1. Unit 2 Learning Objectives

Topics 2.1 and 2.2: Cell Structure and Function

  1. Explain the basic ideas of the cell theory
  2. Compare and contrast the basic features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  3. Describe the structure and functions of the following cell parts
    1. nucleus
    2. cytoplasm
    3. cell membrane
    4. ribosomes
    5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    6. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    7. Golgi complex
    8. lysosomes
    9. mitochondria
    10. vacuoles
    11. chloroplasts
    12. cell wall

Topic 2.3: The Size of Cells (surface area to volume relationships)

  1. Explain how surface-area-to-volume ratios affect the ability of biological systems (cells, organisms, and groups of organisms) to obtain resources; eliminate wastes; or absorb or dissipate heat or other forms of energy from the environment.
  2. Explain how membrane surface area influences the size and shape of cells and organisms. Specifically:
    1. Why are cells small?
    2. Explain how, despite the limitation described above, organisms were able to increase in size.
    3. Explain various adaptations to increase or decrease surface area-to-volume ratios.

Topics 2.4 – 2.9: Cell Membrane Structure and Function; Osmosis See note 1

  1. Describe the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane. Descriptions should include
    1. The overall function of the membrane
    2. The role of phospholipids (and how their structure results in the formation of phospholipid bilayers).
    3. The role of embedded proteins (how they fit into the bilayer, and their various roles)
    4. The functions of cholesterol, glycolipids, and glycoproteins.
  2. Define selective permeability.
  3. Explain how selective permeability arises from the fluid mosaic structure of the membrane.
    1. How small, nonpolar molecules like N2, CO2, and O2 can pass across the membrane
    2. How ions and large polar molecules move across the membrane
    3. How small polar molecules (like water) pass through the membrane
  4. Compare and contrast passive transport, active transport, and facilitated diffusion. Connect each process to membrane structure.
  5. Compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis.
  6. Define the term osmosis, and be able to predict and explain the flow of water into or out of cells in hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic environments.
  7. Explain the movement of water into or out of cells (and entire organisms) in relationship to water potential
  8. Be able to understand and use (but don’t memorize) the two water potential equations:
    1. the general water potential equation (Ψ = ΨS + ΨP : water potential = pressure potential + solute potential)
    2. The equation for solute potential:   ΨS = – iCRT. See note 2

Topic 2.10: Cellular Compartmentalization (and its origins)

  1. Define the term “endomembrane system,” and describe that system’s overall function.
  2. List the key membrane-bound organelles found within eukaryotic cells, and describe the structure and function of each.
  3. Explain how compartmentalization is different in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
  4. Explain the evolutionary origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts, with supporting evidence.
  5. Describe the evidence for the endosymbiotic theory.

2. Unit 2 Flashcards

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[h]Unit 2 Flashcards

[i]

[!]2.1-2.2.Cell Parts[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1eae4655c9d10″ question_number=”42″ topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions”] Describe the structure, function, and evolutionary importance of ribosomes.

[a] Ribosomes are particles composed of ribosomal RNA and protein.  Ribosomes consist of large and small subunits that join together during protein synthesis. The function of ribosomes is to read a genetic message encoded in a sequence of mRNA nucleotides and to translate that message into a sequence of amino acids that make up the primary structure of a protein.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|7ed33d1935c40″ question_number=”43″] 1) Describe the endoplasmic reticulum. 2) List the two forms of endoplasmic reticulum.

[a] 1. The endoplasmic reticulum is an interconnected series of channels found between the nuclear membrane and Golgi body in eukaryotic cells. 2. There are two forms of E.R., rough and smooth. The rough E.R. contains embedded ribosomes; the smooth E.R. does not.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|7ec8c2e3b3c40″ question_number=”44″] Describe the structure and function of the rough E.R.

[a] The E.R.  is an interconnected series of channels found between the nuclear membrane and Golgi body in eukaryotic cells. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes. Proteins that are destined for inclusion in a lysosome, in any other organelle, in the cell membrane, or for export from the cell are synthesized at the rough E.R.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|7ebb5f9f54c40″ question_number=”45″] Describe the structure and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

[a] The smooth E.R. is usually on the outer side of the ER network. It lacks ribosomes but has many embedded enzymes. Functions (which vary by tissue) include the synthesis of lipids, converting toxins into soluble forms that can be excreted from the body, and playing various roles in carbohydrate breakdown and synthesis.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e96439b2a910″ question_number=”46″ topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions”] Describe the structure and function of the Golgi complex.

[a] The Golgi complex consists of a series of membrane-bound flattened sacs. The Golgi receives vesicles from the rough and smooth E.R., and chemically modifies the contents of these vesicles (usually proteins). Once these proteins are modified, they’re packaged into vesicles that bud off from the outer side of the Golgi, and sent to organelles, to the cell membrane, or exported from the cell. Note that the Golgi complex is also called the Golgi body, or the Golgi apparatus.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e8c3927e3510″ question_number=”47″ topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions”] Describe the structure and function of mitochondria.

[a] Mitochondria are double-membraned organelles. The inner membrane is highly folded, an adaptation for increasing surface area. The inner membrane contains membrane-embedded proteins that make up the cellular machinery used to synthesize ATP during aerobic respiration.

(note: the details of cellular respiration are covered in another card)

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e7f206500d10″ question_number=”48″ topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions”] Describe the structure and function of lysosomes.

[a] Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes. They’re only found only in animal cells (though vacuoles play similar roles in plants, fungi, and algae).

One function of the lysosome is intracellular digestion. After a cell ingests a particle by endocytosis, the particle will be enclosed in a vesicle, which will fuse with a lysosome. Enzymes in the lysosome will digest the particle. Lysosomes also recycle worn-out, damaged, or excess organelles and molecules. They also play a key role in apoptosis (programmed cell death — discussed in another card).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e74cb703d110″ question_number=”49″ topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions”] Describe the structure and function of vacuoles.

[a] Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles, generally used for storage. Plant cells contain a large central vacuole that stores water, and which also has a variety of other functions, including storing and releasing needed macromolecules, sequestering waste products, and maintaining turgor pressure.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e6a513abb110″ question_number=”50″ topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions”] Describe the structure, evolutionary origin, and function of chloroplasts.

[a] Chloroplasts are the descendants of free-living photosynthetic bacteria. Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, are double-membraned organelles. Like mitochondria, they contain their own DNA and ribosomes and replicate themselves through binary fission. Their function is to create carbohydrates through photosynthesis.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e5e627dca910″ question_number=”51″ topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions”] Describe the chemical composition and the function of the plant cell wall.

[a] Plant cell walls are composed primarily of cellulose, a polysaccharide. The wall’s major function is to serve as a kind of pressure vessel that prevents the cell from over-expanding in response to osmotic pressure as water flows into a cell, causing it to expand. This maintains turgor pressure, keeping plant cells firm and preventing plants from wilting. The cell wall also plays a key structural role in plant stems, making up wood and xylem, the conductive tubes that allow water to move up a plant stem.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.1-2.Cell_Parts_and_Functions” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|c3bc868706f4d” question_number=”52″] Where are two locations within a eukaryotic cell where ribosomes can be found?

[a] Free ribosomes (3) float freely in the cytoplasm. Bound ribosomes (4) are connected to the membrane of the rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum).

 

[!]2.3.Cell Size[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e5432c9c5110″ question_number=”53″ topic=”2.3.Cell_Size”] Use the relationship between surface area and volume to explain why cells are small.

In your explanation, compare surface area and volume for a cuboidal cell that’s one unit in length on a side to one that’s 10 units in length.

[a] Cells need to be small in order to have enough membrane surface area to allow for diffusion of substances in and out. That’s because as an object gets larger, its amount of surface area relative to its volume decreases.

The larger cell’s surface area to volume ratio is 1/10th that of the smaller cell. With such a small amount of surface area relative to its volume, a large cell can’t efficiently use diffusion to get the nutrients it needs in, and to release wastes.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.3.Cell_Size” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|e7a82bf906c7e” question_number=”54″] Explain the structure of root hairs, fish gills (below, left), or the lining of intestine (below, right) in terms of surface area to volume ratios.

 

[a] Structures like root hairs (tiny extensions that project from the outer tissue layer of roots) or gills (which are organized as thin sheets of tissue) are adaptations for increasing the surface for the diffusion of molecules. Similarly, the epithelial cells that make up the lining of the gut have a highly folded shape to increase the surface area for the diffusion of molecules from the gut into the body.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.3.Cell_Size” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|e79d67420847e” question_number=”55″] Explain the structure of the inner mitochondrial membrane in terms of surface area.

[a] The inner mitochondrial membrane (shown at 2) is an adaptation for increasing the working surface for enzymatic reactions. As we’ll see in Unit 3, this increases the amount of ATP produced/mitochondrion.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.3.Cell_Size” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|e79003fda947e” question_number=”56″] Explain the structure of the ears of elephants or jack rabbits in terms of surface area.

[a] The flat ears of elephants or the huge ears of jackrabbits are adaptations that increase surface area for radiating heat into the environment.

[!]2.4.Plasma Membranes[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1d384a5fdb510″ question_number=”57″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.4-2.5.Plasma_Membranes”] Membranes are fundamental to life. Why?

[a] Cells are highly complex, organized structures. To maintain this organization, cells need to be separated from the environment that’s around them, and then work to maintain an internal environment that’s different from their external environment. The membrane is the basis of this separation, and many life processes are about moving things across membranes in a way that differentiates the internal environment of the cell from its external environment.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e3cea52dd110″ question_number=”58″ topic=”2.4-2.5.Plasma_Membranes”] Describe the role of phospholipids in cell membranes.

[a] Phospholipids form the phospholipid bilayer: the framework of the membrane. The hydrophobic tails create a water-free zone (the inside of the membrane), while the hydrophilic heads face outwards toward the watery cell exterior and interior. This structure is further stabilized by weak bonds between the hydrophobic tails (called London dispersion forces).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e2fac4f3c510″ question_number=”59″ topic=”2.4-2.5.Plasma_Membranes”]   Describe how proteins fit into the cell membrane.

[a] Transmembrane proteins (1) have a central region with hydrophobic amino acid residues that integrate into the nonpolar inner portion of the bilayer, with hydrophilic regions extending into the watery cytoplasm and the cell exterior. Other proteins (5) might have a nonpolar region that embeds into the hydrophobic portion of the bilayer, with a hydrophilic region that juts into the cytoplasm or cell exterior. Peripheral proteins (3) attach to phospholipid heads that are either on the cytoplasm side of the membrane or the cell exterior.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e23bd924bd10″ question_number=”60″ topic=”2.4-2.5.Plasma_Membranes”] Describe the importance of membrane proteins. See if you can think of functions that begin with each of these letters: CAPER

[a]

  • Channels or ports for molecules that can’t diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer.
  • Attachment points for the fibers of the cytoskeleton, allowing the cell to change its shape and move.
  • Pumps for active transport.
  • (Membrane-embedded) enzymes
  • Receptors

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e19d85fc2d10″ question_number=”61″ topic=”2.4-2.5.Plasma_Membranes”] Describe the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes.

[a] Cell membranes can be described as fluid mosaics. They’re fluid because their components are in constant motion, moving laterally within the plane of the membrane. They’re mosaics because they’re composed of a variety of pieces: phospholipids, proteins, and additional molecules like cholesterol. On the membrane’s inside and outside, various additional molecules might be attached to proteins or phospholipids, including glycoproteins and glycolipids.

[!]2.5.Membrane Permeability[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e0eee6806110″ question_number=”62″ topic=”2.6-7,_2.9.Membrane_Transport”] List the three overall processes by which membranes control a cell’s internal environment. 

[a] Cell membranes control the cell’s internal environment through three overall processes: 1) by selectively controlling what molecules can diffuse into and out of cells, 2) through pumping molecules in or out of the cell by active transport, and 3) through bulk transport (endocytosis and exocytosis).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1e0553b6f9910″ question_number=”63″ topic=”2.6-7,_2.9.Membrane_Transport”] Explain how cells control what diffuses across their membranes.

[a] To begin with, there are some types of molecules that cells don’t control. For example, biological membranes allow small nonpolar molecules such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen to freely diffuse across the membrane’s phospholipid bilayer, following their diffusion gradient. That’s called simple diffusion.

However, polar molecules and ions won’t diffuse across a phospholipid bilayer. To allow their diffusion, cells have protein channels:  transmembrane proteins that only let specific molecules or ions pass, depending on the cell’s needs. This is called facilitated diffusion.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1dfbb905ed110″ question_number=”64″ topic=”2.6-7,_2.9.Membrane_Transport”] How does water pass through a cell membrane?

