1. Evolution Click-on Challenge 1

[qwiz dataset=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Evolution Click-On Challenge” quiz_timer=”true” random=”true” dataset_intro=”false” spaced_repetition=”false” style=”width: 650px !important; min-height: 450px !important;” ]

[h] Evolution Click-On Challenge

[i] Note the timer in the top right. Your goal is accuracy and speed. A good strategy: once through slowly, then additional trials for improvement.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset|6cebf7a671f40″ question_number=”1″] Natural, artificial, sexual selection

Result of intersexual selection

Nice! It’s “C.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for a type of selection where female choice results in highly ornamented males.
Result of intrasexual selection

Great! Competition between members of one sex for access to the other is intrasexual selection.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Intrasexual selection often creates huge differences in size between males and females, as well as highly aggressive male behavior.
Result of artificial selection.

Good work! All of these plants varieties resulted from artificial selection.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Artificial selection is when breeders select specific traits, creating modified populations with characteristics of benefits to humans.
Result of natural selection

Fantastic! Selection for camouflage created the fantastic form of the leaf insect.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Camouflage results from natural selection 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset|c403d46f13550″ question_number=”2″] Types of selection: Which one is which?

Directional selection

Terrific. “A” is directional selection.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for a type of selection against one extreme, pushing the population toward the other extreme. 
Stabilizing selection

Thumbs up! “B” is stabilizing selection.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for a type of selection that selects against the extremes, and for the mean.
Disruptive selection

Superb! “C” is disruptive selection.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Disruptive selection is against the mean, pushing the population toward both extremes.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” question_number=”3″ dataset_id=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset|10a07dc40d29ba”] Types of selection: Applications.

Finches with larger beaks are able to get food by cracking open larger seeds.

Outstanding. That’s directional selection, shown at “A.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: This would be directional selection. Look for a type of selection against one extreme, pushing the population toward the other extreme.  

 

In a shoreline habitat, flies with long wings are blown out to sea. Flies with short wings can’t escape predators. What’s the result?

Nice! The result will be stabilizing selection.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: in this scenario, you’re eliminating both extremes, and selecting for the mean. That’s stabilizing selection. Which scenario looks like that?
The ground where a population of mice lives in either light sand or dark rock. The result would be…

Superb! The result would be disruptive selection (“C”)

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for Disruptive selection. That is selection against the mean, pushing the population toward both extremes.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset|4c930df3f51af” question_number=”4″] Genetic drift and other population genetics phenomena.

Explains low genetic diversity in Cheetahs and Northern Elephant seals.

Yes! Population bottlenecks reduce genetic diversity

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Think of a metaphor when only only a small proportion of a population’s gene pool would be able  to pass through some catastrophic effect, drastically reducing genetic diversity.
When a small number of individuals leaves a large parent population, random sampling can change allele frequencies in the new population.

Way to go! That’s the founder effect.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  This is a kind of genetic drift associated with creating new populations. Who creates a new population?
Even when an allele is harmful, it might be in higher than expected frequency if it’s beneficial in certain genotypes.

Very nice! That’s what heterozygote advantage is all about.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: This is why the sickle cell allele is in relatively high frequency.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset|11806403811212″ question_number=”5″] Vertebrate phylogeny. Traits are in red. Circled letters are ancestral species.

The shared, derived trait of the lizard, alligator, robin, rat, and gorilla clade.

Yes! It’s claws or nails.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. Start by identifying the clade. Then find the common ancestor. Then find the trait that this ancestor possessed which was passed on to the entire clade.
The outgroup for the clade of all species with a vertebral column.

Way to go! It’s the hagfish.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find the clade that includes all the organisms with a vertebral column. Which organism is outside this clade?
The common ancestor of lizards, alligators, and robins.

That’s right. It’s “E.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find the lizard, alligator, and robin lineages. Go back in time until all three lineages come together.
The robin’s closest relative.

Superb! It’s the alligator.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find the taxon with whom the Robin shares the most recent common ancestor.
An ancestral trait for the clade with lungs and four limbs.

Nice job! It’s a vertebral column.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find a trait that all of the taxa with lungs and four-limbs share, but which is also present in a more inclusive clade with a more distant common ancestor.
The shared derived trait the rat and gorilla clade.

Great work. It’s fur and mammary glands.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find a trait that’s only shared by rats and gorillas.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset|183532c7372b0b” question_number=”6″] Hardy-Weinberg equation

Symbolically represents the frequency of heterozygotes.

Fantastic! It’s 2pq.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: heterozygotes have both the recessive and the dominant allele (both p and q). What could represent such a genotype?
Symbolically represents the frequency of homozygous recessives

Exactly. It’s q2.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: If “q” represents the recessive allele, what could represent a homozygous recessive (who inherited two copies of q)?
Symbolically represents the frequency of homozygous dominants.

