To see if you’ve mastered the key concepts in this module, take the quiz below.

Some of the questions are free response, so grab a pencil and some paper (because you’ll learn more if you write out your best explanation before looking at the answer).

[qwiz random = “false” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-speciation and extinction, cumulative quiz”] [h]

Speciation and Extinction: Cumulative Quiz

[i]

[q] Part 1: What type of speciation process is most connected to ecoclines?

Part 2: Explain.

[c]IDxzcGFuIHN0eWxlPSJjb2xvcjogIzAwMDAwMDsgYmFja2dyb3 VuZDogbm9uZTsiPiBTaG93IG1lIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXI8L3NwYW4+

[f]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

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The table to the right shows 8 species of bird lice, their hosts, and the part of the bird where the lice can be found. Which species is most closely related to species 5?

[c]IFNwZWNp ZXMgMg==

[f]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

[c]IFNwZWNpZXMgMw==

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgaGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdXNlIGVpdGhlciB0aGUgbW9ycGhvbG9naWNhbCBvciBwaHlsb2dlbmV0aWMgc3BlY2llcyBjb25jZXB0Lg==

[c]IFNwZWNpZXMgNg==

[f]IE5vLiBJdCBsb29rcyBsaWtlIHlvdSB1c2VkIHRoZSBtb3JwaG9sb2dpY2FsIHNwZWNpZXMgY29uY2VwdC4gVGhpbmsgcGh5bG9nZW5ldGljYWxseS4=

 

[q multiple_choice=”true”] How would you explain the similarity between species 1, 2, and 3?

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBCaXJkIGxvdXNlIGV2b2x1dGlvbiBpcyBhbiBleGFtcGxlIG9mIHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLg==

[c]IGNvbnZlcmdlbn QgZXZvbHV0aW9u

[f]IFdheSB0byBnby7CoEROQSBhbmFseXNpcyBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgdGhhdCB0aGUgZGlmZmVyZW50IHNwZWNpZXMgb2YgbGljZSB0aGF0IHBhcmFzaXRpemUgdGhlIHNhbWUgPGVtPnR5cGU8L2VtPiBvZiBiaXJkIChzdWNoIGFzIHRoZSB2YXJpb3VzIHNwZWNpZXMgb2YgbGljZSB0aGF0IHBhcmFzaXRpemUgcGFycm90cykgYXJlIG1vcmUgY2xvc2VseSByZWxhdGVkIHRvIG9uZSBhbm90aGVyIHRoYW4gc3BlY2llcyBvZiBsaWNlIHRoYXQgbGl2ZSBvbiB0aGUgc2FtZSA8ZW0+cGFydHM8L2VtPiBvZiBkaWZmZXJlbnQgYmlyZHMgKHN1Y2ggYXMgdGhlIHZhcmlvdXMgc3BlY2llcyB0aGF0IGxpdmUgb24gdGhlIHdpbmdzIG9mIGRpZmZlcmVudCB0eXBlcyBvZiBiaXJkcykuIFRoZSBtb3JwaG9sb2dpY2FsIHNpbWlsYXJpdHkgYmV0d2VlbiBzcGVjaWVzIHRoYXQgbGl2ZSBvbiB0aGUgc2FtZSBwYXJ0cyBvZiB0aGUgYmlyZHMgaXMgYSBjb252ZXJnZW50IGZlYXR1cmUu

[c]IGFkYXB0aXZlIHJhZGlhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSB0aGUgdmFyaW91cyBzcGVjaWVzIG9mIGJpcmQtbGljZSBkaWQgZXZvbHZlIGZyb20gYSBjb21tb24gYW5jZXN0b3IgdGhhdCBwYXJhc2l0aXplZCBkaWZmZXJlbnQgc3BlY2llcyBvZiBiaXJkIGFuZCBkaWZmZXJlbnQgcGFydHMgb2YgYmlyZHMsIHRoYXQgZG9lc24mIzgyMTc7dCBleHBsYWluIHdoeSB0aGUgdGhyZWUgc3BlY2llcyBvZiBiaXJkIGhlYWQtbGljZSBsb29rIHNvIHNpbWlsYXIuIFdoYXQgcHJvY2VzcyBjYW4gZWxpY2l0IG1vcnBob2xvZ2ljYWwgc2ltaWxhcml0eSBpbiB1bnJlbGF0ZWQgb3JnYW5pc21zPw==