[a] Water is a polar molecule, and polar molecules, in general, can’t diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer. But because water is a small molecule, small amounts of it can diffuse through the phospholipid portion of the membrane. In addition, to facilitate water’s passage through the membrane, cells produce channels called aquaporins: selective protein channels for water diffusion.

[!]2.6-2.7, 2.9.Membrane Transport[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.6-7,_2.9.Membrane_Transport” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|18164d85af4424″ question_number=”65″] Identify the three types of transport shown in the diagram below.

[a] 1. Simple diffusion. 2. Facilitated diffusion. 3. Active transport.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1df1f91422510″ question_number=”66″ topic=”2.6-7,_2.9.Membrane_Transport”] Compare and contrast active and passive transport. As you do, explain what powers each process.

[a] Passive transport is transport that allows molecules or ions to follow their diffusion gradient, diffusing from high concentration to low concentration. Passive transport relies on the kinetic energy in the diffusing molecules or ions and doesn’t require any metabolic energy to be expended by the cell.

Active transport involves pumping a molecule or ion up its concentration gradient, from lower concentration to higher concentration. This requires energy on the part of the cell. This energy can be supplied by the conversion of ATP to ADP to power the pumping process. We’ll learn about some additional energy sources in AP Bio Unit 3.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.6-7,_2.9.Membrane_Transport” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1814693c060424″ question_number=”67″] Identify the three processes shown below.

[a] A. Phagocytosis. B. Pinocytosis. C. Receptor-mediated endocytosis.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1de7eea0db110″ question_number=”68″ topic=”2.6-7,_2.9.Membrane_Transport”] Compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis.

[a] Both endocytosis and exocytosis are forms of bulk transport. This process involves large-scale movements of the membrane, and usually requires the expenditure of cellular energy. In exocytosis, cells dump the contents of vesicles outside of the cell. In endocytosis, the membrane buckles in a way that surrounds a molecule, a particle, or some extracellular fluid, creating a cavity that becomes a vesicle.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1dd8120fd9d10″ question_number=”69″ topic=”2.6-7,_2.9.Membrane_Transport”] Describe the three different types of endocytosis.

[a]

  • In pinocytosis, the membrane pinches in. Ultimately, a vesicle forms, surrounding some of the extracellular fluid and whatever was inside it.
  • In receptor-mediated endocytosis, a piece of the membrane pinches in response to some molecule that binds with a receptor embedded in the membrane.
  • During phagocytosis, the cell uses its membrane to surround a particle (or even another cell). The membrane pinches in to form a vesicle that enters the cytoplasm. Phagocytosis is used by white blood cells in the immune response to swallow invaders. Single-celled organisms like amoebas use phagocytosis to eat.

[!]2.8.Tonicity and Osmoregulation[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1dc1ce5e25910″ question_number=”71″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] Explain the function of the contractile vacuole in freshwater protists such as Paramecia.

[a] Protists in freshwater are hypertonic to their freshwater environment. As a result, water moves into these cells by osmosis. To osmoregulate, many protists contain an organelle called a contractile vacuole. This organelle fills with water and then contracts to expel water from the cell. If the environment becomes more hypertonic (diminishing the water potential gradient) the cell can adapt by decreasing its rate of contractile vacuole contraction, and do the reverse in more hypotonic environments.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1db75428a3910″ question_number=”72″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] Explain how the central vacuole in a plant cell responds to changes in a plant’s environment.

[a] As water moves into a plant, following a water potential gradient, water will enter cells and move into a plant cell’s central vacuole. As the vacuole fills with water it expands, pushing against the plant cell wall. This outward pressure is called turgor, and it keeps plants full and firm (imagine a crispy lettuce leaf). If plants are low on water, the force of turgor diminishes, and plants wilt in response.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1db75428a3910″ question_number=”73″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] Use the principles of osmosis to explain each of the images below.

[a] The cell on the left is in an environment that’s hypertonic to the cell. Water leaves the cell, causing the membrane to peel away from the wall, a condition called plasmolysis.  The plant as a whole will wilt. The cell in the center is in an environment that’s isotonic to the cell: water enters and leaves the cell at the same rate. The cell on the right is in a hypotonic environment. Water is flowing from the hypotonic environment into the cells. The pressure created as the membrane pushes against the wall is called turgor pressure (healthy condition for the plant).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1dac44f028910″ question_number=”74″ topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] Explain what happens to a cell in a hypotonic environment.

[a] If a cell is in a hypotonic environment, that means that the solution that the cell is in has less solute and more water than does the interior of the cell. Because water always flows from hypotonic (where the water is more concentrated) to hypertonic, water will flow from the hypotonic solution into the cell. This can be healthy for a plant cell, where the wall acts as a pressure vessel to contain the osmotic pressure. For animal cells, a hypotonic environment can lead the cell to burst.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|207799c9b066fd” question_number=”75″] Explain what happens to a cell in a hypertonic environment. 

[a] When in a hypertonic environment, the solution outside the cell has relatively less water and more solute than the cell does. Because the cell is hypotonic to its environment, water will flow from the cell to its environment. The cell loses water.

Under these conditions, a plant cell will plasmolyze, with its membrane peeling away from its wall. An animal cell will shrivel.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|2076dd31ed42fd” question_number=”76″] Explain what happens to a cell in an isotonic environment.

[a] A cell in an isotonic solution has the same concentration of solutes and water as the solution that it’s in. Water will flow into and out of the cell at the same rate, so it neither gains nor loses water.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1d5c611829510″ question_number=”82″ topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] What is water potential?

[a] Water potential is a measurement of water’s tendency to move from where it is to where it’s not, as determined by variables such as solute concentration and pressure. The basic idea is that water will always flow from areas of higher water potential to areas of lower water potential.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|1d520c2365910″ question_number=”83″ topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] Explain the formula for water potential:  Ψ = ΨS + ΨP (water potential = solute potential + pressure potential).

[a] In the formula Ψ = ΨS + ΨP ,

  • Ψ represents water potential: water’s tendency to flow from where it is to where it’s not, based on a few other variables.
  • ΨS is solute potential. Adding solute to water decreases its water potential. If that body of water is adjacent to an area with higher water potential, then the water will flow from the area with higher water potential (with less solute) to the area with the lower potential (with more solute). This is exactly like how water will flow from a hypotonic area to a hypertonic area.
  • Ψp is pressure potential. Adding pressure (like pressing on the plunger in a syringe) increases water potential, causing water to flow away from that higher pressure area toward an area with lower pressure (and lower water potential).

[!]2.10.Cellular Compartmentalization[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.10.Cellular_Compartmentalization” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|11c94bb815b653″ question_number=”84″] What are the key compartments within eukaryotic cells. How is this different in animal and plant cells?

[a] Cellular compartments in eukaryotes include all membrane-bound structures. In animal cells, that includes the nucleus, the mitochondria, and the parts of the endomembrane system (E.R., Golgi, lysosomes, vacuoles, and vesicles). In plant cells, there’s also a large central vacuole, chloroplasts, but no lysosomes.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.10.Cellular_Compartmentalization” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|11c89d1899ea53″ question_number=”85″] An evolutionary biologist argues that having mitochondria is the key feature that has allowed eukaryotic cells to become vastly larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. Explain.

[a] Because eukaryotic cells contain multiple ATP-producing mitochondria, eukaryotic cells can produce more ATP/cell than prokaryotic cells can. Over evolutionary time, this ATP has provided the energy that has allowed eukaryotic cells to grow to be vastly larger and more complex than their prokaryotic cousins.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.10.Cellular_Compartmentalization” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|11c7e9d1065653″ question_number=”86″] What are the benefits to eukaryotic cells of having an endomembrane system?

[a]

  1. The internal membranes of structures such as the ER and Golgi provide surface area for membrane-bound enzymes and, in the case of the rough E.R., ribosomes.
  2. Membrane-enclosed compartments allow the cell to have regions with internal chemistry that’s distinct from that of the cytoplasm as a whole. For example, hydrolytic enzymes can safely work within a lysosome, without exposing the rest of the cytoplasm to these enzymes. Similar regions of unique chemistry can be found in the ER, the Golgi, or vacuoles.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.10.Cellular_Compartmentalization” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|11c71a98e41253″ question_number=”87″] Compare compartmentalization in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

[a] In general, prokaryotic cells have few compartments, though some prokaryotes do have internal regions with specialized structures and functions (such as the thylakoids of cyanobacteria, which are similar to those in chloroplasts). Eukaryotic cells are highly compartmentalized, with many internal membranes that divide the cell into regions with distinct structures, chemistry, and functions. Examples include lysosomes, the E.R., the Golgi complex, and vacuoles.

[!]2.11.Origins of Cell Compartmentalization[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.11.Origins_of_Cellular_Compartmentalization” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|11c65959092653″ question_number=”88″] Cellular compartmentalization marks a major evolutionary advance. Specify when and how that advance occurred.

[a] Cellular compartmentalization is the innovation that separates eukaryotic from prokaryotic cells. It dates back to the origin of eukaryotic cells, about 2 billion years ago. Compartmentalization initially arose through endosymbiosis: the incorporation of a free-living bacterial ancestor of mitochondria into an archaeal cell. After that, a similar incorporation of the free-living ancestor of chloroplasts gave rise to green algae and plants.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” topic=”2.11.Origins_of_Cellular_Compartmentalization” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|11c58a20e6e253″ question_number=”89″] What is the endosymbiotic hypothesis? How did the endosymbiosis referred to in this hypothesis occur?

[a] Endosymbiosis means “living together, on the inside.” In terms of mitochondria and chloroplasts, it refers to the idea that these organelles were once free-living bacterial cells that took up residence inside other cells. The process began with the free-living ancestor of mitochondria being taken up by an archaeal cell. This event gave rise to all of the eukaryotes. Later a mitochondria-containing eukaryotic cell took up chloroplasts, producing the line of organisms that includes plants and green algae.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”2.Cell_Structure_and_Function” question_number=”90″ topic=”2.11.Origins_of_Cellular_Compartmentalization” dataset_id=”AP_Bio_Flashcards_2022|11c4a14c41d253″] List three lines of evidence supporting the idea that chloroplasts and mitochondria were once free living bacterial cells that arose through endosymbiosis

[a]

  1. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA. This DNA is organized into a circular chromosome that is similar to a bacterial chromosome.
  2. Both organelles use their own ribosomes to produce some of their own proteins. These ribosomes resemble bacterial ribosomes in terms of their rRNA sequence and structure.
  3. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria have double membranes. The outer membrane is thought to be a vestige of the host cell membrane that engulfed the ancestral mitochondrion and chloroplast when the endosymbiotic relationship first arose nearly two billion years ago.

[/qdeck]

3. Unit 2 Multiple Choice Review

[qwiz style=”width: 550px !important; min-height: 400px !important;” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 2 Multiple Choice”]

[h]Unit 3 Multiple Choice Review

[i]

 

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] The diagram below represents a plant stem, to which are attached a variety of cells with different functions. Which letter is where you’d most likely find starch?

