To see if you’ve mastered the key concepts in this module, take the quiz below.

Some of the questions are free response, so grab a pencil and some paper (because you’ll learn more if you write out your best explanation before looking at the answer).

[qwiz random = “false” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-speciation and extinction, cumulative quiz”] [h]

Speciation and Extinction: Cumulative Quiz

[i]

[q] Part 1: What type of speciation process is most connected to ecoclines?

Part 2: Explain.

[c]IA ==IFNob3cgbWUgdGhlIGFuc3dlcg==[Qq]

[f]IA==

Cg==

UGFydCAxOg==[Qq] The type of variation most connected to clinal variation is parapatric speciation.

Part 2: An ecocline (or cline) is a shift in genotype frequency that correlates with an environmental variable (which is itself shifting along a geographical axis). The result is that allele frequencies within a population become geographically differentiated. These differences set the stage for parapatric speciation. During parapatric speciation, a parent species becomes geographically differentiated. A hybrid zone develops between the two differentiated sub-populations. As differences progress, hybridization becomes less frequent, eventually resulting in the emergence of two distinct daughter species.

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The table to the right shows 8 species of bird lice, their hosts, and the part of the bird where the lice can be found. Which species is most closely related to species 5?

[c]IFNwZWNp ZXMgMg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gRE5BIGFuYWx5c2lzIGluZGljYXRlcyB0aGF0IHRoZSBkaWZmZXJlbnQgc3BlY2llcyBvZiBsaWNlIHRoYXQgcGFyYXNpdGl6ZSB0aGUgc2FtZSA=dHlwZQ==IG9mIGJpcmQgKHN1Y2ggYXMgdGhlIHZhcmlvdXMgc3BlY2llcyBvZiBsaWNlIHRoYXQgcGFyYXNpdGl6ZSBwYXJyb3RzKSBhcmUgbW9yZSBjbG9zZWx5IHJlbGF0ZWQgdG8gb25lIGFub3RoZXIgdGhhbiBzcGVjaWVzIG9mIGxpY2UgdGhhdCBsaXZlIG9uIHRoZSBzYW1lIA==cGFydHM=IG9mIGRpZmZlcmVudCBiaXJkcyAoc3VjaCBhcyB0aGUgdmFyaW91cyBzcGVjaWVzIHRoYXQgbGl2ZSBvbiB0aGUgd2luZ3Mgb2YgZGlmZmVyZW50IHR5cGVzIG9mIGJpcmRzKS4gVGhlIG1vcnBob2xvZ2ljYWwgc2ltaWxhcml0eSBiZXR3ZWVuIHNwZWNpZXMgdGhhdCBsaXZlIG9uIHRoZSBzYW1lIHBhcnRzIG9mIHRoZSBiaXJkcyBpcyBhIGNvbnZlcmdlbnQgZmVhdHVyZS4=[Qq]

[c]IFNwZWNpZXMgMw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgaGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdXNlIGVpdGhlciB0aGUgbW9ycGhvbG9naWNhbCBvciBwaHlsb2dlbmV0aWMgc3BlY2llcyBjb25jZXB0Lg==[Qq]

[c]IFNwZWNpZXMgNg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJdCBsb29rcyBsaWtlIHlvdSB1c2VkIHRoZSBtb3JwaG9sb2dpY2FsIHNwZWNpZXMgY29uY2VwdC4gVGhpbmsgcGh5bG9nZW5ldGljYWxseS4=[Qq]

 

[q multiple_choice=”true”] How would you explain the similarity between species 1, 2, and 3?