[c]IGhvcml6b250YWwgZ2VuZSB0cmFuc2Zlcg==

[f]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

[c]IGdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQ=

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSBnZW5ldGljIGRyaWZ0IHdhcyBwcm9iYWJseSBhIGZhY3RvciBpbiBiaXJkLWxvdXNlIHNwZWNpYXRpb24sIGl0IHdvdWxkbiYjODIxNzt0IGV4cGxhaW4gdGhlIG1vcnBob2xvZ2ljYWwgc2ltaWxhcml0eSBiZXR3ZWVuIHNwZWNpZXMgMSwgMiwgYW5kIDMuwqBXaGF0IHByb2Nlc3MgY2FuIGVsaWNpdCBtb3JwaG9sb2dpY2FsIHNpbWlsYXJpdHkgaW4gdW5yZWxhdGVkIG9yZ2FuaXNtcz8=

[q multiple_choice=”true”] In the diagram below, which letter represents allopatric speciation?

[c]IEHCoCDC oCDCoCA=[c]IELCoCDCoCDCoCDCoA==[c]IEPCoCDCoCDCoA==[c]IFjCoCDCoCDCoCA=[c]IFk8L3A+Cg==

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2l0aCBpdHMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIgYXQgWCwgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjbGVhciB0aGF0IEEgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u

[f]IE5vLiBCIGxvb2tzIGxpa2UgcGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLiBUaGUgaGludCBpcyB0aGUgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUgc2hvd24gYXQgWS4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogbG9vayBmb3IgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljIGJhcnJpZXIu

[f]IE5vLiBGb3IgYWxsb3BhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLCB5b3UgbmVlZCBhIGdlb2dyYXBoaWMgYmFycmllci4=

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGNsb3NlLiBYIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllciwgYW5kIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGtleSBwYXJ0IG9mIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4=

[f]IE5vLiBZIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBoeWJyaWQgem9uZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgY29ubmVjdGVkIHdpdGggcGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLiBMb29rIGZvciBhIGdlb2dyYXBoaWMgYmFycmllciwgYW5kIHRoZW4geW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIGJlIGFibGUgdG8gZmluZCBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u

[q multiple_choice=”true”] In the diagram below, which letter represents parapatric speciation?

[c]IEHCoCDCoCA=[c]IE Ig[c]IEPCoCDCoCA=[c]IFjCoCDCoA==[c]IFk8L3A+Cg==

[f]IE5vLiBXaXRoIGl0cyBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllciBhdCBYLCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGNsZWFyIHRoYXQgQSByZXByZXNlbnRzIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogUGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIGh5YnJpZCB6b25lcy4=

[f]IFdheSB0byBnbyEgQiwgd2l0aCBpdHMgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUgYXQgWSwgaXMgYSBnb29kIG1vZGVsIG9mIHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4=

[f]IE5vLiBDIGxvb2tzIGxpa2Ugc3ltcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24uIEZvciBwYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24sIHlvdSBuZWVkIGEgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUu

[f]IE5vLCBYIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllciwgYW5kIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGtleSBwYXJ0IG9mIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4gRm9yIHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiwgeW91IG5lZWQgYSBoeWJyaWQgem9uZS4=

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGNsb3NlIFkgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhIGh5YnJpZCB6b25lLCB3aGljaCBpcyBjb25uZWN0ZWQgd2l0aCBwYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24uIFdoaWNoIGxldHRlciB3b3VsZCByZXByZXNlbnQgdGhlIGVudGlyZSBwcm9jZXNzPw==

[q multiple_choice=”true”] In the diagram below, which letter represents sympatric speciation?