[c]IEEg[Qq][c]IEIg[Qq][c]IEMg[Qq][c]IEQg[Qq][c]IE U=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMZXQmIzgyMTc7cyBzdGFydCB3aXRoIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgc3RhcmNoIGlzIGEgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgdXNlZCBmb3IgbG9uZy10ZXJtIGVuZXJneSBzdG9yYWdlIGluIHBsYW50cy4gQ2VsbCBBIGNvbnRhaW5zIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cywgd2hpY2ggd291bGQgcHJvZHVjZSBnbHVjb3NlLiBFeGFtaW5lIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtLCBhbmQgZmluZCB0aGUgYmVzdCBjYW5kaWRhdGUgZm9yIGEgY2VsbCB0aGF0IHdvdWxkIHRha2UgZ2x1Y29zZSAob3IgYW5vdGhlciBzdWdhcikgYW5kIHN0b3JlIGl0IGF3YXkgYXMgc3RhcmNoLg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMZXQmIzgyMTc7cyBzdGFydCB3aXRoIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgc3RhcmNoIGlzIGEgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgdXNlZCBmb3IgbG9uZy10ZXJtIGVuZXJneSBzdG9yYWdlIGluIHBsYW50cy4gSW4gdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYWJvdmUsIGNlbGwgQSBjb250YWlucyBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMsIHdoaWNoIHdvdWxkIHByb2R1Y2UgZ2x1Y29zZS4gVGhlIG90aGVyIGNlbGxzIChpbmNsdWRpbmcgY2VsbCBDKSBzZWVtIHRvIGJlIHBhc3Npbmcgb24gZ2x1Y29zZSAob3IgbW9sZWN1bGVzIG1hZGUgZnJvbSBnbHVjb3NlKSB1bnRpbCB0aGUgY2hhaW4gcmVhY2hlcyBhIGRlYWQgZW5kLiBFeGFtaW5lIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtLCBhbmQgZmluZCB0aGUgYmVzdCBjYW5kaWRhdGUgZm9yIGEgY2VsbCB0aGF0IHdvdWxkIHRha2UgZ2x1Y29zZSAob3IgYW5vdGhlciBzdWdhcikgYW5kIHN0b3JlIGl0IGF3YXkgYXMgc3RhcmNoLg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2UuIEl0IGxvb2tzIGxpa2UgY2VsbCBFIGlzIHRoZSBlbmQgb2YgdGhlIGxpbmUgZm9yIHRoaXMgdHJhbnNmZXIgKG9yIHRyYW5zcG9ydCkgb2YgdGhlIG1vbGVjdWxlcyB0aGF0IHdlcmUgZm9ybWVkIGluIGNlbGwgQS4gU2luY2UgcGxhbnRzIHN0b3JlIGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZSBlbmVyZ3kgbG9uZy10ZXJtIGFzIHN0YXJjaCwgY2VsbCBFIGlzIHRoZSBiZXN0IGNhbmRpZGF0ZSBmb3IgdGhlIGNlbGwgd2hlcmUgeW91JiM4MjE3O2QgZmluZCBzdGFyY2gu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|1fb2ec2408a05a” question_number=”263″ topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Which letter in the diagram below represents the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

[c]IE Eg[Qq][c]IEIg[Qq][c]IEMg[Qq][c]IEQg[Qq][c]IEU=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBBIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIHJvdWdoIEUuUi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCIGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiAob3Igb3RoZXIgc3Vic3RhbmNlKSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYmVpbmcgZXhwb3J0ZWQgZnJvbSB0aGUgY2VsbCB0aHJvdWdoIGV4b2N5dG9zaXMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDIGlzIGEgdmVzaWNsZSwgbW92aW5nIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgZnJvbSB0aGUgR29sZ2kgQXBwYXJhdHVzIHRvIChpbiB0aGlzIGNhc2UpIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEIGlzIHRoZSBHb2xnaSBBcHBhcmF0dXMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBFIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyByaWJvc29tZXMu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|1faebaca9f0c5a” question_number=”264″ topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Which letter in the diagram below represents a vesicle?

[c]IEEg[Qq][c]IEIg[Qq][c]IE Mg[Qq][c]IEQg[Qq][c]IEU=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMZXR0ZXIgQSByZXByZXNlbnRzIHRoZSByb3VnaCBFLlIu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCIGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiAob3Igb3RoZXIgc3Vic3RhbmNlKSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYmVpbmcgZXhwb3J0ZWQgZnJvbSB0aGUgY2VsbCB0aHJvdWdoIGV4b2N5dG9zaXMu[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iISBDIGlzIGEgdmVzaWNsZSwgbW92aW5nIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgZnJvbSB0aGUgR29sZ2kgQXBwYXJhdHVzIHRvIChpbiB0aGlzIGNhc2UpIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGNsb3NlLiBEIGlzIHRoZSBHb2xnaSBBcHBhcmF0dXMuIFRoZSBHb2xnaSBBcHBhcmF0dXMgYnVkcyBvZmYgdmVzaWNsZXMgYXMgaXQgc2VuZHMgbWF0ZXJpYWxzIHRvIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBvciB0byBzcGVjaWZpYyBvcmdhbmVsbGVzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBFIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyByaWJvc29tZXMu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20023fa126a85a” question_number=”247″ topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] KDEL is a short polypeptide sequence consisting of four amino acids (lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and leucine). As certain proteins are being synthesized, KDEL binds with a specific receptor. This receptor, in turn, prevents the protein from being secreted in a vesicle for further modification.

Based on this description, the KDEL receptor is most likely found in the

[c]IFBsYXNtYSBtZW1icmFuZQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBiZWxvdy4gVGhlIG9ubHkgd2F5IHRoYXQgYSBwcm90ZWluIGlzIGdvaW5nIHRvIGdldCB0byB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUgd291bGQgYmUgdGhyb3VnaCBhIHZlc2ljbGUgKHN1Y2ggYXMgdGhlIG9uZXMgYXQgNiBvciA0IGJlbG93KS4gVXNpbmcgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0sIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBsb2NhdGlvbiB3aGVyZSBwcm90ZWlucyBhcmUgc3ludGhlc2l6ZWQgb3IgbW9kaWZpZWQgYmVmb3JlIHRoZXkgd291bGQgYmUgaW5jb3Jwb3JhdGVkIGludG8gYSB2ZXNpY2xlLiBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGZpbmQgdGhlIEtERUwgcmVjZXB0b3Iu

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEN5dG9zb2w=[Qq]

[f]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

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEVuZG9wbGFzbWlj IHJldGljdWx1bQ==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgQmFzZWQgb24gdGhlIGRlc2NyaXB0aW9uIGFib3ZlLCBpdCBzb3VuZHMgbGlrZSB0aGlzIGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgZ29pbmcgdG8gYmUgZG9ja2VkIGF0IGEgcmVjZXB0b3IgaW4gdGhlIEVSLg==[Qq]

[c]IE1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGRvZXNuJiM4MjE3O3Qgc291bmQgbGlrZSBhIHByb2Nlc3MgdGhhdCB3b3VsZCBpbnZvbHZlIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWEuIFVzaW5nIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LCBzZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaW5kIGEgbG9jYXRpb24gd2hlcmUgcHJvdGVpbnMgYXJlIHN5bnRoZXNpemVkIG9yIG1vZGlmaWVkIA==YmVmb3JlIHRoZXkgd291bGQgYmUgaW5jb3Jwb3JhdGVkIGludG8gYSB2ZXNpY2xlIChzdWNoIGFzIHRoZSB2ZXNpY2xlcyBzaG93biBhdCA0IG9yIDYgYmVsb3cpLiBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGZpbmQgdGhlIEtERUwgcmVjZXB0b3Iu

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|1ffdaed1d5905a” question_number=”248″ topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Which letter in the diagram below represents a ribosome?

[c]IEEg[Qq][c]IEIg[Qq][c]IEMg[Qq][c]IEQg[Qq][c]IE U=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIGlzIHRoZSBSb3VnaCBFbmRvcGxhc21pYyBSZXRpY3VsdW0uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBtYWtpbmcgaXQgcm91Z2g/[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBwcm90ZWluIChvciBhbm90aGVyIHN1YnN0YW5jZSkgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGJlZW4gZXhwb3J0ZWQgZnJvbSB0aGUgY2VsbC4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIGFuc3dlciBpcyByZWZlcnJpbmcgdG8gdGhlIHBhcnRpY2xlcyB0aGF0IG1ha2UgdGhlIHJvdWdoIEUuUi4gcm91Z2gu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDIGlzIGEgdmVzaWNsZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYnVkZGVkIG9mZiBvZiB0aGUgR29sZ2kgYXBwYXJhdHVzLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGUgYW5zd2VyIGlzIHJlZmVycmluZyB0byB0aGUgcGFydGljbGVzIHRoYXQgbWFrZSB0aGUgcm91Z2ggRS5SLiByb3VnaC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEIGlzIHRoZSBHb2xnaSBBcHBhcmF0dXMuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgaXMgcmVmZXJyaW5nIHRvIHRoZSBwYXJ0aWNsZXMgdGhhdCBtYWtlIHRoZSByb3VnaCBFLlIuIHJvdWdoLg==[Qq]

[f]IEZhbnRhc3RpYy4gRSByZWZlcnMgdG8gdGhlIGRvdHMgb24gdGhlIFJvdWdoIEVuZG9wbGFzbWljIHJldGljdWx1bS4gVGhlc2UgZG90cyAod2hpY2ggbWFrZSB0aGUgcm91Z2ggRS5SLiByb3VnaCkgYXJlIHJpYm9zb21lcy4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|1ff97b2460185a” question_number=”249″ topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Based on the structure of the cell below, it is most likely to

[c]IHVzZSBsaWdodCBlbmVyZ3kgdG8gY3JlYXRlIEFUUCBieSBwaG90b3Bob3NwaG9yeWxhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IHJlcXVpcmUgaGlnaCBsZX ZlbHMgb2Ygb3h5Z2VuLg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIG9yZ2FuZWxsZXMgdGhhdCBhcmUgZmlsbGluZyB1cCB0aGlzIGNlbGwgYXJlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYS4gVGhlaXIga2V5IHJvbGUgaXMgQVRQIHByb2R1Y3Rpb24gdGhyb3VnaCBveGlkYXRpdmUgcGhvc3Bob3J5bGF0aW9uLCBhbmQgYSBjZWxsIHdpdGggdGhpcyBtYW55IG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYSB3b3VsZCBuZWVkIGEgbG90IG9mIG94eWdlbi4=[Qq]

[c]IGNvbnZlcnQgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgaW50byBnbHVjb3Nl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IHdvdWxkIGJlIGEgZ3JlYXQgYW5zd2VyIGlmIHRoZSBjZWxsIHdlcmUgZnVsbCBvZiBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMgYmVjYXVzZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgZXhhY3RseSB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgaW4gdGhlIENhbHZpbiBDeWNsZSBvZiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcywgd2hlcmUgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgaXMgY2hlbWljYWxseSByZWR1Y2VkIGludG8gc3VnYXJzLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGUgb3JnYW5lbGxlcyBmaWxsaW5nIHVwIHRoaXMgY2VsbCBhcmUgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhLg==[Qq]

[c]IGJlIGEgbWF0dXJlIHJlZCBibG9vZCBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIG1hdHVyZSByZWQgYmxvb2QgY2VsbCBpcyBhbiBleHRyZW1lbHkgc3BlY2lhbGl6ZWQgYW5kIHNpbXBsaWZpZWQgY2VsbC4gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyBlc3NlbnRpYWxseSBhIG1lbWJyYW5lIGZpbGxlZCB3aXRoIHRoZSBveHlnZW4tY2FycnlpbmcgcHJvdGVpbiBoZW1vZ2xvYmluLiBSZWQgYmxvb2QgY2VsbHMgbGFjayBtb3N0IG9mIHRoZSBvcmdhbmVsbGVzIGZvdW5kIGluIHRoZSBvdGhlciBjZWxscyBvZiBhbmltYWxzLCBzdWNoIGFzIGEgbnVjbGV1cyBhbmQgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhLiBBbmQgdGhhdCBpcyBhIGhpbnQgYXMgdG8gdGhlIGFuc3dlcjogdGhlIG9yZ2FuZWxsZXMgZmlsbGluZyB1cCB0aGlzIGNlbGwgYXJlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|21ae2f1a9c585a” question_number=”111″ topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] If number 5 represents a protein newly synthesized at the rough E.R., then 6 would most likely be

[c]IGEgcmlib3NvbWUu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSaWJvc29tZXMgYXJlIHdoZXJlIHByb3RlaW5zIGFyZSBzeW50aGVzaXplZC4gSWYgNSByZXByZXNlbnRzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiwgdGhlbiA2IHdvdWxkIHJlcHJlc2VudCBhIHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwgd2hlcmUgcHJvdGVpbnMgZ28gYWZ0ZXIgc3ludGhlc2lzLiA=V2hhdCBwYXJ0IG9mIGEgZXVrYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxsIGlzIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBtb2RpZnlpbmcgYW5kIHBhY2thZ2luZyBwcm90ZWlucz8=[Qq]

[c]IGEgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNaXRvY2hvbmRyaWEgYXJlIG9yZ2FuZWxsZXMgaW52b2x2ZWQgaW4gQVRQIHN5bnRoZXNpcyBhbmQgYXJlbiYjODIxNzt0IHJlcHJlc2VudGVkIGFueXdoZXJlIGFib3ZlLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiBJZiA1IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBwcm90ZWluLCB0aGVuIDYgd291bGQgcmVwcmVzZW50IGEgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCB3aGVyZSBwcm90ZWlucyBnbyBhZnRlciBzeW50aGVzaXMuIFdoYXQgcGFydCBvZiBhIGV1a2FyeW90aWMgY2VsbCBpcyByZXNwb25zaWJsZSBmb3IgbW9kaWZ5aW5nIGFuZCBwYWNrYWdpbmcgcHJvdGVpbnM/[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBHb2xnaS BDb21wbGV4Lg==[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBJZiA1IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBwcm90ZWluIGZyb20gdGhlIHJvdWdoIEUuUi4sIHRoZW4gNiB3b3VsZCBiZSB0aGUgR29sZ2kgY29tcGxleC4=[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSByb3VnaCBlbmRvcGxhc21pYyByZXRpY3VsdW0u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcm91Z2ggZW5kb3BsYXNtaWMgcmV0aWN1bHVtIGlzIHdoZXJlIHByb3RlaW5zIGRlc3RpbmVkIGZvciBleHBvcnQgKG9yIGZvciBhIGx5c29zb21lKSBhcmUgc3ludGhlc2l6ZWQuIFRoZSBxdWVzdGlvbiB0ZWxscyB5b3UgdGhhdCA1IGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiB0aGF0IGhhcyBhbHJlYWR5IGJlZW4gc3ludGhlc2l6ZWQuIEFmdGVyIGJlaW5nIHN5bnRoZXNpemVkLCB3aGVyZSB3b3VsZCBhIHByb3RlaW4gZ28gaW4gb3JkZXIgdG8gYmUgbW9kaWZpZWQgYW5kIHBhY2thZ2VkPw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20e918b416805a” question_number=”179″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Which of the following components are found in all prokaryotic cells?

