXVpZCBnb2VzIGludG8gcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgYW5kIGNvbWVzIG91dCBvZiByZXNwaXJhdGlvbj8=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gV2F0ZXIgaXMgdGhlIGxpcXVpZCB0aGF0IGNvbWVzIG91dCBvZiByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiAod2hpY2ggb2NjdXJzIGluIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uKSBhbmQgd2hpY2ggZ29lcyBpbnRvIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzICh3aGljaCBvY2N1cnMgaW4gdGhlIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0KS4=[Qq]


[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d20ddc13a73b4″ question_number=”23″]In the diagram below, ATP would have to be

[c]IDYgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]IDcgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]IDggwqAg wqDCoA==[Qq][c]IDMgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]IDQ=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNiBpcyBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZS4gQVRQIGlzIHByb2R1Y2VkIGluIGEgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlvbiBkdXJpbmcgY2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24gKGFuZCBpdOKAmXMgbm90IGFuIGlucHV0IGZvciBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNyBpcyB3YXRlci4gQVRQIGlzIHByb2R1Y2VkIGluIGEgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlvbiBkdXJpbmcgY2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24gKGFuZCBpdOKAmXMgbm90IGFuIGlucHV0IGZvciBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyk=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTnVtYmVyIDggaXMgQVRQLiBBVFAgaXMgcHJvZHVjZWQgaW4gYSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uIGR1cmluZyBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiAoYW5kIGl04oCZcyBub3QgYW4gaW5wdXQgZm9yIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzKQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXYXRlciBpcyBzaG93biBhdCA3LiBBVFAgaXMgcHJvZHVjZWQgaW4gYSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uIGR1cmluZyBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiAoYW5kIGl04oCZcyBub3QgYW4gaW5wdXQgZm9yIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzKQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOdW1iZXIgNCBpcyBveHlnZW4uIEFUUCBpcyBwcm9kdWNlZCBpbiBhIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24gZHVyaW5nIGNlbGx1bGFyIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIChhbmQgaXTigJlzIG5vdCBhbiBpbnB1dCBmb3IgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMp[Qq]


[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d205b5ea093b4″ question_number=”24″]In the diagram below, number 3 would have to be

[c]IG94eWdlbg==[Qq]

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRl[Qq]

[c]IGdsdW Nvc2U=[Qq]

[c]IHdhdGVy[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBPeHlnZW4gaXMgc2hvd24gYXQgNC4gSXTigJlzIHRoZSBnYXMgdGhhdCBjb21lcyBvdXQgb2YgYSBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdCAoMiksIGFuZCBnb2VzIGludG8gdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24gKDUpLiBOdW1iZXIgMyBpcyBhIHNvbGlkIHRoYXQgY29tZXMgb3V0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGFuZCBnb2VzIGludG8gcmVzcGlyYXRpb24uIFdoYXQgc3Vic3RhbmNlIGNvdWxkIHBsYXkgdGhvc2UgdHdvIHJvbGVzPw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBpcyBzaG93biBhdCA2LiBOdW1iZXIgMyBpcyBhIHNvbGlkIHRoYXQgY29tZXMgb3V0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGFuZCBnb2VzIGludG8gcmVzcGlyYXRpb24uIFdoYXQgc3Vic3RhbmNlIGNvdWxkIHBsYXkgdGhvc2UgdHdvIHJvbGVzPw==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gR2x1Y29zZSBpcyBzaG93biBhdCAzLiBJdOKAmXMgdGhlIHNvbGlkIHRoYXQgY29tZXMgb3V0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLCBhbmQgZ29lcyBpbnRvIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uIGZvciBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXYXRlciBpcyBzaG93biBhdCA3LiBOdW1iZXIgMyBhIHNvbGlkIHRoYXQgY29tZXMgb3V0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGFuZCBnb2VzIGludG8gcmVzcGlyYXRpb24uIFdoYXQgc3Vic3RhbmNlIGNvdWxkIHBsYXkgdGhvc2UgdHdvIHJvbGVzPw==[Qq]


[q topic= “photosynthesis_overview” dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_The_Big_Picture|d1faf1330abb4″ question_number=”25″]In the diagram below, number 4 would have to be

[c]IG94eW dlbg==[Qq]

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRl[Qq]

[c]IGdsdWNvc2U=[Qq]

[c]IHdhdGVy[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gT3h5Z2VuIGlzIHNob3duIGF0IDQuIEl04oCZcyB0aGUgZ2FzIHRoYXQgY29tZXMgb3V0IG9mIGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QgKDIpLCBhbmQgZ29lcyBpbnRvIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uICg1KS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBpcyBzaG93biBhdCA2LiBOdW1iZXIgNCBpcyBhIGdhcyB0aGF0IGlzIHJlbGVhc2VkIGJ5IGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBnb2VzIGludG8gdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24uIFdoYXQgc3Vic3RhbmNlIGNvdWxkIHBsYXkgdGhvc2UgdHdvIHJvbGVzPw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHVjb3NlIGlzIHNob3duIGF0IDMuIEl04oCZcyB0aGUgZW5lcmd5LXJpY2ggc29saWQgdGhhdCBjb21lcyBvdXQgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIGFuZCBnb2VzIGludG8gdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24gZm9yIGNlbGx1bGFyIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uLiBOdW1iZXIgNCBpcyBhIGdhcyB0aGF0IGlzIHJlbGVhc2VkIGJ5IGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBnb2VzIGludG8gdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24uIFdoYXQgc3Vic3RhbmNlIGNvdWxkIHBsYXkgdGhvc2UgdHdvIHJvbGVzPw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXYXRlciBpcyBzaG93biBhdCA3LiBOdW1iZXIgNCBpcyBhIGdhcyB0aGF0IGlzIHJlbGVhc2VkIGJ5IGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBnb2VzIGludG8gdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24uIFdoYXQgc3Vic3RhbmNlIGNvdWxkIHBsYXkgdGhvc2UgdHdvIHJvbGVzPw==

Cg==

[Qq]

[x][restart]

[/qwiz]

 

Next Steps

  1. Photosynthesis 2: The Two Phases of Photosynthesis (the next tutorial in this series)
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