1. You’ll see credit for completing these quizzes in “Unit 6 Cumulative Assessment.”
  2. These quizzes can be completed for the same credit on the Biomania AP Bio App. Click here to download Biomania (free for students enrolled in a course with a teacher using Learn-Biology.com).

1. Operons Click-on challenge

[qwiz quiz_timer=”true” random=”false” dataset_intro=”false” spaced_repetition=”false” dataset=”Operons Click-On Challenge Dataset” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 6 Operons Click-on Challenge (v2.0)” style=”width: 650px !important; min-height: 450px !important;”]

[h] Operons Click-On Challenge

[i] Note the timer in the top right. Your goal is accuracy and speed. A good strategy: once through slowly, then additional trials for improvement.

 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Operons Click-On Challenge Dataset|2060c368fb6e13″ question_number=”1″ unit=”6.Gene_Expression_and_Regulation” topic=”6.5.Operons”] TOPIC: lac operon (1)

Regulatory gene

Awesome. “1” is the regulatory gene.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The regulatory gene codes for a regulatory protein, which is capable of binding with DNA. Find the protein that binds with DNA, and work backwards from there.
The number for RNA polymerase

Correct! “It’s 4.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: RNA polymerase is a protein, and it binds with DNA. So find something that is not a double helix, but which binds with the double helix, and you’ll be on your way to the answer. 
The number of the promoter region

Excellent!  ”5″ represents the promoter.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The promoter region is where RNA polymerase binds. 
The number for the operator region.

Fantastic. “6” is the operator region.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  The operator region is where the regulatory protein binds. When that protein binds, it blocks RNA polymerase. 
The regulatory protein

Great! The regulatory protein is “3.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The regulatory protein is transcribed and translated from the regulatory genes, and it binds with the operator region, blocking RNA polymerase.
The structural genes

Nice! The structural genes are at  ”7.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The structural genes are downstream from the operator. 
The number or letter that represents transcription of the regulatory genes.

Nice going! Letter “a” represents transcription of the regulatory genes.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Transcription makes DNA into RNA. Where is that happening?

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Operons Click-On Challenge Dataset|16e759a2700228″ question_number=”2″ unit=”6.Gene_Expression_and_Regulation” topic=”6.5.Operons”] TOPIC: lac operon (2)

The inducer of this inducible operon.

Yes! “8” is the inducer

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The inducer is the molecule that turns the operon “on,” allowing expression of the gene.
The regulatory protein in a form where it CAN’T bind with the operator

Way to go! “3a” is the regulatory protein in a form where it can’t bind with the operator.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  ”1″ is the regulatory gene. Follow the arrows to the regulatory protein, and then find it in its altered form. 
The number of the DNA region which a regulatory protein can bind to, blocking transcription.

Very nice! It’s the operator, at “6.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  You’re looking for the operator, which is just downstream from the promoter.
The mRNA for the regulatory protein

That’s right. It’s  at “2.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  ”1″ is the regulatory gene. “3” is the regulatory protein. What must be the regulatory mRNA?
The number of the mRNA that’s transcribed from the structural genes

Thumbs up! “9” is the mRNA transcribed from the structural genes.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  If “4” is RNA polymerase, and “7” represents the structural genes, then what must be the resulting mRNA?
The number for the enzymes that digest lactose.

Superb. “10”  represents the lactose-digesting enzymes.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  ”7″ represents the structural genes. The genes are for enzymes that digest lactose. Therefore, the enzymes must be at ….

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Operons Click-On Challenge Dataset|1e1c633103d33b” question_number=”3″ unit=”6.Gene_Expression_and_Regulation” topic=”6.5.Operons”] TOPIC: trp operon (1)

The co-repressor of this repressible operon

Outstanding. “8” is tryptophan, the co-repressor in the trp operon, 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Find the molecule that binds with the regulatory protein, changing its shape so that it can bind with the operator.
The gene that codes for the regulatory protein

Nice going! “1” is the regulatory gene.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  ”3″ is the regulatory protein.  Work back from there to find the regulatory gene. 
The genes for enzymes for synthesis of tryptophan

Incredible. “7” represents the genes for tryptophan synthesizing enzymes.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  These are the structural genes, and they’re just downstream of the operator.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Operons Click-On Challenge Dataset|1e17f0a64d4f3b” question_number=”4″ unit=”6.Gene_Expression_and_Regulation” topic=”6.5.Operons”] TOPIC: trp operon 2

To create the regulatory protein, a ribosome would be required at this point.

Yes! A ribosome would be required at “b” to transform the regulatory gene’s RNA into protein.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Ribosomes are required for protein synthesis. Find the regulatory protein, and work backwards to see where protein synthesis would happen. 
The number of the protein that transcribes the operon’s DNA into RNA.

Thumbs up! It’s RNA polymerase (at “4”).

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: It’s RNA polymerase.
The number for the catalytic proteins that synthesize tryptophan.

Superb. The proteins are enzyems, and they’re shown at “ 9.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: What’s another name for a catalytic protein?
If the repressor binds with this region, the genes won’t be transcribed.

Outstanding! It’s the operator, at “6.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: You’re looking for the operator, which is downstream of the promoter.