  1. Ribosomes
  2. Plasma membrane
  3. Genetic information

[c]IEkgb25seQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgYWJvdXQgdGhlaXIgaGF2aW5nIHJpYm9zb21lcywgYnV0IHRoZXJlIGFyZSBvdGhlciBjb21wb25lbnRzIHRoYXQgYWxsIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIHBvc3Nlc3Mu[Qq]

[c]IElJIG9ubHk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgYWJvdXQgdGhlaXIgaGF2aW5nIGEgbWVtYnJhbmUsIGJ1dCB0aGVyZSBhcmUgb3RoZXIgY29tcG9uZW50cyB0aGF0IGFsbCBwcm9rYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxscyBwb3NzZXNzLg==[Qq]

[c]IElJSSBvbmx5[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgYWJvdXQgdGhlaXIgaGF2aW5nIGdlbmV0aWMgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24sIGJ1dCB0aGVyZSBhcmUgb3RoZXIgY29tcG9uZW50cyB0aGF0IGFsbCBwcm9rYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxscyBwb3NzZXNzLg==[Qq]

[c]IEkgYW5kIElJIG9ubHk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgYWJvdXQgdGhlaXIgaGF2aW5nIHJpYm9zb21lcyBhbmQgYSBtZW1icmFuZSwgYnV0IHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3Mgb25lIG1vcmUgY29tcG9uZW50IHRoYXQgYWxsIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIHBvc3Nlc3Mu[Qq]

[c]IEksIElJLC BhbmQgSUlJ[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudDogYWxsIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGhhdmUgcmlib3NvbWVzLCBhIG1lbWJyYW5lLCBhbmQgZ2VuZXRpYyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20fac2464a185a” question_number=”174″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Which of the following components is found in all prokaryotic cells?

[c]IE51Y2xlaQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQcm9rYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxscyBkb24mIzgyMTc7dCBoYXZlIG51Y2xlaS4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogcHJva2FyeW90aWMgY2VsbHMgaGF2ZSB0byBtYWtlIHByb3RlaW5zLg==[Qq]

[c]IFJpYm9z b21lcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBBbGwgY2VsbHMgbmVlZCB0byBzeW50aGVzaXplIHByb3RlaW5zLCBhbmQgYWxsIGNlbGxzLCB3aGV0aGVyIHByb2thcnlvdGljIG9yIGV1a2FyeW90aWMsIGhhdmUgcmlib3NvbWVzLg==[Qq]

[c]IENlbGwgd2FsbHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSBtb3N0IHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGRvIGhhdmUgYSBjZWxsIHdhbGwsIGl0JiM4MjE3O3Mgbm90IGEgdW5pdmVyc2FsIGZlYXR1cmUuIEFuIGVudGlyZSBnZW51cyBvZiBiYWN0ZXJpYSAoTXljb3BsYXNtYQ==KSBsYWNrIGNlbGwgd2FsbHMuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGhhdmUgdG8gbWFrZSBwcm90ZWlucy4=[Qq]

[c]IENobG9yb3BsYXN0cw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIGtleSBmZWF0dXJlIG9mIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGlzIHRoYXQgdGhleSBsYWNrIGNvbXBsZXggaW50ZXJuYWwgb3JnYW5lbGxlcyAoYW4gZXhhbXBsZSBvZiB3aGljaCB3b3VsZCBiZSBhIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0KS4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogcHJva2FyeW90aWMgY2VsbHMgaGF2ZSB0byBtYWtlIHByb3RlaW5zLg==[Qq]

[c]IE1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIGtleSBmZWF0dXJlIG9mIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGlzIHRoYXQgdGhleSBsYWNrIGNvbXBsZXggaW50ZXJuYWwgb3JnYW5lbGxlcyAoYW4gZXhhbXBsZSBvZiB3aGljaCB3b3VsZCBiZSBhIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24pLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiBwcm9rYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxscyBoYXZlIHRvIG1ha2UgcHJvdGVpbnMu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20f7cd9331a45a” question_number=”175″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Which of the following organelles is correctly paired with its function in a cell?

[c]IEx5c29zb21lLCBjZWxsdWxhciBtb3ZlbWVudA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMeXNvc29tZXMgYXJlIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBpbnRyYWNlbGx1bGFyIGRpZ2VzdGlvbi4gQ2VsbHVsYXIgbW92ZW1lbnQgaXMgdGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uIG9mIGZsYWdlbGxhIG9yIGNpbGlhLg==[Qq]

[c]IFJpYm9zb21lLCBtYW51ZmFjdHVyaW5nIG9mIGxpcGlkcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSaWJvc29tZXMgYXJlIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBwcm90ZWluIHN5bnRoZXNpcy4gTWFudWZhY3R1cmluZyBsaXBpZHMgaXMgdGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uIG9mIHRoZSBzbW9vdGggZW5kb3BsYXNtaWMgcmV0aWN1bHVtLg==[Qq]

[c]IENlbnRyYWwgdmFjdW9sZSwgc3RvcmFn ZSBvZiBtYXRlcmlhbHMgYW5kIHdhc3Rl[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnbyEgVGhlIGNlbnRyYWwgdmFjdW9sZSYjODIxNztzIGZ1bmN0aW9uIGlzIHRoZSBzdG9yYWdlIG9mIG1hdGVyaWFscyBhbmQgd2FzdGUgcHJvZHVjdHMu[Qq]

[c]IE51Y2xldXMsIHdoZXJlIGNlbGx1bGFyIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIG9jY3Vycw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZnVuY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIG51Y2xldXMgaXMgdG8gaG9sZCBhbmQgcHJvdGVjdCBjaHJvbW9zb21lcy4gQ2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24gb2NjdXJzIGluIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYS4=[Qq]

[c]IE1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24sIHdoZXJlIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIG9jY3Vycw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZnVuY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYSBpcyB0aGUgcHJvZHVjdGlvbiBvZiBBVFAuIFBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIG9jY3VycyBpbiBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20f2230a41c85a” question_number=”176″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Which of the following features applies to both chloroplasts and mitochondria?

Chloroplast Mitochondrion

I. Synthesizes its own protein.
II. Contains a small amount of DNA
III. Not part of the endomembrane system
IV. Can grow and reproduce semi-autonomously

[c]IEksIElJLCBhbmQgSVYgb25seQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHZlcnkgY2xvc2UuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHN0dWR5IHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbS4gV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIG5vdCB0aGVyZT8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IElJIG9ubHk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgaW4gdGhhdCBib3RoIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cyBhbmQgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIGhhdmUgdGhlaXIgb3duIHNtYWxsIGFtb3VudCBvZiBETkEgaW4gdGhlIGZvcm0gb2YgYSBzaW5nbGUsIGNpcmN1bGFyIGNocm9tb3NvbWUuIEJ1dCB0aGV5IHNoYXJlIG90aGVyIGZlYXR1cmVzIGFzIHdlbGwu[Qq]

[c]IElJIGFuZCBJSUkgb25seQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgaW4gdGhhdCBib3RoIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cyBhbmQgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIGhhdmUgdGhlaXIgb3duIHNtYWxsIGFtb3VudCBvZiBETkEgKGluIHRoZSBmb3JtIG9mIGEgc2luZ2xlLCBjaXJjdWxhciBjaHJvbW9zb21lKTsgYW5kIHRoYXQgdGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBub3QgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgZW5kb21lbWJyYW5lIHN5c3RlbS4gQnV0IHRoZXkgc2hhcmUgb3RoZXIgZmVhdHVyZXMgYXMgd2VsbC4=[Qq]

[c]IElJSSBhbmQgSVYgb25seQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgaW4gdGhhdCBib3RoIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cyBhbmQgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIGFyZSBub3QgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgZW5kb21lbWJyYW5lIHN5c3RlbSwgYW5kIHRoYXQgdGhleSBjYW4gZ3JvdyBhbmQgcmVwcm9kdWNlIHNlbWktYXV0b25vbW91c2x5LiBCdXQgdGhleSBzaGFyZSBvdGhlciBmZWF0dXJlcyBhcyB3ZWxsLg==[Qq]

[c]IEksIElJLCBJSU ksIGFuZCBJVg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudDogeW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIGlkZW50aWZpZWQgZm91ciBmZWF0dXJlcyB0aGF0IGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cyBhbmQgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIHNoYXJlLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20ef1e0ad6185a” question_number=”177″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Which of the following groups of organelles produce necessary molecules for the cell to sustain life?

[c]IEx5c29zb21lLCByb3VnaCBFUiwgdmFjdW9sZQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbHlzb3NvbWUgaXMgYSBkaWdlc3RpdmUgb3JnYW5lbGxlLCBhbmQgdGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uIG9mIHRoZSB2YWN1b2xlIGlzIHN0b3JhZ2Uu[Qq]

[c]IEx5c29zb21lLCByaWJvc29tZSwgdmFjdW9sZQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbHlzb3NvbWUgaXMgYSBkaWdlc3RpdmUgb3JnYW5lbGxlLCBhbmQgdGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uIG9mIHRoZSB2YWN1b2xlIGlzIHN0b3JhZ2Uu[Qq]

[c]IFJpYm9zb21lLCByb3Vn aCBFUiwgc21vb3RoIEVS[Qq]

[f]IFBlcmZlY3QuIFRoZSByaWJvc29tZSBtYWtlcyBwcm90ZWluczsgdGhlIHJvdWdoIEVSIG1ha2VzIHByb3RlaW5zIHRoYXQgYXJlIGRlc2lnbmF0ZWQgZm9yIGV4cG9ydCwgdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lLCBvciBseXNvc29tZXM7IHRoZSBzbW9vdGggRS5SLiBtYWtlcyBsaXBpZHMu[Qq]

[c]IFJpYm9zb21lLCBzbW9vdGggRVIuIHZhY3VvbGU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdmFjdW9sZSBpcyBhIHN0b3JhZ2Ugb3JnYW5lbGxlLg==[Qq]

[c]IFJvdWdoIEVSLCBzbW9vdGggRVIsIHZhY3VvbGU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdmFjdW9sZSBpcyBhIHN0b3JhZ2Ugb3JnYW5lbGxlLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20ec3053e1505a” question_number=”178″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Which of the following features can be used to distinguish between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?

[c]IEROQSBpcyBwcmVzZW50IGluIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCb3RoIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGFuZCBldWthcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGhhdmUgRE5BLg==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZXJlIGlzIGEgcmlnaWQgY2VsbCB3YWxsLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCZWNhdXNlIHRoZXJlIGFyZSBhIGZldyBwcm9rYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxscyAoZ2VudXMgbXljb3BsYXNtYSkgdGhhdCBsYWNrIGEgY2VsbCB3YWxsLCBhbmQgYmVjYXVzZSBhbGwgYW5pbWFsIGNlbGxzIGxhY2sgY2VsbCB3YWxscywgeW91IGNhbiYjODIxNzt0IHVzZSB0aGUgcHJlc2VuY2Ugb2YgYSBjZWxsIHdhbGwgYXMgYSBkaXN0aW5ndWlzaGluZyBmZWF0dXJlLg==[Qq]

[c]IFJpYm9zb21lcyBhcmUgcHJlc2VudCBpbiB0aGUgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCb3RoIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGFuZCBldWthcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGhhdmUgcmlib3NvbWVzLg==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIGNhcnJpZXMgb3V0IGNlbGx1bGFyIG1ldGFib2xpc20u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCb3RoIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGFuZCBldWthcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGNhcnJ5IG91dCBjZWxsdWxhciBtZXRhYm9saXNtLg==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIGlzIGRpdmlkZWQgYn kgaW50ZXJuYWwgbWVtYnJhbmVzLg==[Qq]

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljLiBXaGlsZSBldWthcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGFyZSBkaXZpZGVkIGJ5IGludGVybmFsIG1lbWJyYW5lcywgcHJva2FyeW90aWMgY2VsbHMgYXJlIG5vdC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20baf78881405a” question_number=”193″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.1-2.2.Cell Parts”] Which of the following pairs of statements correctly matches organelles to their function?

