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Links to tutorials

1. Photosynthesis: An Overview

2. The Two Phases of Photosynthesis

3. The Light Reactions

4. The Calvin Cycle/Carbon Fixation

NGSS Performance Expectations and Disciplinary Core Ideas

  • HS-LS1-5.
    • Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on illustrating inputs and outputs of matter and the transfer and transformation of energy in photosynthesis by plants and other photosynthesizing organisms. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific biochemical steps.]
  • LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
    • The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by converting carbon dioxide plus water into sugars plus released oxygen. (HS-LS1-5)
    • The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells. (HS-LS1-6)
  • LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
    • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration (including anaerobic processes) provide most of the energy for life processes. (HS-LS2-3)
  • PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes
    • The main way that solar energy is captured and stored on Earth is through the complex chemical process known as photosynthesis. (secondary to HS-LS2-5)