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCaXJkIGxvdXNlIGV2b2x1dGlvbiBpcyBhbiBleGFtcGxlIG9mIHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]IGNvbnZlcmdlbn QgZXZvbHV0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnby7CoEROQSBhbmFseXNpcyBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgdGhhdCB0aGUgZGlmZmVyZW50IHNwZWNpZXMgb2YgbGljZSB0aGF0IHBhcmFzaXRpemUgdGhlIHNhbWUgdHlwZQ==IG9mIGJpcmQgKHN1Y2ggYXMgdGhlIHZhcmlvdXMgc3BlY2llcyBvZiBsaWNlIHRoYXQgcGFyYXNpdGl6ZSBwYXJyb3RzKSBhcmUgbW9yZSBjbG9zZWx5IHJlbGF0ZWQgdG8gb25lIGFub3RoZXIgdGhhbiBzcGVjaWVzIG9mIGxpY2UgdGhhdCBsaXZlIG9uIHRoZSBzYW1lIA==cGFydHM=IG9mIGRpZmZlcmVudCBiaXJkcyAoc3VjaCBhcyB0aGUgdmFyaW91cyBzcGVjaWVzIHRoYXQgbGl2ZSBvbiB0aGUgd2luZ3Mgb2YgZGlmZmVyZW50IHR5cGVzIG9mIGJpcmRzKS4gVGhlIG1vcnBob2xvZ2ljYWwgc2ltaWxhcml0eSBiZXR3ZWVuIHNwZWNpZXMgdGhhdCBsaXZlIG9uIHRoZSBzYW1lIHBhcnRzIG9mIHRoZSBiaXJkcyBpcyBhIGNvbnZlcmdlbnQgZmVhdHVyZS4=[Qq]

[c]IGFkYXB0aXZlIHJhZGlhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSB0aGUgdmFyaW91cyBzcGVjaWVzIG9mIGJpcmQtbGljZSBkaWQgZXZvbHZlIGZyb20gYSBjb21tb24gYW5jZXN0b3IgdGhhdCBwYXJhc2l0aXplZCBkaWZmZXJlbnQgc3BlY2llcyBvZiBiaXJkIGFuZCBkaWZmZXJlbnQgcGFydHMgb2YgYmlyZHMsIHRoYXQgZG9lc24mIzgyMTc7dCBleHBsYWluIHdoeSB0aGUgdGhyZWUgc3BlY2llcyBvZiBiaXJkIGhlYWQtbGljZSBsb29rIHNvIHNpbWlsYXIuIFdoYXQgcHJvY2VzcyBjYW4gZWxpY2l0IG1vcnBob2xvZ2ljYWwgc2ltaWxhcml0eSBpbiB1bnJlbGF0ZWQgb3JnYW5pc21zPw==[Qq]

[c]IGhvcml6b250YWwgZ2VuZSB0cmFuc2Zlcg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IGdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSBnZW5ldGljIGRyaWZ0IHdhcyBwcm9iYWJseSBhIGZhY3RvciBpbiBiaXJkLWxvdXNlIHNwZWNpYXRpb24sIGl0IHdvdWxkbiYjODIxNzt0IGV4cGxhaW4gdGhlIG1vcnBob2xvZ2ljYWwgc2ltaWxhcml0eSBiZXR3ZWVuIHNwZWNpZXMgMSwgMiwgYW5kIDMuwqBXaGF0IHByb2Nlc3MgY2FuIGVsaWNpdCBtb3JwaG9sb2dpY2FsIHNpbWlsYXJpdHkgaW4gdW5yZWxhdGVkIG9yZ2FuaXNtcz8=[Qq]

[q multiple_choice=”true”] In the diagram below, which letter represents allopatric speciation?

[c]IEHCoCDC oCDCoCA=[Qq][c]IELCoCDCoCDCoCDCoA==[Qq][c]IEPCoCDCoCDCoA==[Qq][c]IFjCoCDCoCDCoCA=[Qq][c]IFk=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2l0aCBpdHMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIgYXQgWCwgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjbGVhciB0aGF0IEEgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCIGxvb2tzIGxpa2UgcGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLiBUaGUgaGludCBpcyB0aGUgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUgc2hvd24gYXQgWS4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogbG9vayBmb3IgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljIGJhcnJpZXIu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBGb3IgYWxsb3BhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLCB5b3UgbmVlZCBhIGdlb2dyYXBoaWMgYmFycmllci4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGNsb3NlLiBYIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllciwgYW5kIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGtleSBwYXJ0IG9mIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBoeWJyaWQgem9uZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgY29ubmVjdGVkIHdpdGggcGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLiBMb29rIGZvciBhIGdlb2dyYXBoaWMgYmFycmllciwgYW5kIHRoZW4geW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIGJlIGFibGUgdG8gZmluZCBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u[Qq]

[q multiple_choice=”true”] In the diagram below, which letter represents parapatric speciation?