[c]IEHCoCDCoCA=[c]IEIg[c]IE Mg[c]IFgg[c]IFk8L3A+Cg==

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2l0aCBpdHMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIgYXQgWCwgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjbGVhciB0aGF0IEEgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u

[f]IE5vLiBCLCB3aXRoIGl0cyBoeWJyaWQgem9uZSBhdCBZLCBpcyBhIGdvb2QgbW9kZWwgb2YgcGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLg==

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljISBDLCB3aXRoIGl0cyBsYWNrIG9mIGFueSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgZmFjdG9ycywgbG9va3MgbGlrZSBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4=

[f]IE5vLCBYIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllciwgYW5kIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGtleSBwYXJ0IG9mIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4gU3ltcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gb2NjdXJzIHdpdGhvdXQgYW55IGdlb2dyYXBoaWMgYm91bmRhcmllcy4=

[f]IE5vLCBZIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBoeWJyaWQgem9uZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgY29ubmVjdGVkIHdpdGggcGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLiBTeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiBvY2N1cnMgd2l0aG91dCBhbnkgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24u

[q multiple_choice=”true”] In the diagram below, which letter represents a hybrid zone?

[c]IEEg[c]IEIg[c]IEMg[c]IFgg[c]IFk8L3 A+Cg==

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gV2l0aCBpdHMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIgYXQgWCwgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjbGVhciB0aGF0IEEgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u

[f]IE5vLiBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHZlcnkgY2xvc2UuIEIgaW5jbHVkZXMgYSBoeWJyaWQgem9uZSwgYW5kIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgaXQgYSBnb29kIG1vZGVsIG9mIHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4=

[f]IE5vLiBDLCB3aXRoIGl0cyBsYWNrIG9mIGFueSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgZmFjdG9ycywgbG9va3MgbGlrZSBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4=

[f]IE5vLCBYIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllciwgYW5kIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGtleSBwYXJ0IG9mIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIGEgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUu

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iISBZIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBoeWJyaWQgem9uZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgY29ubmVjdGVkIHdpdGggcGFyYXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLg==

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The image below represents a model of

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBBbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllci4=

[c]IHBlcmlwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBQZXJpcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gbG9va3MgbW9yZSBsaWtlIHRoaXMuIE5vdGljZSB0aGUgc21hbGwgcGVyaXBoZXJhbCBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIHRoYXQgZ2VzdCBzZXBhcmF0ZWQgZnJvbSB0aGUgbWFpbiBwb3B1bGF0aW9uLCBhbmQgdGhlbiBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRlcyBpbnRvIGEgc2VwYXJhdGUgc3BlY2llcy48YnIgLz4KPGlucHV0IG5hbWU9InF3aXpfaW1nIiBjbGFzcz0iIiBzcmM9Imh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxOC8wNy9QZXJpcGF0cmljX1NwZWNpYXRpb25fU2NoZW1hdGljLnBuZyIgd2lkdGg9IjQ0NCIgaGVpZ2h0PSIyMTAiIC8+

[c]IHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBQYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24gKHRob3VnaCBvZnRlbiBub3QgYSBjb21wbGV0ZSBiYXJyaWVyKSB3aXRoIGEgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUgYmV0d2VlbiB0aGUgZW1lcmdpbmcgc3BlY2llcy48YnIgLz4KPGlucHV0IG5hbWU9InF3aXpfaW1nIiBjbGFzcz0iIiBzcmM9Imh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxOC8wNy9wYXJhcGF0cmljLXNwZWNpYXRpb24tTlVNQkVSRUQucG5nIiB3aWR0aD0iNDg3IiBoZWlnaHQ9IjE0MyIgLz4=

 

[c]IHN5bXBhdHJpYy BzcGVjaWF0aW9u

[f]IEF3ZXNvbWUuIFRoZSBtb2RlbCBvZiBzcGVjaWF0aW9uIHNob3duIGFib3ZlIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgc3ltcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24sIHdoaWNoIHlvdSBjYW4gdGVsbCBiZWNhdXNlIG9mIHRoZSBsYWNrIG9mIGFueSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgc2VwYXJhdGlvbi4=

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The image below represents a model of