[c]IFRoZSBHb2xnaSBhcHBhcmF0dXMgaXMgd2hlcmUgQVRQIHByb2R1Y3Rpb24gb2NjdXJzLiBUaGUgcm91Z2ggZW5kb3BsYXNtaWMgcmV0aWN1bHVtIGlzIHdoZXJlIHByb3RlaW5zIGFyZSBzeW50aGVzaXplZCBmb3IgY2VsbCBzZWNyZXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZnVuY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIHJvdWdoIEUuUi4gaXMgY29ycmVjdCwgYnV0IEFUUCBzeW50aGVzaXMgaGFwcGVucyBpbiB0aGUgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIChub3QgdGhlIEdvbGdpIGFwcGFyYXR1cyku[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBHb2xnaSBhcHBhcmF0dXMgaXMgd2hlcmUgcHJvdGVpbnMgYXJlIHByb2Nlc3NlZC4gVGhlIHJvdWdoIGVuZG9wbGFzbWljIHJldGljdWx1bSBpcyB3aGVyZS Bwcm90ZWlucyBhcmUgc3ludGhlc2l6ZWQgZm9yIGNlbGwgc2VjcmV0aW9uIChvciBpbmNvcnBvcmF0aW9uIGludG8gbHlzb3NvbWVzIG9yIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSku[Qq]

[f]IFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjb3JyZWN0ISBHb29kIGpvYiBrbm93aW5nIHlvdXIgb3JnYW5lbGxlcyE=[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBHb2xnaSBhcHBhcmF0dXMgaXMgd2hlcmUgcHJvdGVpbnMgYXJlIHN5bnRoZXNpemVkIGZvciBjZWxsIHNlY3JldGlvbi4gVGhlIHJvdWdoIGVuZG9wbGFzbWljIHJldGljdWx1bSBpcyB3aGVyZSBBVFAgcHJvZHVjdGlvbiBvY2N1cnMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdHVkeSB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBiZWxvdy4gVGhlIFJvdWdoIEUuUi4gaXMgYXQgQywgYW5kIG5vdGljZSBpdHMgYXNzb2NpYXRpb24gd2l0aCByaWJvc29tZXMgKEUpIGFuZCBwcm90ZWlucyAoRikuIFRoZSBHb2xnaSBpcyBhdCBELiBOb3RpY2UgdGhlIGxhY2sgb2Ygcmlib3NvbWVzLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20840ae401c45a” question_number=”209″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.4.Plasma_Membranes”] Which of the following models best represents the arrangement of phospholipids in a cell membrane?

[c]IE Eg[Qq][c]IEIg[Qq][c]IEMg[Qq][c]IEQ=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIEJlY2F1c2UgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkcyBoYXZlIGEgaHlkcm9waG9iaWMgdGFpbCBhbmQgYSBoeWRyb3BoaWxpYyBoZWFkLCB0aGUgbG93ZXN0IGVuZXJneSBzdGF0ZSB0aGF0IHRoZXkgY2FuIGFzc3VtZSBpcyB0aGUgb25lIHNob3duIGluIEEgYWJvdmUsIHdpdGggdGhlIGhlYWRzIHBvaW50aW5nIG91dCAoaW50ZXJhY3Rpbmcgd2l0aCB3YXRlciBpbiB0aGUgY2VsbCBleHRlcmlvciBhbmQgdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbSkgYW5kIHRoZSB0YWlscyBjbHVzdGVyaW5nIHRvZ2V0aGVyIGluIGEgd2F0ZXItZnJlZSB6b25lLg==

Cg==

SGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGhvdyBJIGRlc2NyaWJlIHRoaXMgaW4gbXkgTWVtYnJhbmVzISBSYXA6

Cg==

[Qq]Cause when phospholipids into water get submerged,
A phospholipid bilayer structure will emerge
The tails hang together in a water-free zone,
Hear their hydrophobic moan, “water leave me alone!”

While the heads are sticking out touching all those H2Os
Tails in heads out, it’s how every membrane goes
Tails in, heads out, in a cellular sphere,
It’s the bilayered basis of membranes everywhere.

[f]IE5vLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IGZvciBtb3N0IGNlbGxzLCBhYm92ZSBhbmQgYmVsb3cgdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGFyZSBzb2x1dGlvbnMgdGhhdCBhcmUgbW9zdGx5IHdhdGVyICh0aGUgY2VsbCBleHRlcmlvciwgYW5kIHRoZSBjeXRvc29sKS4gUmVhZCB0aGVzZSBseXJpY3MgZnJvbSBteSBNZW1icmFuZXMhIFJhcCwgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgdGhlIGNvcnJlY3QgYXJyYW5nZW1lbnQ6

Cg==

Q2F1c2Ugd2hlbiBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWRzIGludG8gd2F0ZXIgZ2V0IHN1Ym1lcmdlZCw=[Qq]
A phospholipid bilayer structure will emerge
The tails hang together in a water-free zone,
Hear their hydrophobic moan, “water leave me alone!”

While the heads are sticking out touching all those H2Os
Tails in, heads out, it’s how every membrane goes
Tails in, heads out, in a cellular sphere,
It’s the bilayered basis of membranes everywhere.

[f]IE5vLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IGZvciBtb3N0IGNlbGxzLCBhYm92ZSBhbmQgYmVsb3cgdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGFyZSBzb2x1dGlvbnMgdGhhdCBhcmUgbW9zdGx5IHdhdGVyICh0aGUgY2VsbCBleHRlcmlvciwgYW5kIHRoZSBjeXRvc29sKS4gUmVhZCB0aGVzZSBseXJpY3MgZnJvbSBteSBNZW1icmFuZXMhIFJhcCwgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgdGhlIGNvcnJlY3QgYXJyYW5nZW1lbnQ6

Cg==

Q2F1c2Ugd2hlbiBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWRzIGludG8gd2F0ZXIgZ2V0IHN1Ym1lcmdlZCw=[Qq]
A phospholipid bilayer structure will emerge
The tails hang together in a water-free zone,
Hear their hydrophobic moan, “water leave me alone!”

While the heads are sticking out touching all those H2Os
Tails in, heads out, it’s how every membrane goes
Tails in, heads out, in a cellular sphere,
It’s the bilayered basis of membranes everywhere.

[f]IE5vLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IGZvciBtb3N0IGNlbGxzLCBhYm92ZSBhbmQgYmVsb3cgdGhlIG1lbWJyYW5lIGFyZSBzb2x1dGlvbnMgdGhhdCBhcmUgbW9zdGx5IHdhdGVyICh0aGUgY2VsbCBleHRlcmlvciwgYW5kIHRoZSBjeXRvc29sKS4gUmVhZCB0aGVzZSBseXJpY3MgZnJvbSBteSBNZW1icmFuZXMhIFJhcCwgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgdGhlIGNvcnJlY3QgYXJyYW5nZW1lbnQ6

Cg==

Q2F1c2Ugd2hlbiBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWRzIGludG8gd2F0ZXIgZ2V0IHN1Ym1lcmdlZCw=[Qq]
A phospholipid bilayer structure will emerge
The tails hang together in a water-free zone,
Hear their hydrophobic moan, “water leave me alone!”

While the heads are sticking out touching all those H2Os
Tails in, heads out, it’s how every membrane goes
Tails in, heads out, in a cellular sphere,
It’s the bilayered basis of membranes everywhere.

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|208a3c77a3485a” question_number=”207″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.4.Plasma_Membranes”] The model below depicts a cell membrane. What structures are labelled I, II, and III in the model?

[c]IEdseWNvcHJvdGVpbiwgcGVyaXBoZXJhbCBwcm90ZWluLCBoeWRyb3Bob2JpYyBwaG9zcGhhdGUgaGVhZA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgYWJvdXQgTnVtYmVyIEkuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoZSBwaG9zcGhhdGUgaGVhZCBhdCBJSUkgaXMgdG91Y2hpbmcgdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbS4gVGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbSBpcyBtb3N0bHkgd2F0ZXIuIFdvdWxkIHRoYXQgbWFrZSB0aGUgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGhlYWQgaHlkcm9waG9iaWM=IG9yIA==aHlkcm9waGlsaWM=Pw==[Qq]

[c]IFBlcmlwaGVyYWwgcHJvdGVpbiwgZ2x5Y29wcm90ZWluLCBoeWRyb3BoaWxpYyBwaG9zcGhhdGUgaGVhZA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmlnaHQgYWJvdXQgSUlJLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGUgcHJvdGVpbiBhdCBJIGxvb2tzIGxpa2UgaXQgaGFzIGEgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgY2hhaW4gYXR0YWNoZWQgdG8gaXQuIFRoZSBuYW1lIGZvciBhbiBpbXBvcnRhbnQgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgaW4gYW5pbWFscyBpcyA=Z2x5Y28=Z2VuLiBJZiA=Z2x5Y29nZW4gYW5kIA==[Qq]protein had a baby, what would they call it?

[c]IEdseWNvcHJvdGVpbiwgaW50ZWdyYWwgcHJvdGVp biwgaHlkcm9waGlsaWMgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGhlYWQ=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgWW91IGtub3cgeW91ciBtZW1icmFuZXMh[Qq]

[c]IEludGVncmFsIHByb3RlaW4sIHBlcmlwaGVyYWwgcHJvdGVpbiwgaHlkcm9waG9iaWMgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGhlYWQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGUgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGhlYWQgYXQgSUlJIGlzIHRvdWNoaW5nIHRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20uIFRoZSBjeXRvcGxhc20gaXMgbW9zdGx5IHdhdGVyLiBXb3VsZCB0aGF0IG1ha2UgdGhlIHBob3NwaGF0ZSBoZWFkIA==aHlkcm9waG9iaWM=IG9yIA==aHlkcm9waGlsaWM=Pw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20ab52d89d605a” question_number=”198″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.5.Membrane_Permeability”] The permeability coefficient measures the ease with which a molecule passes through a cell membrane. The graph below displays the permeability coefficients for six different molecules with various solubilities in oil.

Which of the following statements is supported by the data in the graph?

[c]IEFsY29ob2wgaXMgbGVzcyBsaXBpZC1zb2x1YmxlIHRoYW4gd2F0ZXIu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBGaXJzdCwga2VlcCBpbiBtaW5kIHRoZSBmYWN0IHRoYXQgb2lsIGlzIGEgbGlwaWQsIHNvIHRoZSBYLWF4aXMgb24gdGhpcyBncmFwaCBpcyBzaG93aW5nIGxpcGlkIHNvbHViaWxpdHkuIEtub3dpbmcgdGhhdCwgdGFrZSBhbm90aGVyIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGdyYXBoLiBXaGljaCBpcyBtb3JlIGxpcGlkLXNvbHVibGUgKGZ1cnRoZXIgdG8gdGhlIHJpZ2h0IG9uIHRoZSBYLWF4aXMpOiB3YXRlciBvciBhbGNvaG9sPw==[Qq]

[c]IEV4Y2VzcyB3YXRlciBpcyByZW1vdmVkIGZy b20gYSBjZWxsIGZhc3RlciB0aGFuIHVyZWEu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2F0ZXIgaGFzIGEgaGlnaGVyIHBlcm1lYWJpbGl0eSBjb2VmZmljaWVudCB0aGFuIHVyZWE7IHRoZXJlZm9yZSwgd2F0ZXIgd291bGQgbW9yZSBlYXNpbHkgbW92ZSB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSBjZWxsIG1lbWJyYW5lLg==[Qq]

[c]IERpZXRoeWx1cmVhIGNhbiBtb3JlIGVhc2lseSBtb3ZlIHRocm91Z2ggYSBjZWxsIG1lbWJyYW5lIHRoYW4gYWxjb2hvbC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBpbiB0aGUgcXVlc3Rpb24gdGhhdCB0aGUgcGVybWVhYmlsaXR5IGNvZWZmaWNpZW50IG1lYXN1cmVzIHRoZSBlYXNlIHdpdGggd2hpY2ggYSBzdWJzdGFuY2UgbW92ZXMgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUuIExvb2sgYXQgdGhlIFktYXhpczogd2hpY2ggbW9sZWN1bGUsIGRpbWV0aHlsIHVyZWEgb3IgYWxjb2hvbCwgaGFzIGEgaGlnaGVyIHBlcm1lYWJpbGl0eSBjb2VmZmljaWVudD8gV2hpY2ggb25lIHdvdWxkIG1vcmUgZWFzaWx5IG1vdmUgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmU/[Qq]

[c]IEV0aHlsZW5lIGdseWNvbCBjYW4gbW9yZSBlYXNpbHkgbW92ZSB0aHJvdWdoIGEgY2VsbCBtZW1icmFuZSB0aGFuIGNvZGVpbmUu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBpbiB0aGUgcXVlc3Rpb24gdGhhdCB0aGUgcGVybWVhYmlsaXR5IGNvZWZmaWNpZW50IG1lYXN1cmVzIHRoZSBlYXNlIHdpdGggd2hpY2ggYSBzdWJzdGFuY2UgbW92ZXMgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgbWVtYnJhbmUuIExvb2sgYXQgdGhlIFktYXhpczogd2hpY2ggbW9sZWN1bGUsIGV0aHlsZW5lIGdseWNvbCBvciBjb2RlaW5lLCBoYXMgYSBoaWdoZXIgcGVybWVhYmlsaXR5IGNvZWZmaWNpZW50PyBXaGljaCBvbmUgd291bGQgbW9yZSBlYXNpbHkgbW92ZSB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZT8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20e01eaa3e745a” question_number=”182″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.5.Membrane_Permeability”] In humans lungs, the respiratory cycle involves an inhalation followed by an exhalation. In this type of system, the lungs are never entirely flushed with fresh air. As a result, the oxygen concentration in human lungs is about 56% that of the outside air.