[c]IEHCoCDCoCA=[Qq][c]IE Ig[Qq][c]IEPCoCDCoCA=[Qq][c]IFjCoCDCoA==[Qq][c]IFk=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaXRoIGl0cyBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllciBhdCBYLCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGNsZWFyIHRoYXQgQSByZXByZXNlbnRzIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogUGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIGh5YnJpZCB6b25lcy4=[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnbyEgQiwgd2l0aCBpdHMgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUgYXQgWSwgaXMgYSBnb29kIG1vZGVsIG9mIHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDIGxvb2tzIGxpa2Ugc3ltcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24uIEZvciBwYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24sIHlvdSBuZWVkIGEgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBYIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllciwgYW5kIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGtleSBwYXJ0IG9mIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4gRm9yIHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiwgeW91IG5lZWQgYSBoeWJyaWQgem9uZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGNsb3NlIFkgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhIGh5YnJpZCB6b25lLCB3aGljaCBpcyBjb25uZWN0ZWQgd2l0aCBwYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24uIFdoaWNoIGxldHRlciB3b3VsZCByZXByZXNlbnQgdGhlIGVudGlyZSBwcm9jZXNzPw==[Qq]

[q multiple_choice=”true”] In the diagram below, which letter represents sympatric speciation?

[c]IEHCoCDCoCA=[Qq][c]IEIg[Qq][c]IE Mg[Qq][c]IFgg[Qq][c]IFk=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2l0aCBpdHMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIgYXQgWCwgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjbGVhciB0aGF0IEEgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCLCB3aXRoIGl0cyBoeWJyaWQgem9uZSBhdCBZLCBpcyBhIGdvb2QgbW9kZWwgb2YgcGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljISBDLCB3aXRoIGl0cyBsYWNrIG9mIGFueSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgZmFjdG9ycywgbG9va3MgbGlrZSBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBYIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllciwgYW5kIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGtleSBwYXJ0IG9mIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4gU3ltcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gb2NjdXJzIHdpdGhvdXQgYW55IGdlb2dyYXBoaWMgYm91bmRhcmllcy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBZIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBoeWJyaWQgem9uZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgY29ubmVjdGVkIHdpdGggcGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLiBTeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiBvY2N1cnMgd2l0aG91dCBhbnkgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24u[Qq]

[q multiple_choice=”true”] In the diagram below, which letter represents a hybrid zone?

[c]IEEg[Qq][c]IEIg[Qq][c]IEMg[Qq][c]IFgg[Qq][c]IF k=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2l0aCBpdHMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIgYXQgWCwgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjbGVhciB0aGF0IEEgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHZlcnkgY2xvc2UuIEIgaW5jbHVkZXMgYSBoeWJyaWQgem9uZSwgYW5kIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgaXQgYSBnb29kIG1vZGVsIG9mIHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDLCB3aXRoIGl0cyBsYWNrIG9mIGFueSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgZmFjdG9ycywgbG9va3MgbGlrZSBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBYIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllciwgYW5kIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGtleSBwYXJ0IG9mIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIGEgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUu[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iISBZIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBoeWJyaWQgem9uZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgY29ubmVjdGVkIHdpdGggcGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The image below represents a model of

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllci4=[Qq]

[c]IHBlcmlwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQZXJpcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gbG9va3MgbW9yZSBsaWtlIHRoaXMuIE5vdGljZSB0aGUgc21hbGwgcGVyaXBoZXJhbCBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIHRoYXQgZ2VzdCBzZXBhcmF0ZWQgZnJvbSB0aGUgbWFpbiBwb3B1bGF0aW9uLCBhbmQgdGhlbiBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRlcyBpbnRvIGEgc2VwYXJhdGUgc3BlY2llcy4=
Cg==[Qq]