Excellent! It’s p2.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: If “p” represents the recessive allele, what could represent a homozygous dominant (who inherited two copies of p)?
Symbolically represents the frequency of the recessive allele?

Yes, it’s  q.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: If “q2” represents the frequency of homozygous recessive individuals, what could represent the frequency of the recessive allele? 
Symbolically represents the frequency of the dominant allele.

Nice! It’s “p.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: If “p2” represents the frequency of homozygous dominant individuals, what could represent the frequency of the dominant allele? 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset|10e0647265d634″ question_number=”7″] Allopatric speciation model. Colored circles represent individuals with similar genotypes. For questions about stages, use the left column. 

The letter that represents gene flow

Yes! Letter “a” represents gene flow.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Before speciation can happen, gene flow has to stop. What process does the geographic barrier at “B” prevent? 
The letter that represents the appearance of a geographic barrier.

Way to go! It’s “B.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find something that blocks gene flow between the Western and Eastern populations.
The stage where variant types start to emerge

Thumbs up! It’s stage 2.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Use the left column for stages. Notice the differences between the populations at stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3. 
The stage where the geographic barrier has been removed.

That’s right. It’s stage 4.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Use the left column for stages. There’s no geographic barrier in stage 1, but there is in stages 2 and 3. When does it disappear? 
The image that indicates that the new species are in contact.

Nice. It’s the area in stage 4 where “e” and “f” are in contact. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. Where do you see “e” and “f” in contact.”
The stage or image where the Western and Eastern populations have evolved into new species, but are still divided by a geographic barrier.

Nice going. It’s stage 3.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: In what stage have the divided populations changed into two forms with different genotypes?

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset|1d15225c68a2d1″ question_number=”8″] Evidence for Evolution: terms

The term for a feature that shows common ancestry.

Yes! Homologous traits show common ancestry.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. The prefix means “the same.”
The term for a feature with a similar function, but a distinct evolutionary origin.

Way to go!

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: What’s a term used when something is like something else?
A feature that has lost its function.

That’s right!

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: This is based on a term that means “something left behind.”
When a single species branches into many descendants.

Terrific!

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The answer is two words. One of the words means spreading out from a source (like light from the sun). 
When distantly related species independently evolve a superficially similar phenotype.

Outstanding

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: What do you call it when two lines come together?

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” question_number=”9″ dataset_id=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset|82a6951ec0c4e”] Evidence for Evolution: Applications

The hand of a human, the paw of a cat, the flipper of a whale.

Yes! these are homologous traits.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. The prefix means “the same.”
The wing of a bat, the wing of a bird, the wing of a butterfly.

Way to go!

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: What’s a term used when something is like something else?
The pelvis of a snake or a whale.

That’s right!

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: This is based on a term that means “something left behind.”
When happened to the mammals after the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Terrific!

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The answer is two words. One of the words means spreading out from a source (like light from the sun). 
Cacti and euphorbs both became adapted to desert environments.

Outstanding

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: What do you call it when two lines come together?
Includes the peppered moth, the rise of antibiotic and pesticide resistance, the emergence of tuskless elephants

Nice job!

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: All of these phenomena have occured within the last two hundred years.
Examples include the predominance of Marsupials in Australia, or the unique animals and plants on island chains.

Great job.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: These examples involve the distribution of animals and plants throughout the planet.

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2. Evolution Click-on Challenge 2: Origin of Life

[qwiz style=”width: 650px !important; min-height: 450px !important;” dataset=”Origin of Life Click-On Challenge” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Origin of Life Click-On Challenge” quiz_timer=”true” random=”true” dataset_intro=”false” spaced_repetition=”false”]

[h] Origin of Life Click-on Challenge

[i] Same advice as above. Once through slowly, then improve your speed.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”always ” dataset_id=”Origin of Life Click-On Challenge|feb43f0121ef3″ question_number=”1″] Miller-Urey Experiment

Electrodes for creating simulated lightning.

Excellent. Number 4 represents electrodes that created sparks to simulate lightning.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Electrodes have positive and negative poles. 
N2, ammonia, CO2, and H2

Nice! That’s where the gases from the ancient atmosphere were found.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: These are gases in the ancient atmosphere. Lightning is in the atmosphere. 
Represents the ancient oceans

Awesome. “2” represents the ancient oceans.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. The oceans are filled with water.
Simulated heat energy from the Earth (volcanoes, etc.)

Terrific. The Bunsen burner at # 1 simulates heat energy from the Earth.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for a part of this device the would create heat.
A condenser to cool the atmosphere so precipitates could form.

Good work! “7” is the condenser.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: A condenser uses circulating water to cool down a gas.
A trap where organic molecules like amino acids could accumulate.