In sparrows and other birds, the lungs maintain a one-way flow of air using a series of air sacs. As a result, a sparrow’s lungs can be entirely flushed with fresh air.

A sparrow can obtain more oxygen from outside air than a human can because the sparrow’s gas exchange system has

[c]IGEgbGFyZ2VyIGRpZmZ1c2lvbiBhcmVhLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZGlmZnVzaW9uIGFyZWEgaXMgYSBmdW5jdGlvbiBvZiBtYW55IGZhY3RvcnMsIGJ1dCBhIG1ham9yIG9uZSBpcyB0aGUgc2l6ZSBvZiB0aGUgb3JnYW5pc20uIEh1bWFucyBoYXZlIGEgbGFyZ2VyIGRpZmZ1c2lvbiBhcmVhIHRoYW4gc3BhcnJvd3MgZG8u[Qq]

[c]IGEgc21hbGxlciBkaWZmdXNpb24gZGlzdGFuY2Uu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBib3RoIHNwZWNpZXMsIG94eWdlbiBkaWZmdXNlcyBhIHNob3J0IGRpc3RhbmNlIGZyb20gdGhlIG94eWdlbi1hYnNvcmJpbmcgY2VsbHMgdG8gbmVhcmJ5IGNhcGlsbGFyaWVzLg==[Qq]

[c]IGxlc3Mgb2YgYSBkaWZmdXNpb24gYmFycmllci4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBib3RoIHNwZWNpZXMsIG94eWdlbiBkaWZmdXNlcyBhY3Jvc3MgYSB0aGluIHRpc3N1ZSBsYXllciBhbmQgdGhlbiBpbnRvIHRoaW4td2FsbGVkIGNhcGlsbGFyaWVzIHRoYXQgYnJpbmcgb3h5Z2VuYXRlZCBibG9vZCBpbnRvIHRoZSBjaXJjdWxhdG9yeSBzeXN0ZW0u[Qq]

[c]IGEgc3RlZXBlciBkaWZm dXNpb24gZ3JhZGllbnQu[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIHN5c3RlbSB0aGF0IGhhcyBldm9sdmVkIGluIGJpcmRzIHByb3ZpZGVzIGZvciBhIHN0ZWVwZXIgZGlmZnVzaW9uIGdyYWRpZW50LCBhbGxvd2luZyBiaXJkcyB0byBhYnNvcmIgbW9yZSBveHlnZW4gaW50byB0aGVpciBibG9vZCB0aGFuIG1hbW1hbHMgY2FuOiBhbiBlc3NlbnRpYWwgYWRhcHRhdGlvbiBmb3IgdGhlIGhpZ2ggZW5lcmd5IGRlbWFuZHMgYXNzb2NpYXRlZCB3aXRoIGZseWluZy4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|208daa3d260c5a” question_number=”206″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.6-2.7.Membrane_Transport”] Which of the following statements is valid regarding proteins that are translated on the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

[c]IEFsbCBzdWNoIHByb3RlaW5zIGFyZSBldmVudHVhbGx5IGV4cG9ydGVkIGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbGwgdGhyb3VnaCBleG9jeXRvc2lzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSByaWdodCB0cmFjaywgYXMgeW91IGNhbiBzZWUgYnkgTGV0dGVyIEsgYmVsb3cuIEJ1dCBzZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBpZGVudGlmeSBzb21lIG90aGVyIGRlc3RpbmF0aW9ucyBmb3IgcHJvdGVpbnMgdHJhbnNsYXRlZCBhdCB0aGUgcm91Z2ggRVIgKHRoZSByb3VnaCBFUiBpcyBDLCB0aGUgcHJvdGVpbnMgYXJlIEYsIGFuZCByaWJvc29tZXMgYXJlIEUpLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IFByb3RlaW5zIGFyZSB0YXJnZXRlZCB0byBseXNvc29tZXMsIHRoZS BwbGFzbWEgbWVtYnJhbmUsIGFuZCB0aGUgY2VsbCBleHRlcmlvci4=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2UhIFlvdSBjbGVhcmx5IGhhdmUgYSBnb29kIHVuZGVyc3RhbmRpbmcgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyBlbmRvbWVtYnJhbmUgc3lzdGVtIChzaG93biBiZWxvdyku

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEN5dG9wbGFzbWljIHByb3RlaW5zIGFyZSB0YXJnZXRlZCB0byB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cyBpbiByZXNwb25zZSB0byBob3Jtb25lIHN0aW11bGku[Qq]

[f]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

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IFByb3RlaW5zIGFyZSB0YXJnZXRlZCB0byB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cyB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSBsdW1lbiBvZiB0aGUgZW5kb3BsYXNtaWMgcmV0aWN1bHVtIGJlY2F1c2UgdGhlIGx1bWVuIGlzIGRpcmVjdGx5IGNvbm5lY3RlZCB0byB0aGUgaW50ZXJtZW1icmFuZSBzcGFjZSBvZiB0aGUgbnVjbGV1cy4=[Qq]

[f]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

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|1f20776c15e45a” question_number=”299″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] Amoebas are unicellular protists that are found in aquatic environments.

One of these environments (X) is the amoeba’s natural environment. Environments Y and Z have been experimentally manipulated.

Based on the information above, environment Y must be ________ to the amoeba’s natural environment.

[c]IGh5cG90b25pYw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IA==d2F0ZXIgYWx3YXlzIGZsb3dzIGZyb20gaHlwb3RvbmljIHRvIGh5cGVydG9uaWM=LiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBhYm92ZSB0aGF0IFggaXMgdGhlIG5hdHVyYWwgZW52aXJvbm1lbnQuIFRoZSBhbW9lYmEgaW4gZW52aXJvbm1lbnQgWSBpcyBzbWFsbGVyIGFuZCBtb3JlIHNocml2ZWxlZCB1cCB0aGFuIHRoZSBhbW9lYmEgaW4gZW52aXJvbm1lbnQgWC4gV291bGQgdGhhdCBjaGFuZ2UgYmUgY2F1c2VkIGJ5IHdhdGVyIGVudGVyaW5nIHRoZSBhbW9lYmEsIG9yIGxlYXZpbmcgdGhlIGFtb2ViYT8gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIGVudmlyb25tZW50IGNvdWxkIGNhdXNlIHRoYXQgY2hhbmdlPw==[Qq]

[c]IGlzb3Rvbmlj[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IA==d2F0ZXIgYWx3YXlzIGZsb3dzIGZyb20gaHlwb3RvbmljIHRvIGh5cGVydG9uaWM=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[Qq]

[c]IGh5cGVy dG9uaWM=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2F0ZXIgb2J2aW91c2x5IGxlZnQgdGhlIGFtb2ViYSwgY2F1c2luZyBpdCB0byBzaHJpdmVsIHVwLiBCZWNhdXNlIHdhdGVyIGFsd2F5cyBmbG93cyBmcm9tIGh5cG90b25pYyB0byBoeXBlcnRvbmljLCB0aGF0IHdvdWxkIG9ubHkgaGFwcGVuIGlmIHRoZSBjZWxsIHdlcmUgaW4gYSBoeXBlcnRvbmljIGVudmlyb25tZW50Lg==[Qq]

[c]IG1lc290b25pYw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAmIzgyMjA7TWVzb3RvbmljJiM4MjIxOyBpcyBhIGJvdGFueSB3b3JkOiBpdCBtZWFucyAmIzgyMjA7QSB0eXBlIG9mIGJyYW5jaGluZyBvciBncm93dGggd2hlcmUgdGhlIHNob290cyBuZWFyZXN0IHRoZSBtaWRkbGUgb2YgdGhlIHN0ZW0gb3IgYnJhbmNoIHNob3cgdGhlIGdyZWF0ZXN0IGRldmVsb3BtZW50LiYjODIyMTsgTmV4dCB0aW1lLCBjaG9vc2UgYW4gYW5zd2VyIHJlbGF0ZWQgdG8gb3Ntb3Npcy4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|1f1c257a05d85a” question_number=”300″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] Amoebas are unicellular protists that live in aquatic environments. A photomicrograph of one is shown immediately below.

The images that follow are simplified representations of amoebas, showing only the membrane and the nucleus. The letters X, Y, and Z represent the amoeba’s environment. Environment X is the amoeba’s natural environment, while environments Y and Z have been experimentally manipulated.

The most likely explanation for what’s happening to the amoeba in environment Z is that

[c]IHdhdGVyIGlzIGZsb3dpbmcgZnJvbSB0aGUgaHlwb3RvbmljIGVudmlyb25tZW50IG91dHNpZGUgb2YgdGhlIGFtb2ViYSBpbn RvIHRoZSBhbW9lYmEmIzgyMTc7cyBoeXBlcnRvbmljIGN5dG9wbGFzbSwgY2F1c2luZyB0aGUgYW1vZWJhIHRvIGV4cGFuZC4=[Qq]

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIFdhdGVyIGFsd2F5cyBmbG93cyBmcm9tIGh5cG90b25pYyB0byBoeXBlcnRvbmljLCBhbmQgdGhhdCBmbG93IG9mIHdhdGVyIGludG8gdGhlIGFtb2ViYSBoYXMgY2F1c2VkIHRoZSBhbW9lYmEgdG8gZXhwYW5kLg==[Qq]

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[c]IGFjdGl2ZSB0cmFuc3BvcnQgcHVtcHMgYXJlIG1vdmluZyB3YXRlciBmcm9tIHRoZSBoeXBlcnRvbmljIGNlbGwgZXh0ZXJpb3IgaW50byB0aGUgaHlwb3RvbmljIGNlbGwgaW50ZXJpb3Iu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHVtcHMgaW52b2x2ZWQgaW4gYWN0aXZlIHRyYW5zcG9ydCBwdW1wIHNvbHV0ZXMsIG5vdCB3YXRlci4gVGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiBpcyBhYm91dCBvc21vc2lzLCBhbmQgdGhlIGtleSB0aGluZyB0byByZW1lbWJlciBpcyB0aGF0IHdhdGVyIGFsd2F5cyBmbG93cyBmcm9tIGh5cG90b25pYyB0byBoeXBlcnRvbmljLiBXaXRoIHRoYXQgaW4gbWluZCwgYXNrIHlvdXJzZWxmLCB3aGF0IGNvdWxkIGhhdmUgY2F1c2VkIHRoZSBjZWxsIGF0IFogdG8gZXhwYW5kPw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|1f17da8419785a” question_number=”301″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] A part found in plant cells but not in animal cells that allows plant cells to thrive in hypotonic environments is/are

[c]IGFxdWFwb3JpbnM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBcXVhcG9yaW5zIGFyZSBtZW1icmFuZSBjaGFubmVscyB0aGF0IGZhY2lsaXRhdGUgdGhlIGZsb3cgb2Ygd2F0ZXIgYWNyb3NzIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZS4gVGhlIGNoYWxsZW5nZSBvZiBhIGNlbGwgaW4gYSBoeXBvdG9uaWMgZW52aXJvbm1lbnQgaXMgdG8gYXZvaWQgYnVyc3RpbmcgYXMgd2F0ZXIgZmxvd3MgZnJvbSB0aGUgaHlwb3RvbmljIGVudmlyb25tZW50IGludG8gdGhlIGh5cGVydG9uaWMgY2VsbCwgYXMgc2hvd24gaW4gdGhlIHJlZCBibG9vZCBjZWxscyBvbiB0aGUgcmlnaHQgc2lkZSBvZiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBiZWxvdy4=

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]What plant cell structure could prevent a cell from bursting due to osmotic pressure?