[c]IHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24gKHRob3VnaCBvZnRlbiBub3QgYSBjb21wbGV0ZSBiYXJyaWVyKSB3aXRoIGEgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUgYmV0d2VlbiB0aGUgZW1lcmdpbmcgc3BlY2llcy4=
Cg==[Qq]

 

[c]IHN5bXBhdHJpYy BzcGVjaWF0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IEF3ZXNvbWUuIFRoZSBtb2RlbCBvZiBzcGVjaWF0aW9uIHNob3duIGFib3ZlIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgc3ltcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24sIHdoaWNoIHlvdSBjYW4gdGVsbCBiZWNhdXNlIG9mIHRoZSBsYWNrIG9mIGFueSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgc2VwYXJhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The image below represents a model of

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllci4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogbm90aWNlIGhvdyB0aGUgbmV3bHkgZW1lcmdpbmcgZGF1Z2h0ZXIgc3BlY2llcyBpcyBvbiB0aGUgcGVyaXBoZXJ5IG9mIHRoZSBwYXJlbnQgc3BlY2llcy4=[Qq]

[c]IHBlcmlwYXRyaWMg c3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gUGVyaXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW4gYSBzbWFsbCBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGF0IHRoZSBwZXJpcGhlcnkgb2YgaXRzIHBhcmVudCBzcGVjaWVzJiM4MjE3OyBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgcmFuZ2Uu[Qq]

[c]IHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24gKHRob3VnaCBvZnRlbiBub3QgYSBjb21wbGV0ZSBiYXJyaWVyKSB3aXRoIGEgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUgYmV0d2VlbiB0aGUgZW1lcmdpbmcgc3BlY2llcy4=
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[c]IHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiwgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiBvY2N1cnMgd2l0aG91dCBhbnkgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24sIGFzIHNob3duIGJlbG93Lg==
Cg==[Qq]

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The image below represents a model of

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[f]IE5vLiBBbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllci4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIGh5YnJpZCB6b25lIGluIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGFib3ZlIChhdCAzKSBpcyB0aGUga2V5IGZlYXR1cmUgb2YgdGhpcyBtb2RlIG9mIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u[Qq]

[c]IHBlcmlwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQZXJpcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYSBzbWFsbCBwZXJpcGhlcmFsIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gdGhhdCBldm9sdmVzIGludG8gYSBuZXcgc3BlY2llcywgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3c=
Cg==[Qq]

 

[c]IHBhcmFwYXRyaWMg c3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBQYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24gKHRob3VnaCBub3QgYSBjb21wbGV0ZSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllcikgd2l0aCBhIGh5YnJpZCB6b25lIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIGVtZXJnaW5nIHNwZWNpZXMu
Cg==[Qq]

[c]IHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiwgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiBvY2N1cnMgd2l0aG91dCBhbnkgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24sIGFzIHNob3duIGJlbG93Lg==
Cg==[Qq]

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The image below represents a model of

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[f]IFllcy4gQWxsb3BhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIGEgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIsIGFzIGlzIHNob3duIGFib3ZlLg==[Qq]

[c]IHBlcmlwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQZXJpcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYSBzbWFsbCBwZXJpcGhlcmFsIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gdGhhdCBldm9sdmVzIGludG8gYSBuZXcgc3BlY2llcywgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cuIEZvciBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24sIHlvdSBuZWVkIGEgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIu
Cg==[Qq]

[c]IHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24gKHRob3VnaCBub3QgYSBjb21wbGV0ZSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllcikgd2l0aCBhIGh5YnJpZCB6b25lIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIGVtZXJnaW5nIHNwZWNpZXMuIEZvciBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24sIHlvdSBuZWVkIGEgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIu
Cg==[Qq]

[c]IHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiwgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiBvY2N1cnMgd2l0aG91dCBhbnkgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24sIGFzIHNob3duIGJlbG93LiBGb3IgYWxsb3BhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLCB5b3UgbmVlZCBhIGdlb2dyYXBoaWNhbCBiYXJyaWVyLg==
Cg==[Qq]

[q multiple_choice=”true”] Which of the following processes does not promote speciation?