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBBbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllci4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogbm90aWNlIGhvdyB0aGUgbmV3bHkgZW1lcmdpbmcgZGF1Z2h0ZXIgc3BlY2llcyBpcyBvbiB0aGUgPGVtPnBlcmlwaGVyeTwvZW0+IG9mIHRoZSBwYXJlbnQgc3BlY2llcy4=

[c]IHBlcmlwYXRyaWMg c3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gUGVyaXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW4gYSBzbWFsbCBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGF0IHRoZSBwZXJpcGhlcnkgb2YgaXRzIHBhcmVudCBzcGVjaWVzJiM4MjE3OyBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgcmFuZ2Uu

[c]IHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBQYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24gKHRob3VnaCBvZnRlbiBub3QgYSBjb21wbGV0ZSBiYXJyaWVyKSB3aXRoIGEgaHlicmlkIHpvbmUgYmV0d2VlbiB0aGUgZW1lcmdpbmcgc3BlY2llcy48YnIgLz4KPGlucHV0IG5hbWU9InF3aXpfaW1nIiBjbGFzcz0iIiBzcmM9Imh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxOC8wNy9wYXJhcGF0cmljLXNwZWNpYXRpb24tTlVNQkVSRUQucG5nIiB3aWR0aD0iNDg3IiBoZWlnaHQ9IjE0MyIgLz4=

 

[c]IHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9u

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiwgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiBvY2N1cnMgd2l0aG91dCBhbnkgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24sIGFzIHNob3duIGJlbG93LjxiciAvPgo8aW5wdXQgbmFtZT0icXdpel9pbWciIGNsYXNzPSIiIHNyYz0iaHR0cHM6Ly9zY2llbmNlbXVzaWN2aWRlb3MuY29tL3dwLWNvbnRlbnQvdXBsb2Fkcy8yMDE4LzA3L1N5bXBhdHJpY19TcGVjaWF0aW9uX3dpa2lwZWRpYU5VTUJFUkVELnBuZyIgd2lkdGg9IjUwMSIgaGVpZ2h0PSIyMjEiIC8+

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The image below represents a model of

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBBbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllci4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIGh5YnJpZCB6b25lIGluIHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGFib3ZlIChhdCAzKSBpcyB0aGUga2V5IGZlYXR1cmUgb2YgdGhpcyBtb2RlIG9mIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u

[c]IHBlcmlwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBQZXJpcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYSBzbWFsbCBwZXJpcGhlcmFsIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gdGhhdCBldm9sdmVzIGludG8gYSBuZXcgc3BlY2llcywgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3c8YnIgLz4KPGlucHV0IG5hbWU9InF3aXpfaW1nIiBjbGFzcz0iIiBzcmM9Imh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxOC8wNy9QZXJpcGF0cmljX1NwZWNpYXRpb25fU2NoZW1hdGljLnBuZyIgd2lkdGg9IjQ3OCIgaGVpZ2h0PSIyMjYiIC8+

 

[c]IHBhcmFwYXRyaWMg c3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBQYXJhcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24gKHRob3VnaCBub3QgYSBjb21wbGV0ZSBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgYmFycmllcikgd2l0aCBhIGh5YnJpZCB6b25lIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlIGVtZXJnaW5nIHNwZWNpZXMuPGJyIC8+CjxpbnB1dCBuYW1lPSJxd2l6X2ltZyIgY2xhc3M9IiIgc3JjPSJodHRwczovL3NjaWVuY2VtdXNpY3ZpZGVvcy5jb20vd3AtY29udGVudC91cGxvYWRzLzIwMTgvMDcvcGFyYXBhdHJpYy1zcGVjaWF0aW9uLU5VTUJFUkVELnBuZyIgd2lkdGg9IjQ4NyIgaGVpZ2h0PSIxNDMiIC8+

[c]IHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9u

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiwgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiBvY2N1cnMgd2l0aG91dCBhbnkgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24sIGFzIHNob3duIGJlbG93LjxiciAvPgo8aW5wdXQgbmFtZT0icXdpel9pbWciIGNsYXNzPSIiIHNyYz0iaHR0cHM6Ly9zY2llbmNlbXVzaWN2aWRlb3MuY29tL3dwLWNvbnRlbnQvdXBsb2Fkcy8yMDE4LzA3L1N5bXBhdHJpY19TcGVjaWF0aW9uX3dpa2lwZWRpYU5VTUJFUkVELnBuZyIgd2lkdGg9IjQ4NCIgaGVpZ2h0PSIyMDgiIC8+