[c]IGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZnVuY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0IGlzIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLg==

Cg==

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Cg==

[Qq]

What plant cell structure could prevent a cell from bursting due to osmotic pressure?

[c]IGdvbGdpIGJvZGllcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZnVuY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIEdvbGdpIGJvZHkgaXMgcGFja2FnaW5nIGFuZCBkaXN0cmlidXRpbmcgdGhlIHByb3RlaW5zIGl0IHJlY2VpdmVzIGZyb20gdGhlIGVuZG9wbGFzbWljIHJldGljdWx1bS4=

Cg==

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Cg==

[Qq]

What plant cell structure could prevent a cell from bursting due to osmotic pressure?

[c]IHRoZSBjZW xsIHdhbGw=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIGNlbGwgd2FsbCBpcyB3aGF0IHBsYW50IGNlbGxzIHVzZSB0byBrZWVwIGZyb20gYnVyc3RpbmcgZnJvbSBvc21vdGljIHByZXNzdXJlIGluIGEgaHlwb3RvbmljIGVudmlyb25tZW50LCBhcyBzaG93biBpbiB0aGUgY2VsbCBvbiB0aGUgcmlnaHQgYmVsb3cu

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSByb3VnaCBlbmRvcGxhc21pYyByZXRpY3VsdW0=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZnVuY3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIHJvdWdoIEUuUi4gaXMgc3ludGhlc2l6aW5nIHByb3RlaW5zIHRoYXQgYXJlIGRlc3RpbmVkIGZvciBleHBvcnQsIG9yIGluY29ycG9yYXRpb24gd2l0aGluIGNlbGx1bGFyIG9yZ2FuZWxsZXMu

Cg==

SGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGhvdyB0byB0aGluayBhYm91dCB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLiBUaGUgY2hhbGxlbmdlIG9mIGEgY2VsbCBpbiBhIGh5cG90b25pYyBlbnZpcm9ubWVudCBpcyB0byBhdm9pZCBidXJzdGluZyBhcyB3YXRlciBmbG93cyBmcm9tIHRoZSBoeXBvdG9uaWMgZW52aXJvbm1lbnQgaW50byB0aGUgaHlwZXJ0b25pYyBjZWxsLCBhcyBzaG93biBpbiB0aGUgcmVkIGJsb29kIGNlbGxzIG9uIHRoZSByaWdodCBzaWRlIG9mIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93Lg==

Cg==

[Qq]

What plant cell structure could prevent a cell from bursting due to osmotic pressure?

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20b19960a9e85a” question_number=”196″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] The figures below depict a plant cell before and after it was placed in a sucrose solution. Which of the following conclusions is most consistent with the changes observed in the plant cell after it was placed in this solution?

[c]IFdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyBtb3ZlZCBmcm9tIHRoZSBoeXBvdG9uaWMgc3Vjcm9zZSBzb2x1dGlvbiBpbnRvIHRoZSBoeXBlcnRvbmljIGNlbGwu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXYXRlciBkb2VzIGZsb3cgZnJvbSBoeXBvdG9uaWMgdG8gaHlwZXJ0b25pYy4gQnV0IHdoYXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHNlZWluZyBpcyB0aGUgY2VsbCBpbnRlcmlvciBzaHJpbmtpbmcgYXdheSBmcm9tIGl0cyB3YWxsLCB3aGljaCBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgdGhhdCB0aGUgY2VsbCBsb3N0IHdhdGVyLiBJZiB0aGUgY2VsbCBsb3N0IHdhdGVyLCB3YXMgdGhlIHNvbHV0aW9uIGVudGVyaW5nIG9yIGxlYXZpbmcgdGhlIGNlbGw/[Qq]

[c]IFdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyBtb3ZlZCBmcm9tIHRoZSBoeXBvdG9uaWMg Y2VsbCBpbnRvIHRoZSBoeXBlcnRvbmljIHN1Y3Jvc2Ugc29sdXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2hhdCB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgb2JzZXJ2aW5nIGlzIA==cGxhc21vbHlzaXMsIHRoZSBzaHJpbmtpbmcgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwgbWVtYnJhbmUgYXdheSBmcm9tIHRoZSB3YWxsIGFzIHdhdGVyIGZsb3dzIG91dCBvZiB0aGUgaHlwb3RvbmljIGNlbGwgaW50byBpdHMgaHlwZXJ0b25pYyBlbnZpcm9ubWVudC4=[Qq]

[c]IFN1Y3Jvc2UgZGlmZnVzZWQgZnJvbSBoaWdoZXIgY29uY2VudHJhdGlvbiwgb3V0c2lkZSB0aGUgY2VsbCwgdG8gbG93ZXIgY29uY2VudHJhdGlvbiwgaW5zaWRlIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBzZWVpbmcgaXMgdGhlIGNlbGwgaW50ZXJpb3Igc2hyaW5raW5nIGF3YXkgZnJvbSBpdHMgd2FsbCwgd2hpY2ggaW5kaWNhdGVzIHRoYXQgdGhlIGNlbGwgbG9zdCB3YXRlciAoYmVjYXVzZSB3YXRlciBtYWtlcyB1cCBtb3N0IG9mIHRoZSBpbnRlcmlvciBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbCkuIFRoaW5rIGFib3V0IGhvdyB3YXRlciBtb3ZlcyBkdXJpbmcgb3Ntb3NpcyAodGhlIG1vdmVtZW50IG9mIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcykgd2hlbiB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWdhaW4u[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBvZiB0aGUgdmFjdW9sZSBpcyBpbXBlcm1lYWJsZSB0byB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZXMsIGJ1dCBhbGxvd3Mgc3Vjcm9zZSBtb2xlY3VsZXMgdG8gZnJlZWx5IHBhc3MgdGhyb3VnaC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgY2FuIG9ic2VydmUgdGhhdCB0aGUgdmFjdW9sZSBpcyBzaHJpbmtpbmcgaW4gc2l6ZSwgYW5kIHNpbmNlIHdhdGVyIG1ha2VzIHVwIG1vc3Qgb2YgdGhlIHZhY3VvbGUsIHRoaXMgc2hyaW5rYWdlIGhhcyB0byBiZSBkdWUgdG8gd2F0ZXIgbG9zcy4gTmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbiwgdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGR1cmluZyBvc21vc2lzICh0aGUgZGlmZnVzaW9uIG9mIHdhdGVyKS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20ae9b5d61e45a” question_number=”197″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] The figures below depict a plant cell before and after it was placed in a sucrose solution. Which of the following conclusions is most consistent with the changes observed in the plant cell after it was placed in the sucrose solution?

[c]IFdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyBwYXNzZWQgdG hyb3VnaCB0aGUgY2VsbCBtZW1icmFuZS4=[Qq]

[f]IEFic29sdXRlbHkuIFdoYXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9ic2VydmluZyBpcyBwbGFzbW9seXNpcywgdGhlIHNocmlua2luZyBvZiB0aGUgcGxhbnQgY2VsbCYjODIxNztzIG1lbWJyYW5lIGF3YXkgZnJvbSBpdHMgd2FsbCBpbiByZXNwb25zZSB0byB3YXRlciBsb3NzLiBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgb25seSBwb3NzaWJsZSBpZiB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZXMgY2FuIG1vdmUgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgY2VsbCYjODIxNztzIG1lbWJyYW5lLg==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBjZWxsIHdhbGwgd2FzIGltcGVybWVhYmxlIHRvIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgb2JzZXJ2aW5nIGEgcHJvY2VzcyBjYWxsZWQgcGxhc21vbHlzaXMsIHRoZSBzaHJpbmtpbmcgb2YgdGhlIHBsYW50IGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyBtZW1icmFuZSBhd2F5IGZyb20gaXRzIHdhbGwuIFRoaXMgc2hyaW5raW5nIGhhcHBlbnMgYmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgY2VsbCwgcGxhY2VkIGludG8gYSBoeXBlcnRvbmljIHNvbHV0aW9uLCBpcyBsb3NpbmcgbWFzcy4gV2hhdCBtYWtlcyB1cCBtb3N0IG9mIHRoZSBtYXNzIG9mIGEgY2VsbD8=[Qq]

[c]IFN1Y3Jvc2UgbW9sZWN1bGVzIHBhc3NlZCB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSBjZWxsIG1lbWJyYW5lLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgb2JzZXJ2aW5nIGEgcHJvY2VzcyBjYWxsZWQgcGxhc21vbHlzaXMsIHRoZSBzaHJpbmtpbmcgb2YgdGhlIHBsYW50IGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyBtZW1icmFuZSBhd2F5IGZyb20gaXRzIHdhbGwuIFRoaXMgc2hyaW5raW5nIGhhcHBlbnMgYmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgY2VsbCwgcGxhY2VkIGludG8gYSBoeXBlcnRvbmljIHNvbHV0aW9uLCBpcyBsb3NpbmcgbWFzcy4gV2hhdCBtYWtlcyB1cCBtb3N0IG9mIHRoZSBtYXNzIG9mIGEgY2VsbD8=[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSB2YWN1b2xlIG1lbWJyYW5lIHdhcyBpbXBlcm1lYWJsZSB0byB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZXMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UgY2FuIG9ic2VydmUgdGhhdCB0aGUgdmFjdW9sZSBpcyBzaHJpbmtpbmcgaW4gc2l6ZS4gVGhpcyBzaHJpbmtpbmcgaGFwcGVucyBiZWNhdXNlIHRoZSB2YWN1b2xlIGlzIGxvc2luZyBtYXNzLiBUaGluayBhYm91dCB3aGF0IHRoZSB2YWN1b2xlIHN0b3JlcyBhbmQgd2hhdCBpdCBtaWdodCBiZSBsb3NpbmcgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|208105e496145a” question_number=”210″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.8.Tonicity_and_Osmoregulation”] Five sucrose-impermeable dialysis bags were filled with different concentrations of sucrose. Each bag was placed in a separate beaker that contained a 0.6 M sucrose solution. The bags were weighed every 10 minutes for 60 minutes. The results for each bag, DB1 through DB5, are shown in the graph below as percent mass change over time. Which lines in the graph represent dialysis bags that contain a hypertonic solution at 30 minutes?

[c]IERC MiA=[Qq][c]IERCMyA=[Qq][c]IERCNA==

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTm90aWNlIHRoYXQgdGhlIG1hc3MgaW4gREIyIGlzIGluY3JlYXNpbmcuIFRoYXQgaW5jcmVhc2UgaXMgYmVjYXVzZSBvZiBvc21vc2lzLCBhcyB3YXRlciBmbG93cyBmcm9tIHRoZSAwLjYgbW9sYXIgc29sdXRpb24gaW4gdGhlIGJlYWtlciBpbnRvIHRoZSBiYWcgKHdoaWNoIG11c3QgYmUgaHlwZXJ0b25pYyB0byB0aGUgMC42IE0gc29sdXRpb24p[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEQjMmIzgyMTc7cyBtYXNzIGhhcyBzdGF5ZWQgY29uc3RhbnQsIGFsbG93aW5nIHlvdSB0byBjb25jbHVkZSB0aGF0IHRoZSBzb2x1dGlvbiBpbnNpZGUgaXQgaXMgaXNvdG9uaWMgdG8gdGhlIDAuNiBNIHNvbHV0aW9uIGluIHRoZSBiZWFrZXIuIEZpbmQgdGhlIGJhZyB0aGF0IGlzIGdhaW5pbmcgbWFzcywgYmVjYXVzZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIG9uZSB3aXRoIGEgc29sdXRpb24gdGhhdCBtdXN0IGJlIGh5cGVydG9uaWMgdG8gdGhlIDAuNiBNIHNvbHV0aW9uIGluIHRoZSBiZWFrZXIu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEQjQgaXMgbG9zaW5nIG1hc3MuIFRoaXMgbG9zcyBpcyBhIGNvbnNlcXVlbmNlIG9mIG9zbW9zaXMsIGFzIHdhdGVyIG1vdmVzIGZyb20gdGhlIGh5cG90b25pYyBzb2x1dGlvbiBpbiB0aGUgYmFnIGludG8gdGhlIGJlYWtlci4gRmluZCB0aGUgYmFnIHRoYXQgaXMgZ2FpbmluZyBtYXNzLCBiZWNhdXNlIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgb25lIHdpdGggYSBzb2x1dGlvbiB0aGF0IG11c3QgYmUgaHlwZXJ0b25pYyB0byB0aGUgMC42IE0gc29sdXRpb24gaW4gdGhlIGJlYWtlci4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|21b0e4f073c05a” question_number=”110″ topic=”2.9.Mechanisms_of_Transport”] In the diagram below, which stage represents exocytosis?