Fabulous. “8” is where organic molecules like amino acids could accumulate.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. The trap is a “U” shaped structure. You can see one under almost any sink.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”always ” dataset_id=”Origin of Life Click-On Challenge|fea90a87e8af3″ question_number=”2″] Key steps in the emergence of life.

Results from encapsulation by lipids

Excellent. “4” represents a protocell, which would result from encapsulation.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: You’re looking for a kind of membrane surrounding monomers and polymers.
Abiotic formation of monomers.

Looking good! “2” represents abiotic formation of monomers.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Monomers are relatively small building blocks.
Abiotic formation of polymers.

Nice! “3” represents polymer formation.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Polymers are chains of monomers, which then fold up into complex shapes. 
This ancient population was the ancestor of all three domains.

Nice! “5” represents LUCA, the ancestor of all life today.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  You’re looking for the Last Universal Common Ancestor 
Represents the split between the two prokaryotic domains.

Yes! “6” represents the split between Bacteria and Archaea.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  The two prokaryotic domains are Archaea and Bacteria. Where do they split apart?
This domain arose through endosymbiosis.

Correct! Eukaryotes arose when an ancient Archaeal cell took up an ancient bacterium. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Look for lines between two other domains fusing together to form a third domain.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”always ” dataset_id=”Origin of Life Click-On Challenge|fe9bf1c5062f3″ question_number=”3″] Traits of LUCA.

Genetic information storage molecule.

Nice! LUCA used DNA for storing genetic information. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: LUCA used the same molecule for storing genetic information that all organisms use today.
Membrane channels

Nice! “5” shows membrane channels

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Membrane channels are embedded in the membrane, but are not made of lipids.

Enzyme-based metabolism

Correct! “3” represents enzymes.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Enzymes fit with their substrates like a lock fits with a key. 
Ribosomes for protein synthesis.

Outstanding. “ 4” shows a ribosome translating RNA into a polypeptide chain. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for an upside down ribosome with a large and small subunit, two tRNAs, and a chain of tiny spheres representing amino acids. 
Chemiosmosis to create ATP

Terrific. “7” shows chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for an ATP synthesis channel that’s using diffusion of protons to power ATP production.
Lipid bilayer

Way to go! “1” represents the lipid bilayer.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: A lipid bilayer forms the key components of the cell membrane.
RNA for gene expression

Yes! “3” represents RNA

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: RNA shown is a single stranded molecule. It’s in between the DNA and a ribosome.

 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”hover_hide keep” dataset_id=”Origin of Life Click-On Challenge|fe6b0ccb522f3″ question_number=”4″] The RNA world and subsequent cellular evolution.

Abiotic formation of RNA monomers and random RNA polymers

Awesome. “1” shows the formation of the first RNA polymers and monomers.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: This would have been the first step in the evolution of the RNA world. 
RNA serves as a template for reproducing more RNA

Correct! “2” shows RNA being used as a template for replication.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find a spot where RNA (represented by a red wavy line) is being used to make new RNA (two wavy lines).
RNA associates with amino acids, then codes for proteins.

Excellent! “3” shows RNA in association with amino acids and proteins.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  RNA is a red wavy line. Amino acids are represented by blue circles. 
RNA is translated into protein, and reverse transcribes itself into DNA.

Exactly! That’s what’s happening at “4.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for arrows going from RNA to protein, and from RNA to DNA
The central dogma is in place as DNA makes RNA makes protein.

Fantastic. “5” shows DNA making RNA making Protein

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for arrows from DNA, to RNA, to protein.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”always ” dataset_id=”Origin of Life Click-On Challenge|fe5125c709af3″ question_number=”5″] The RNA World

Abiotically-formed precursors of RNA nucleotides (sugars, bases, phosphates)

Good job: “a” shows the precursors of RNA nucleotides.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: These are the building blocks of the building blocks of RNA. If RNA monomers are shown at “b” what must be the precursors of these monomers?
Abiotically formed RNA monomers

That’s right. RNA monomers (A, U, C, and G) are shown at “b.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: You’re looking for the building blocks of the RNA polymers shown at “c” and “d.”
Could be a ribozyme.

Nice! “d” shows a folded up RNA. If the shape were catalytic, you’d have a ribozyme.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for a folded up RNA, outside of a cell.
Abiotically formed linear RNA

Awesome. “c” shows linear RNA, which would have formed abiotically.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for the first appearance of linear RNA.
RNA uses RNA as a template for replication of more RNA.

Way to go. “e” shows template-based RNA replication.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for two RNAs lined up with one another, producing additional RNA.
An RNA-based protocell.

Excellent! “f” is an RNA based protocell. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for something that looks like a cell, surrounding RNA.

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]