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The image below represents a model of

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMg c3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IFllcy4gQWxsb3BhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIGEgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIsIGFzIGlzIHNob3duIGFib3ZlLg==

[c]IHBlcmlwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBQZXJpcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYSBzbWFsbCBwZXJpcGhlcmFsIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gdGhhdCBldm9sdmVzIGludG8gYSBuZXcgc3BlY2llcywgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cuIEZvciBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24sIHlvdSBuZWVkIGEgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIGJhcnJpZXIuPGJyIC8+CjxpbnB1dCBuYW1lPSJxd2l6X2ltZyIgY2xhc3M9IiIgc3JjPSJodHRwczovL3NjaWVuY2VtdXNpY3ZpZGVvcy5jb20vd3AtY29udGVudC91cGxvYWRzLzIwMTgvMDcvUGVyaXBhdHJpY19TcGVjaWF0aW9uX1NjaGVtYXRpYy5wbmciIHdpZHRoPSI0NzgiIGhlaWdodD0iMjI2IiAvPg==

[c]IHBhcmFwYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]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

[c]IHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9u

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBzeW1wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiwgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiBvY2N1cnMgd2l0aG91dCBhbnkgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24sIGFzIHNob3duIGJlbG93LiBGb3IgYWxsb3BhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLCB5b3UgbmVlZCBhIGdlb2dyYXBoaWNhbCBiYXJyaWVyLjxiciAvPgo8aW5wdXQgbmFtZT0icXdpel9pbWciIGNsYXNzPSIiIHNyYz0iaHR0cHM6Ly9zY2llbmNlbXVzaWN2aWRlb3MuY29tL3dwLWNvbnRlbnQvdXBsb2Fkcy8yMDE4LzA3L1N5bXBhdHJpY19TcGVjaWF0aW9uX3dpa2lwZWRpYU5VTUJFUkVELnBuZyIgd2lkdGg9IjQ4NCIgaGVpZ2h0PSIyMDgiIC8+

[q multiple_choice=”true”] Which of the following processes does not promote speciation?

[c]IGdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQ=

[f]IE5vLiBHZW5ldGljIGRyaWZ0IGNhdXNlcyBnZW5ldGljIGRpZmZlcmVudGlhdGlvbiwgZXNwZWNpYWxseSBpbiBzbWFsbCwgaXNvbGF0ZWQgcG9wdWxhdGlvbnMuIFRoYXQgZ2VuZXRpYyBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRpb24gY2FuIGxlYWQgdG8gc3BlY2lhdGlvbi4gV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIG9uIHRoaXMgbGlzdCB0aGF0IGtlZXBzIGVtZXJnaW5nIHBvcHVsYXRpb25zIGZyb20gYmVjb21pbmcgZ2VuZXRpY2FsbHkgZGlzdGluY3Q/

[c]IE5hdHVyYWwgc2VsZWN0aW9u

[f]IE5vLiBOYXR1cmFsIHNlbGVjdGlvbiBjYW4gcHJvbW90ZSBzdWItcG9wdWxhdGlvbnMgdG8gYmVjb21lIGdlbmV0aWNhbGx5IChhbmQgcGhlbm90eXBpY2FsbHkpIGRpZmZlcmVudCBmcm9tIG9uZSBhbm90aGVyLCB3aGljaCBjYW4gbGF5IHRoZSBncm91bmR3b3JrIGZvciBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLsKgV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIG9uIHRoaXMgbGlzdCB0aGF0IGtlZXBzIGVtZXJnaW5nIHBvcHVsYXRpb25zIGZyb20gYmVjb21pbmcgZ2VuZXRpY2FsbHkgZGlzdGluY3Q/