[c]IGdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHZW5ldGljIGRyaWZ0IGNhdXNlcyBnZW5ldGljIGRpZmZlcmVudGlhdGlvbiwgZXNwZWNpYWxseSBpbiBzbWFsbCwgaXNvbGF0ZWQgcG9wdWxhdGlvbnMuIFRoYXQgZ2VuZXRpYyBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRpb24gY2FuIGxlYWQgdG8gc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4gV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIG9uIHRoaXMgbGlzdCB0aGF0IGtlZXBzIGVtZXJnaW5nIHBvcHVsYXRpb25zIGZyb20gYmVjb21pbmcgZ2VuZXRpY2FsbHkgZGlzdGluY3Q/[Qq]

[c]IE5hdHVyYWwgc2VsZWN0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOYXR1cmFsIHNlbGVjdGlvbiBjYW4gcHJvbW90ZSBzdWItcG9wdWxhdGlvbnMgdG8gYmVjb21lIGdlbmV0aWNhbGx5IChhbmQgcGhlbm90eXBpY2FsbHkpIGRpZmZlcmVudCBmcm9tIG9uZSBhbm90aGVyLCB3aGljaCBjYW4gbGF5IHRoZSBncm91bmR3b3JrIGZvciBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLsKgV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIG9uIHRoaXMgbGlzdCB0aGF0IGtlZXBzIGVtZXJnaW5nIHBvcHVsYXRpb25zIGZyb20gYmVjb21pbmcgZ2VuZXRpY2FsbHkgZGlzdGluY3Q/[Qq]

[c]IGdlb2dyYXBoaWNhbCBpc29sYXRpb24=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgaXNvbGF0aW9uLCBieSBhbGxvd2luZyBwb3B1bGF0aW9ucyB0byBnZW5ldGljYWxseSBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRlLCBjYW4gcHJvbW90ZSBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLsKgV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIG9uIHRoaXMgbGlzdCB0aGF0IGtlZXBzIGVtZXJnaW5nIHBvcHVsYXRpb25zIGZyb20gYmVjb21pbmcgZ2VuZXRpY2FsbHkgZGlzdGluY3Q/[Qq]

[c]IGdlbmUg Zmxvdw==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gR2VuZSBmbG93LCBieSBtb3ZpbmcgYWxsZWxlcyBiZXR3ZWVuIGFkamFjZW50IHBvcHVsYXRpb25zLCBrZWVwcyB0aGVtIGZyb20gYmVjb21pbmcgZ2VuZXRpY2FsbHkgZGlmZmVyZW50LCBhbmQgdGh1cyB3b3JrcyBhZ2FpbnN0IHNwZWNpYXRpb24u[Qq]

 

[q multiple_choice=”true”] Rhagoletis flies parasitize fruit trees. Some Rhagoletis flies lay their eggs on apples, which produce fruit in early summer. Others lay their eggs on hawthorns, which produce fruit in early fall. After the eggs hatch, maggots emerge, which grow to maturity as they eat the fruit. Adults tend to mate and lay eggs on the same type of tree where they themselves developed. This creates which kind of reproductive barrier?

[c]IHByZS16eWdvdGljOyBoeWJyaWQgYnJlYWtkb3du[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBGaXJzdCwgaHlicmlkIGJyZWFrZG93biBpcyBhIHBvc3Qtenlnb3RpYyBiYXJyaWVyLCBub3QgcHJlLXp5Z290aWMgb25lLiBTZWNvbmQsIGJhc2VkIG9uIHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhYm92ZSwgYWxsIHlvdSBrbm93IGlzIHRoYXQgdGhlIGZsaWVzIHBhcmFzaXRpemUgYW5kIHJlcHJvZHVjZSBvbiBmcnVpdCBmcm9tIHBsYW50cyB0aGF0IGRldmVsb3AgYXQgZGlmZmVyZW50IHRpbWVzIG9mIHRoZSB5ZWFyLiBXaGF0IGtpbmQgb2YgcmVwcm9kdWN0aXZlIGJhcnJpZXIgaW52b2x2ZXMgdGltZT8=[Qq]