[c]IEkg[Qq][c]IElJIA==[Qq][c]IElJSSA=[Qq][c]IElWIA==[Qq][c]IF Y=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBcyB5b3UmIzgyMTc7bGwgbGVhcm4gaW4gdW5pdCA0LCBzdGFnZSBJIGlzIHJlY2VwdGlvbi4gRXhvY3l0b3NpcyBtZWFucyAmIzgyMjA7ZXhwb3J0IGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbGwuJiM4MjIxOw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBcyB5b3UmIzgyMTc7bGwgbGVhcm4gaW4gdW5pdCA0LCBzdGFnZSBJSSBpcyB0cmFuc2R1Y3Rpb24uRXhvY3l0b3NpcyBtZWFucyAmIzgyMjA7ZXhwb3J0IGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbGwuJiM4MjIxOw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBcyB5b3UmIzgyMTc7bGwgbGVhcm4gaW4gdW5pdCA0LCBzdGFnZSBJSUkgaXMgcmVzcG9uc2UuIEV4b2N5dG9zaXMgbWVhbnMgJiM4MjIwO2V4cG9ydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBjZWxsLiYjODIyMTs=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBzdGFnZSBJViwgYSBwcm90ZWluIGlzIGhlYWRlZCB0b3dhcmQgdGhlIEdvbGdpIGFwcGFyYXR1cy4gRXhvY3l0b3NpcyBtZWFucyAmIzgyMjA7ZXhwb3J0IGZyb20gdGhlIGNlbGwuJiM4MjIxOw==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gU3RhZ2UgViBpcyBleG9jeXRvc2lzLCB0aGUgZXhwb3J0IG9mIHNvbWV0aGluZyBmcm9tIHRoZSBjZWxsLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20e34fe68c105a” question_number=”181″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.9.Mechanisms_of_Transport”] Which of the following cellular structures is involved the transport of molecules from the inside of a cell to its outside?

[c]IEZyZWUtZmxvYXRpbmcgcmlib3NvbWVz[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBGcmVlLWZsb2F0aW5nIHJpYm9zb21lcyAodGhvc2Ugbm90IGF0dGFjaGVkIHRvIHRoZSBFLlIuKSBzeW50aGVzaXplIHByb3RlaW5zIHRoYXQgYXJlIHJlbGVhc2VkIGludG8gdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbSBhbmQgdGhhdCBzdGF5IGluc2lkZSB0aGUgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[c]IFZlc2ljbGVzIGNyZWF0ZWQgYnkgZW5kb2N5dG9zaXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBWZXNpY2xlcyBjcmVhdGVkIGJ5IGVuZG9jeXRvc2lzIGJyaW5nIG1hdGVyaWFsIGZyb20gdGhlIG91dHNpZGUgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwgdG8gdGhlIGluc2lkZSBvZiB0aGUgY2VsbC4gVGhyZWUgdHlwZXMgb2YgZW5kb2N5dG9zaXMgYXJlIHNob3duIGJlbG93Lg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IFZlc2ljbGVzIGZy b20gdGhlIEdvbGdp[Qq]

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIFZlc2ljbGVzIGZyb20gdGhlIEdvbGdpICgxLCBiZWxvdykgYXJlIHVzZWQgdG8gdHJhbnNwb3J0IG1hdGVyaWFscyBvdXQgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwu

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20872bd3fc245a” question_number=”208″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.10.Compartmentalization”] Which of the following is a correct route for flow of materials in the endomembrane system?

[c]IEdvbGdpIHRvIHRoZSBseXNvc29tZSB0byBFUiB0byB0aGUgcGxhc21hIG1lbWJyYW5l[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBTdHVkeSB0aGUgZW5kb21lbWJyYW5lIHN5c3RlbSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LiBEIGlzIHRoZSBHb2xnaSwgSiBpcyBhIEx5c29zb21lLCBhbmQgQyBpcyB0aGUgcm91Z2ggRVIuIFRoZSBhcnJvd3MgaW5kaWNhdGUgdGhlIGRpcmVjdGlvbiB0aGUgbWF0ZXJpYWwgaXMgZmxvd2luZy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IFJvdWdoIEVSIHRvIHZlc2ljbGVzIHRvIEdv bGdpIHRvIHRoZSBwbGFzbWEgbWVtYnJhbmU=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBZb3UgY2xlYXJseSBoYXZlIGEgZ29vZCB1bmRlcnN0YW5kaW5nIG9mIHRoZSBjZWxsJiM4MjE3O3MgZW5kb21lbWJyYW5lIHN5c3RlbSAoc2hvd24gYmVsb3cp

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEVSIHRvIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cyB0byBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uIHRvIHRoZSBjZWxsIG1lbWJyYW5l[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdHVkeSB0aGUgZW5kb21lbWJyYW5lIHN5c3RlbSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LiBEIGlzIHRoZSBHb2xnaSwgSiBpcyBhIEx5c29zb21lLCBhbmQgQyBpcyB0aGUgcm91Z2ggRVIuIFRoZSBhcnJvd3MgaW5kaWNhdGUgdGhlIGRpcmVjdGlvbiB0aGUgbWF0ZXJpYWwgaXMgZmxvd2luZy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IE51Y2xlYXIgZW52ZWxvcGUgdG8gYSBseXNvc29tZSB0byBHb2xnaSB0byB0aGUgcGxhc21hIG1lbWJyYW5l[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdHVkeSB0aGUgZW5kb21lbWJyYW5lIHN5c3RlbSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LiBEIGlzIHRoZSBHb2xnaSwgSiBpcyBhIEx5c29zb21lLCBhbmQgQyBpcyB0aGUgcm91Z2ggRVIuIFRoZSBhcnJvd3MgaW5kaWNhdGUgdGhlIGRpcmVjdGlvbiB0aGUgbWF0ZXJpYWwgaXMgZmxvd2luZy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IFRvbm9wbGFzdCB0byB0aGUgcGxhc21hIG1lbWJyYW5lIHRvIHRoZSBudWNsZWFyIGVudmVsb3BlIHRvIHNtb290aCBFUg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdG9ub3BsYXN0IGlzIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSBvZiBhIHBsYW50IGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyBjZW50cmFsIHZhY3VvbGUgYW5kIGlzIG5vdCBhIHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIGVuZG9tZW1icmFuZSBzeXN0ZW0uIFN0dWR5IHRoZSBlbmRvbWVtYnJhbmUgc3lzdGVtIGRpYWdyYW0gYmVsb3cuIEQgaXMgdGhlIEdvbGdpLCBKIGlzIGEgTHlzb3NvbWUsIGFuZCBDIGlzIHRoZSByb3VnaCBFUi4gVGhlIGFycm93cyBpbmRpY2F0ZSB0aGUgZGlyZWN0aW9uIHRoZSBtYXRlcmlhbCBpcyBmbG93aW5nLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20be1d2093685a” question_number=”192″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.11.Origins_of_Cell_Compartmentalization”] Which of the following pairs of statements is correct?

[c]IFBsYW50IGNlbGxzIGNhbiBjaGFuZ2Ugc2hhcGUuIFByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGhhdmUgYSBmaXhlZCBzaGFwZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGwgcGxhbnQgY2VsbHMgaGF2ZSBhIGNlbGwgd2FsbCwgc28gdGhlaXIgYWJpbGl0eSB0byBjaGFuZ2Ugc2hhcGUgaXMgdmVyeSBsaW1pdGVkLg==[Qq]

[c]IFBsYW50IGNlbGwgRE5BIGlzIGFzc29jaWF0ZWQgd2l0aCBwcm90ZWluLiBQ cm9rYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxsIEROQSBpcyAmIzgyMjA7bmFrZWQmIzgyMjE7Lg==[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBMaWtlIGFsbCBldWthcnlvdGljIEROQSwgcGxhbnQgY2VsbCBETkEgaXMgYXNzb2NpYXRlZCB3aXRoIGEgdmFyaWV0eSBvZiBwcm90ZWlucywgZXNwZWNpYWxseSBoaXN0b25lcy4gUHJva2FyeW90aWMgRE5BIGlzIG5vdCBhc3NvY2lhdGVkIHdpdGggYW55IHNwZWNpYWwgcHJvdGVpbnMu[Qq]

[c]IEJvdGggcGxhbnQgY2VsbHMgYW5kIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIG1heSBjb250YWluIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNYW55IHBsYW50IGNlbGxzICh0aG9zZSBpbiBsZWF2ZXMpIGNvbnRhaW4gY2hsb3JvcGxhc3RzLiBCdXQgeW91IHdvdWxkbiYjODIxNzt0IGZpbmQgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3RzIHdpdGhpbiBhIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGwu[Qq]

[c]IFBsYW50IGNlbGwgRE5BIGlzIGVuY2xvc2VkIGJ5IGEgbWVtYnJhbmUuIFByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGwgRE5BIGlzIGFzc29jaWF0ZWQgd2l0aCBwcm90ZWluLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSBwbGFudCBjZWxsIEROQSBpcyBlbmNsb3NlZCBieSBhIG1lbWJyYW5lICh0aGUgbnVjbGVhciBtZW1icmFuZSksIHByb2thcnlvdGljIEROQSBpcyBub3QgYXNzb2NpYXRlZCB3aXRoIGFueSBzcGVjaWFsIHByb3RlaW5zIChzdWNoIGFzIHRoZSBoaXN0b25lIHByb3RlaW5zIG9mIGV1a2FyeW90aWMgY2VsbHMpLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”2019 AP Bio Dataset|20b7bf500ff85a” question_number=”194″ unit=”2.Cell Structure and Function” topic=”2.11.Origins_of_Cell_Compartmentalization”] Which of the following statments describes a fundamental difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

[c]IFByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGNvbnRhaW4gRE5BIGFuZCBldWthcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGRvIG5vdC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaXRoIHRoZSBleGNlcHRpb24gb2YgYSBmZXcgc3BlY2lhbGl6ZWQgY2VsbHMgbGlrZSByZWQgYmxvb2QgY2VsbHMsIGFsbCBjZWxscyBjb250YWluIEROQS4=[Qq]

[c]IEV1a2FyeW90aWMgY2VsbHMgY29udGFpbiBETkEgYW5kIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGRvIG5vdC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaXRoIHRoZSBleGNlcHRpb24gb2YgYSBmZXcgc3BlY2lhbGl6ZWQgY2VsbHMgbGlrZSByZWQgYmxvb2QgY2VsbHMsIGFsbCBjZWxscyBjb250YWluIEROQS4=[Qq]

[c]IFByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGhhdmUgYSBudWNsZXVzIGFuZCBldWthcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGRvIG5vdC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMb29rIGF0IHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LCB3aGljaCBzaG93cyBhbiBhbmltYWwgY2VsbCAoYSB0eXBlIG9mIGV1a2FyeW90aWMgY2VsbCkuIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgc3RydWN0dXJlIGF0IDU/

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEV1a2FyeW90aWMgY2VsbHMgaGF2ZSBhIG51Y2xldX MgYW5kIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGRvIG5vdC4=[Qq]

[f]IFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyByaWdodC4gRXVrYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxscyBoYXZlIGEgbnVjbGV1cywgYW5kIHByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGRvIG5vdC4=[Qq]

[c]IFByb2thcnlvdGljIGNlbGxzIGNvbnRhaW4gY3l0b3BsYXNtaWMgb3JnYW5lbGxlcyBhbmQgZXVrYXJ5b3RpYyBjZWxscyBkbyBub3Qu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMb29rIGF0IHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LCB3aGljaCBzaG93cyBhbiBhbmltYWwgY2VsbCAoYSB0eXBlIG9mIGV1a2FyeW90aWMgY2VsbCkuIFdoYXQgd291bGQgeW91IGNhbGwgc3RydWN0dXJlcyBsaWtlIDMsIDcsIDgsIGFuZCA5Pw==

Cg==

[Qq]

[x][restart]

[/qwiz]

4. Unit 2 Click-On Challenge

[qwiz random=”true” style=”width: 600px !important; min-height: 400px !important;” use_dataset=”Cell Parts and Functions Click On Dataset” dataset_intro=”false” quiz_timer=”true” spaced_repetition=”false” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 2 Click-On Challenge”]

[h] Cells Click On Challenge

[i] Notice the timer in the upper right. Your goal is to work as quickly and accurately as possible.

[/qwiz]

Notes

These two objectives from Topic 2.4 are covered in Unit 3;

  1. Explain membrane potential
  2. Connect membrane potential to processes such as ATP synthesis.