[c]IGdlb2dyYXBoaWNhbCBpc29sYXRpb24=

[f]IE5vLiBHZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgaXNvbGF0aW9uLCBieSBhbGxvd2luZyBwb3B1bGF0aW9ucyB0byBnZW5ldGljYWxseSBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRlLCBjYW4gcHJvbW90ZSBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLsKgV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIG9uIHRoaXMgbGlzdCB0aGF0IGtlZXBzIGVtZXJnaW5nIHBvcHVsYXRpb25zIGZyb20gYmVjb21pbmcgZ2VuZXRpY2FsbHkgZGlzdGluY3Q/

[c]IGdlbmUg Zmxvdw==

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gR2VuZSBmbG93LCBieSBtb3ZpbmcgYWxsZWxlcyBiZXR3ZWVuIGFkamFjZW50IHBvcHVsYXRpb25zLCBrZWVwcyB0aGVtIGZyb20gYmVjb21pbmcgZ2VuZXRpY2FsbHkgZGlmZmVyZW50LCBhbmQgdGh1cyB3b3JrcyBhZ2FpbnN0IHNwZWNpYXRpb24u

 

[q multiple_choice=”true”] Rhagoletis flies parasitize fruit trees. Some Rhagoletis flies lay their eggs on apples, which produce fruit in early summer. Others lay their eggs on hawthorns, which produce fruit in early fall. After the eggs hatch, maggots emerge, which grow to maturity as they eat the fruit. Adults tend to mate and lay eggs on the same type of tree where they themselves developed. This creates which kind of reproductive barrier?

[c]IHByZS16eWdvdGljOyBoeWJyaWQgYnJlYWtkb3du

[f]IE5vLiBGaXJzdCwgaHlicmlkIGJyZWFrZG93biBpcyBhIHBvc3Qtenlnb3RpYyBiYXJyaWVyLCBub3QgcHJlLXp5Z290aWMgb25lLiBTZWNvbmQsIGJhc2VkIG9uIHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhYm92ZSwgYWxsIHlvdSBrbm93IGlzIHRoYXQgdGhlIGZsaWVzIHBhcmFzaXRpemUgYW5kIHJlcHJvZHVjZSBvbiBmcnVpdCBmcm9tIHBsYW50cyB0aGF0IGRldmVsb3AgYXQgZGlmZmVyZW50IHRpbWVzIG9mIHRoZSB5ZWFyLiBXaGF0IGtpbmQgb2YgcmVwcm9kdWN0aXZlIGJhcnJpZXIgaW52b2x2ZXMgdGltZT8=

[c]IHByZS16eWdvdGlj OyB0ZW1wb3JhbA==

[f]IEdvb2Qgam9iLiBUaGUgZGlmZmVyZW5jZSBpbiBob3N0IGZydWl0aW5nIHNlYXNvbiBpcyBhbiBleGFtcGxlIG9mIGEgdGVtcG9yYWwsIHByZS16eWdvdGljIHJlcHJvZHVjdGl2ZSBiYXJyaWVyLg==

[c]IHBvc3Qtenlnb3RpYzsgaHlicmlkIHN0ZXJpbGl0eQ==

[f]IE5vLiBCYXNlZCBvbiB0aGUgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gYWJvdmUsIHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3Mgbm8gZXZpZGVuY2UgYWJvdXQgaHlicmlkIHN0ZXJpbGl0eS4gQWxsIHlvdSBrbm93IGlzIHRoYXQgdGhlIGZsaWVzIHBhcmFzaXRpemUgYW5kIHJlcHJvZHVjZSBvbiBmcnVpdCBmcm9tIHBsYW50cyB0aGF0IGRldmVsb3AgYXQgZGlmZmVyZW50IHRpbWVzIG9mIHRoZSB5ZWFyLiBXaGF0IGtpbmQgb2YgcmVwcm9kdWN0aXZlIGJhcnJpZXIgaW52b2x2ZXMgdGltZT8=