[c]IHByZS16eWdvdGlj OyB0ZW1wb3JhbA==[Qq]

[f]IEdvb2Qgam9iLiBUaGUgZGlmZmVyZW5jZSBpbiBob3N0IGZydWl0aW5nIHNlYXNvbiBpcyBhbiBleGFtcGxlIG9mIGEgdGVtcG9yYWwsIHByZS16eWdvdGljIHJlcHJvZHVjdGl2ZSBiYXJyaWVyLg==[Qq]

[c]IHBvc3Qtenlnb3RpYzsgaHlicmlkIHN0ZXJpbGl0eQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCYXNlZCBvbiB0aGUgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gYWJvdmUsIHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3Mgbm8gZXZpZGVuY2UgYWJvdXQgaHlicmlkIHN0ZXJpbGl0eS4gQWxsIHlvdSBrbm93IGlzIHRoYXQgdGhlIGZsaWVzIHBhcmFzaXRpemUgYW5kIHJlcHJvZHVjZSBvbiBmcnVpdCBmcm9tIHBsYW50cyB0aGF0IGRldmVsb3AgYXQgZGlmZmVyZW50IHRpbWVzIG9mIHRoZSB5ZWFyLiBXaGF0IGtpbmQgb2YgcmVwcm9kdWN0aXZlIGJhcnJpZXIgaW52b2x2ZXMgdGltZT8=[Qq]

[c]IHBvc3Qtenlnb3RpYzsgZ2FtZXRpYw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCYXNlZCBvbiB0aGUgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gYWJvdmUsIHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3Mgbm8gZXZpZGVuY2UgYWJvdXQgZ2FtZXRpYyBpbmNvbXBhdGliaWxpdHkuIEFsbCB5b3Uga25vdyBpcyB0aGF0IHRoZSBmbGllcyBwYXJhc2l0aXplIGFuZCByZXByb2R1Y2Ugb24gZnJ1aXQgZnJvbSBwbGFudHMgdGhhdCBkZXZlbG9wIGF0IGRpZmZlcmVudCB0aW1lcyBvZiB0aGUgeWVhci4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIHJlcHJvZHVjdGl2ZSBiYXJyaWVyIGludm9sdmVzIHRpbWU/[Qq]

 

[q multiple_choice=”true”] Which species concept is based on reproductive isolation?

[c]IHRoZSBwaHlsb2dlbmV0aWMgc3BlY2llcyBjb25jZXB0[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcGh5bG9nZW5ldGljIHNwZWNpZXMgY29uY2VwdCBkZWZpbmVzIGEgc3BlY2llcyBhcyBhIHRpcCBvbiBicmFuY2ggb2YgYSBwaHlsb2dlbmV0aWMgdHJlZTogJiM4MjIwO3RoZSBzbWFsbGVzdCBzZXQgb2Ygb3JnYW5pc21zIHRoYXQgc2hhcmUgYW4gYW5jZXN0b3IgYW5kIGNhbiBiZSBkaXN0aW5ndWlzaGVkIGZyb20gb3RoZXIgc3VjaCBzZXRzLiYjODIyMTsgKA==VW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBFdm9sdXRpb24sIFVDIEJlcmtlbGV5KQ==[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBiaW9sb2dpY2FsIH NwZWNpZXMgY29uY2VwdA==[Qq]

[f]IFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7IGNvcnJlY3QhIFRoZSBiaW9sb2dpY2FsIHNwZWNpZXMgY29uY2VwdCBkZWZpbmVzIGEgc3BlY2llcyBhcyBhIGdyb3VwIG9mIG9yZ2FuaXNtcyB0aGF0IGNhbiBpbnRlcmJyZWVkIHRvIHByb2R1Y2UgZmVydGlsZSBvZmZzcHJpbmcsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBpcyBpc29sYXRlZCBmcm9tIG90aGVyIHN1Y2ggZ3JvdXBzLg==[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBtb3JwaG9sb2dpY2FsIHNwZWNpZXMgY29uY2VwdA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbW9ycGhvbG9naWNhbCBzcGVjaWVzIGlzIGJhc2VkIG9uIHBoZW5vdHlwZSBvciBhcHBlYXJhbmNlLiBJdCYjODIxNztzIG1vc3QgY29tbW9ubHkgdXNlZCB3aXRoIGV4dGluY3Qgc3BlY2llcywgb3Igc3BlY2llcyB0aGF0IHJlcHJvZHVjZSBhc2V4dWFsbHkpLg==[Qq]

 

 

[q] Explain how peripatric speciation works.