[/qwiz]

 

 

2. Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Click-on Challenge

[qwiz style=”width: 650px !important; min-height: 450px !important;” quiz_timer=”true” random=”true” spaced_repetition=”false” dataset=”Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Click-on Challenge Dataset” dataset_intro=”false” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 6 Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Click-on Challenge”]

[h] Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Click-on Challenge

[i]

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”always ” dataset_id=”Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Click-on Challenge Dataset|eedb9bd5da8f2″ question_number=”1″ unit=”6.Gene_Expression_and_Regulation” topic=”6.6.Eukaryotic_Gene_Regulation”] TOPIC: Regulatory switches

Regulatory switches

Awesome. The regulatory switches are at “A.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  The switches are located “upstream” of the structural gene shown at “C.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. The regulatory switches are usually located way “upstream” of the promoter for the coding DNA, which in this diagram is shown at letter “b.”

The letter for the promoter

Correct. Letter “b” is the promoter.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The promoter is at the very start of the structural gene (which is what gets transcribed by RNA polymerase).

The letter for a gene that codes for protein or RNA

Excellent. Letter “c” indicates a gene that codes for protein (or RNA).

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find DNA that RNA polymerase is transcribing into RNA.
The letter for RNA polymerase

Exactly. Letter “d” is RNA polymerase.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA (which is indicated by “e.”
The letter for RNA

Fantastic. Letter “e” indicates RNA

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: RNA is transcribed from DNA by RNA polymerase (indicated by “d.”)

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”always” dataset_id=”Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Click-on Challenge Dataset|ee8f5b506f8f2″ question_number=”2″ unit=”6.Gene_Expression_and_Regulation” topic=”6.6.Eukaryotic_Gene_Regulation”] TOPIC: Heterochromatin and Euchromatin

The number of a histone protein.

Good job! “3” represents a histone protein.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: In eukaryotes, DNA (‘1″) gets wrapped around histone proteins, which form nucleosomes (“6”).
The number that shows DNA that can’t be transcribed.

Impressive. Numbers “2” and “4” indicated DNA that’s tightly wound up and unavailable for transcription.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find DNA that’s tightly wound up and unavailable for transcription.  
The number for a nucleosome.

Nice! “6” represents a nucleosome.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Eukaryotic DNA is wrapped around nucleosomes, which are groups of histone proteins (shown at “3”). 
The number of DNA that’s available for transcription.

Outstanding. “7” represents DNA that’s available for transcription.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find a number that’s pointing to DNA that’s NOT wrapped around a nucleosome.
The number of an acetyl group.

That’s right. “8” is an acetyl group.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Acetyl groups are associated with DNA that’s NOT tightly packed and which CAN be transcribed.

 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”always” dataset_id=”Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Click-on Challenge Dataset|ee4c45b9d64f2″ question_number=”3″ unit=”6.Gene_Expression_and_Regulation” topic=”6.6.Eukaryotic_Gene_Regulation”] TOPIC: Methylation and Acetylation

DNA that can’t be transcribed.

Thumbs up! “6” shows methylated DNA that can’t be transcribed.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Find DNA that’s tightly wound up around histone proteins. This DNA  can’t be transcribed.

 

DNA that can be transcribed.

Way to go! “7” represents loosely packed DNA that can be transcribed.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Look for DNA that’s not completely wound around histone proteins. Also, look for RNA polymerase and acetyl groups.

 

The number for the functional group that shuts down expression of genes.  

Awesome! “3 represents a methyl group. Methylation turns off eukaryotic gene expression. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Look at the tightly bound and untranscribable DNA at “6.” What functional group is attached to it? 
The number for the functional group that’s associated with genes that can be expressed.

Correct! “4” is an acetyl group. Acetylation allows genes to be expressed.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look at “7.” How has this region of DNA been chemically modified? What functional group do you see attached to these nucleosomes? 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Click-on Challenge Dataset|edf3f136bc8f2″ question_number=”4″ unit=”6.Gene_Expression_and_Regulation” topic=”6.6.Eukaryotic_Gene_Regulation”] TOPIC: Forming the transcription initiation complex.

Regulatory switches and activator proteins

Exactly. Letters “a” and “c” show regulatory switches. Letter “b” shows activator proteins.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  The regulatory switches are usually located upstream of the protein-coding genes, shown in green.

 

The promoter.

Fantastic. The promoter is located at “d.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  The promoter is located just before the gene (indicated in green).

 

Transcription factors (and mediator proteins)

Impressive. Transcription factors and mediator proteins are are at “g” and “h.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Transcription factors and mediator proteins bind at or near the promoter, enabling RNA polymerase to bind.

 

RNA polymerase binding at the transcription initiation complex.

Great job. At “j” you can see RNA polymerase (“i”) binding at the transcription initiation complex.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  RNA polymerase is a large protein that binds at the promoter, and which then proceeds to transcribe the gene.

 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Click-on Challenge Dataset|ed8cc4e7d54f2″ question_number=”5″ unit=”6.Gene_Expression_and_Regulation” topic=”6.6.Eukaryotic_Gene_Regulation”] TOPIC: DNA, pre-mRNA and mRNA