[c]IHBvc3Qtenlnb3RpYzsgZ2FtZXRpYw==

[f]IE5vLiBCYXNlZCBvbiB0aGUgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gYWJvdmUsIHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3Mgbm8gZXZpZGVuY2UgYWJvdXQgZ2FtZXRpYyBpbmNvbXBhdGliaWxpdHkuIEFsbCB5b3Uga25vdyBpcyB0aGF0IHRoZSBmbGllcyBwYXJhc2l0aXplIGFuZCByZXByb2R1Y2Ugb24gZnJ1aXQgZnJvbSBwbGFudHMgdGhhdCBkZXZlbG9wIGF0IGRpZmZlcmVudCB0aW1lcyBvZiB0aGUgeWVhci4gV2hhdCBraW5kIG9mIHJlcHJvZHVjdGl2ZSBiYXJyaWVyIGludm9sdmVzIHRpbWU/

 

[q multiple_choice=”true”] Which species concept is based on reproductive isolation?

[c]IHRoZSBwaHlsb2dlbmV0aWMgc3BlY2llcyBjb25jZXB0

[f]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

[c]IHRoZSBiaW9sb2dpY2FsIH NwZWNpZXMgY29uY2VwdA==

[f]IFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7IGNvcnJlY3QhIFRoZSBiaW9sb2dpY2FsIHNwZWNpZXMgY29uY2VwdCBkZWZpbmVzIGEgc3BlY2llcyBhcyBhIGdyb3VwIG9mIG9yZ2FuaXNtcyB0aGF0IGNhbiBpbnRlcmJyZWVkIHRvIHByb2R1Y2UgZmVydGlsZSBvZmZzcHJpbmcsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBpcyBpc29sYXRlZCBmcm9tIG90aGVyIHN1Y2ggZ3JvdXBzLg==

[c]IHRoZSBtb3JwaG9sb2dpY2FsIHNwZWNpZXMgY29uY2VwdA==

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbW9ycGhvbG9naWNhbCBzcGVjaWVzIGlzIGJhc2VkIG9uIHBoZW5vdHlwZSBvciBhcHBlYXJhbmNlLiBJdCYjODIxNztzIG1vc3QgY29tbW9ubHkgdXNlZCB3aXRoIGV4dGluY3Qgc3BlY2llcywgb3Igc3BlY2llcyB0aGF0IHJlcHJvZHVjZSBhc2V4dWFsbHkpLg==

 

 

[q] Explain how peripatric speciation works.

[c]IDxlbT48ZW0+U2hvdyBtZSB0aG UgYW5zd2VyPC9lbT48L2VtPg==

[f]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

 

[q] In the Ensatina eschscholtzii complex of salamander subspecies, adjacent subspecies (such as 1 and 2 below) can successfully interbreed, but subspecies 1 and 7 cannot. Part 1: Identify the phenomenon. Part 2: Explain.

[c]IDxlbT4gU2hvdyBtZSB0 aGUgYW5zd2VyIDwvZW0+

[f]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

 

[q] Create a model and write out an explanation of how allopatric speciation works.

[c]IDxlbT4gU2hvdyBtZSB0 aGUgYW5zd2VyIDwvZW0+

[f]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

 

[q] Explain 1) how sympatric speciation is different from allopatric speciation and 2) how sympatric speciation might come about in plants and animals

[c]IDxlbT4gU2hvdyBtZSB0 aGUgYW5zd2VyIDwvZW0+

[f]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

 

[q multiple_choice=”true”] The evolution of multiple descendant species from a single ancestral species is known as

[c]IGdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQ=

[f]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

[c]IG5hdHVyYWwgc2VsZWN0aW9u

[f]IE5vLiBOYXR1cmFsIHNlbGVjdGlvbiBjYW4gYmUgYSBrZXkgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgcHJvY2VzcyBkZXNjcmliZWQgYWJvdmUsIGJ1dCB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGFub3RoZXIgbmFtZSBmb3IgdGhlIGVudGlyZSBwcm9jZXNzLjwvcD4KPHA+SGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogaXQgbG9va3MgbGlrZSB0aGlzOjwvcD4KPHA+PGlucHV0IG5hbWU9InF3aXpfaW1nIiBzcmM9Imh0dHBzOi8vc2NpZW5jZW11c2ljdmlkZW9zLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxOC8wNS9hZGFwdGl2ZS1yYWRpYXRpb24uanBnIiBhbHQ9IiIgd2lkdGg9IjIyNSIgaGVpZ2h0PSIxODgiIC8+