[c]IA ==U2hvdyBtZSB0aGUgYW5zd2Vy[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

 

[q] In the Ensatina eschscholtzii complex of salamander subspecies, adjacent subspecies (such as 1 and 2 below) can successfully interbreed, but subspecies 1 and 7 cannot. Part 1: Identify the phenomenon. Part 2: Explain.

[c]IA ==IFNob3cgbWUgdGhlIGFuc3dlciA=[Qq]

[f]IFBhcnQgMTogVGhlIA==RW5zYXRpbmEgZXNjaHNjaG9sdHppaQ==wqBzdWJzcGVjaWVzIGNvbXBsZXggbWFrZXMgdXAgYQ==IHJpbmcgc3BlY2llcy4=

[Qq]

Part 2: The E. eschscholtzii subspecies complex can be thought of as a cline that has folded in upon itself, so that the extreme ends are touching. If the cline were spread out over a geographic axis, we’d expect the subspecies at the extreme edges of the species range to be the most differentiated, and to possibly have difficulty interbreeding.

Similarly, in the ring species above, subspecies 1 and subspecies 7 are the most genetically different from one another, and can be considered to be reproductively isolated from one another. However, because gene flow is possible between all the other adjacent subspecies in the ring, the complex as a whole is still considered to be one species.

 

[q] Create a model and write out an explanation of how allopatric speciation works.

[c]IA ==IFNob3cgbWUgdGhlIGFuc3dlciA=[Qq]

[f]IA==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[Qq]

 

[q] Explain 1) how sympatric speciation is different from allopatric speciation and 2) how sympatric speciation might come about in plants and animals

[c]IA ==IFNob3cgbWUgdGhlIGFuc3dlciA=[Qq]

[f]IFBhcnQgMTogU3ltcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaXMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiB0aGF0IGFyaXNlcyB3aXRob3V0IGdlb2dyYXBoaWNhbCBzZXBhcmF0aW9uIGJldHdlZW4gc3ViLXBvcHVsYXRpb25zLg==

Cg==

UGFydCAyOiBCZWNhdXNlIG9mIHRoZWlyIGFiaWxpdHkgdG8gc3Vydml2ZSBjaHJvbW9zb21hbCBjaGFuZ2VzLCBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiBpbiBwbGFudHMgY2FuIGludm9sdmUgcHJvY2Vzc2VzIGxpa2UgcG9seXBsb2lkeQ==IGFuZCA=[Qq]allopolyploidy. In polyploidy, errors in meiosis lead to chromosomal doubling, which can result in instant speciation. In allopolyploidy, meiotic errors that increase the number of chromosome sets are combined with hybridization, instantly creating new hybrid species.

In animals, three mechanisms can result in sympatric speciation. The first, seen in Lake Victoria cichlids, is sexual preference. Female mate preference for males with a specific phenotype can keep closely related species from hybridizing, reducing or eliminating gene flow between closely related species. Disruptive selection can split a population into two phenotypes, each of which has a high degree of fitness, while hybrids between these populations can have low fitness. This type of selection regime, continued for enough time, is thought to be capable causing one species to diverge int two. Finally, habitat selection (such as that seen in bird lice), can isolate gene pools. Subsequent natural selection and genetic drift can generate the genetic differentiation that can lead to speciation, even in the absence of any geographical separation between evolving populations.