[c]IGFkYXB0aXZlIH JhZGlhdGlvbg==

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQWRhcHRpdmUgcmFkaWF0aW9uIGlzIHRoZSBldm9sdXRpb24gb2YgbXVsdGlwbGUgZGVzY2VuZGFudHMgZnJvbSBhIHNpbmdsZSBhbmNlc3RyYWwgc3BlY2llcy4=

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHJvY2VzcyBjYW4gZGVmaW5pdGVseSBpbnZvbHZlIGFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiwgYnV0IHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYW5vdGhlciBuYW1lIGZvciB0aGUgcHJvY2VzcyBpdHNlbGYuPC9wPgo8cD5IZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiBpdCBsb29rcyBsaWtlIHRoaXM6PC9wPgo8cD48aW5wdXQgbmFtZT0icXdpel9pbWciIHNyYz0iaHR0cHM6Ly9zY2llbmNlbXVzaWN2aWRlb3MuY29tL3dwLWNvbnRlbnQvdXBsb2Fkcy8yMDE4LzA1L2FkYXB0aXZlLXJhZGlhdGlvbi5qcGciIGFsdD0iIiB3aWR0aD0iMjI1IiBoZWlnaHQ9IjE4OCIgLz4=

[q]What evolutionary process best explains why the forelimbs of all vertebrates are built from the same bones?

[c]c3ltcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24=

[f]Tm8uIFN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uIGlzIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gdGhhdCBhcmlzZXMgd2l0aG91dCBnZW9ncmFwaGljYWwgc2VwYXJhdGlvbi4gV2hpbGUgc29tZSBvZiB0aGUgZ3JvdXBzIGFib3ZlIG1pZ2h0IGhhdmUgYXJpc2VuIGJ5IHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLCB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgYmV0dGVyIGV4cGxhbmF0aW9uIGZvciB3aHkgYWxsIG9mIHRoZWlyIGZvcmVsaW1icyBhcmUgYnVpbHQgZnJvbSB0aGUgc2FtZSBib25lcy4=

[c]ZGlzcnVwdGl2ZSBzZWxlY3Rpb24=

[f]Tm8uIERpc3J1cHRpdmUgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGludm9sdmVzIHNlbGVjdGlvbiBhZ2FpbnN0IHRoZSBtZWFuIHBoZW5vdHlwZSBpbiBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24sIGFuZCBmb3IgdGhlIGV4dHJlbWVzLsKgV2hpbGUgc29tZSBvZiB0aGUgZ3JvdXBzIGFib3ZlIG1pZ2h0IGhhdmUgYXJpc2VuIGJ5IGRpc3J1cHRpdmUgc2VsZWN0aW9uLCB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgYmV0dGVyIGV4cGxhbmF0aW9uIGZvciB3aHkgYWxsIG9mIHRoZWlyIGZvcmVsaW1icyBhcmUgYnVpbHQgZnJvbSB0aGUgc2FtZSBib25lcy4=

[c]Y29udmVyZ2VudCBldm9sdXRpb24=

[f]Tm8uIENvbnZlcmdlbnQgZXZvbHV0aW9uIG9jY3VycyB3aGVuIHNpbWlsYXIgc2VsZWN0aXZlIHByZXNzdXJlcyBwcm9kdWNlIHN1cGVyZmljaWFsbHkgc2ltaWxhciBwaGVub3R5cGVzIGluIGRpc3RhbnRseSByZWxhdGVkIG9yZ2FuaXNtcy4gV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHNob3duIGFib3ZlIGlzIGFjdHVhbGx5IHRoZSA8ZW0+b3Bwb3NpdGU8L2VtPiBvZiBjb252ZXJnZW50IGV2b2x1dGlvbi4=

[c]YWRhcHRpdmUg cmFkaWF0aW9u

[f]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

[/qwiz]

What next?

This tutorial ends this module on species, speciation, and extinction. Use the previous link to return to the menu for this module, or use the menu above to choose another module.