 

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The evolution of multiple descendant species from a single ancestral species is known as

[c]IGdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHZW5ldGljIGRyaWZ0IGludm9sdmVzIHJhbmRvbSBnZW5ldGljIGNoYW5nZSBpbiBzbWFsbCwgaXNvbGF0ZWQgcG9wdWxhdGlvbnMuIEdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQgY2FuIGJlIGludm9sdmVkIGluIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzIGFib3ZlLCBidXQgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhbm90aGVyIG5hbWUgZm9yIHRoZSBlbnRpcmUgcHJvY2Vzcy4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogaXQgbG9va3MgbGlrZSB0aGlzOg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IG5hdHVyYWwgc2VsZWN0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOYXR1cmFsIHNlbGVjdGlvbiBjYW4gYmUgYSBrZXkgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgcHJvY2VzcyBkZXNjcmliZWQgYWJvdmUsIGJ1dCB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGFub3RoZXIgbmFtZSBmb3IgdGhlIGVudGlyZSBwcm9jZXNzLg==

Cg==

SGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogaXQgbG9va3MgbGlrZSB0aGlzOg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IGFkYXB0aXZlIH JhZGlhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQWRhcHRpdmUgcmFkaWF0aW9uIGlzIHRoZSBldm9sdXRpb24gb2YgbXVsdGlwbGUgZGVzY2VuZGFudHMgZnJvbSBhIHNpbmdsZSBhbmNlc3RyYWwgc3BlY2llcy4=[Qq]

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHJvY2VzcyBjYW4gZGVmaW5pdGVseSBpbnZvbHZlIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiwgYnV0IHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYW5vdGhlciBuYW1lIGZvciB0aGUgcHJvY2VzcyBpdHNlbGYu

Cg==

SGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogaXQgbG9va3MgbGlrZSB0aGlzOg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]What evolutionary process best explains why the forelimbs of all vertebrates are built from the same bones?

[c]c3ltcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24=[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIFN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uIGlzIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gdGhhdCBhcmlzZXMgd2l0aG91dCBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgc2VwYXJhdGlvbi4gV2hpbGUgc29tZSBvZiB0aGUgZ3JvdXBzIGFib3ZlIG1pZ2h0IGhhdmUgYXJpc2VuIGJ5IHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLCB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgYmV0dGVyIGV4cGxhbmF0aW9uIGZvciB3aHkgYWxsIG9mIHRoZWlyIGZvcmVsaW1icyBhcmUgYnVpbHQgZnJvbSB0aGUgc2FtZSBib25lcy4=[Qq]

[c]ZGlzcnVwdGl2ZSBzZWxlY3Rpb24=[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIERpc3J1cHRpdmUgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIHNlbGVjdGlvbiBhZ2FpbnN0IHRoZSBtZWFuIHBoZW5vdHlwZSBpbiBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24sIGFuZCBmb3IgdGhlIGV4dHJlbWVzLsKgV2hpbGUgc29tZSBvZiB0aGUgZ3JvdXBzIGFib3ZlIG1pZ2h0IGhhdmUgYXJpc2VuIGJ5IGRpc3J1cHRpdmUgc2VsZWN0aW9uLCB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgYmV0dGVyIGV4cGxhbmF0aW9uIGZvciB3aHkgYWxsIG9mIHRoZWlyIGZvcmVsaW1icyBhcmUgYnVpbHQgZnJvbSB0aGUgc2FtZSBib25lcy4=[Qq]

[c]Y29udmVyZ2VudCBldm9sdXRpb24=[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIENvbnZlcmdlbnQgZXZvbHV0aW9uIG9jY3VycyB3aGVuIHNpbWlsYXIgc2VsZWN0aXZlIHByZXNzdXJlcyBwcm9kdWNlIHN1cGVyZmljaWFsbHkgc2ltaWxhciBwaGVub3R5cGVzIGluIGRpc3RhbnRseSByZWxhdGVkIG9yZ2FuaXNtcy4gV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHNob3duIGFib3ZlIGlzIGFjdHVhbGx5IHRoZSA=b3Bwb3NpdGU=IG9mIGNvbnZlcmdlbnQgZXZvbHV0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]YWRhcHRpdmUg cmFkaWF0aW9u[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[/qwiz]

What next?

This tutorial ends this module on species, speciation, and extinction. Use the previous link to return to the menu for this module, or use the menu above to choose another module.