Link to The Cell Cycle Student Learning Guide

1. Mitosis: Interactive Lyrics

Let’s assume you’ve already watched the Mitosis Rap video , and tried the Karaoke version. (if not, click the link, then come back). The next step is to carefully read the lyrics. Read them in the interactive format I’ve set up for you below.

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-mitosisLyrics”]

[h]Mitosis: Interactive Lyrics

[i]What follows are the lyrics to Mitosis!, organized into a fill-in-the blanks quiz. Reading like this will deepen your understanding of how mitosis works (See Make It Stick, by Brown, Roediger, and McDaniel).

Give it a try, and leave me a comment letting me know what you think.

[q labels = “top”]

__________ is cell division’s longest part,

Interphase
Interphase

Nuclear membrane’s intact as it starts,
The cell’s growing, cytoplasm flowing,
chromosomes get duplicated, DNA gets __________

 

Chromosomes are __________ so they can’t be seen distinctly
But note the nucleolus, the ribosome factory
Outside the nucleus are two ____________,
They later make a spindle which will pull apart the chromosomes.

[l]centrosomes

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]interphase

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]replicated

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]spread out

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[q labels = “top”]

__________ follows, the chromosomes condense,

Prophase (Early)
Prophase (Early)

Each is made of two sister ___________, like an “X”
Each sister is a clone, the closest of kin,
And a centromere connects them like siamese twins,

 

The __________ disappears it melts away,
as the cell takes a ribosome production holiday,
the centrosomes separate, start __________ formation
for separating chromatids and cell elongation.

[l]chromatids

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]nucleolus

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]prophase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]spindle

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[q labels = “top”]

CHORUS
Mitosis, ______________ ride
Inter-, pro-, meta-, ana-, ___________, divide
__________ go from one cell to two,
Mitosis, how cells __________.

[l]chromosomal

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]eukaryotes

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]renew

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]telophase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[q labels = “top”]

In late prophase (______________),
The nuclear membrane disintegrates,
The _____________ migrate to the cell’s opposing sides,
And between them the fibers of the spindle wend and wind,

 

The spindle’s made of _____________ fibers which attach

to chromosomes at _____________, a protein patch
that serves like a handle that the fibers can grasp,
When they pull apart the chromosomes, splitting them in __________.

The spindle pulls the ______________with nudges so fine
Into linear formation on the 50 yard line.
A location equatorial defining ___________,
where the chromosomes are lined up on that middle place.

[l]centrosomes

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]half

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]kinetochores

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]microtubule

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]prometaphase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]chromosomes

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]metaphase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

CHORUS

[q labels = “top”]

Anaphase
Anaphase

The spindle fibers pull on the kinetochores,
A cellular molecular mitotic tug of war,
The centromere snaps, sisters get __________,
Now these ____________ are chromosomes, they’ve been upgraded

 

This snapping separation defines __________.
The “A” for “apartness”, for moving different ways,
____________ spindle fibers separate the sisters
See ‘em waving goodbye, calling out “I’m gonna miss ya,”

 

And the other spindle fibers push and grapple like felons
Makes the cell elliptical like a watermelon,
In ___________ membranes form ‘round the ____________,
Which spread out as the __________ come on home.

[l]anaphase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]chromatids

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]chromosomes

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]kinetochore

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]nucleoli

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]separated

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]telophase

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

CHORUS

[q labels = “top”]

In animal cells there’s a ring of ______________
that form at the __________ and they cinch themselves in
Tighter, tighter, tighter, tighter ‘til the cell is in two pieces,
Yeah in animals, that’s ___________.

 

But it’s different in plants in them the cell divides
By building a new __________ from the inside.
As the Golgi sends __________ with cellulosic goo,
Which makes a plate, then a wall, divides the cell in two

 

And instead of one mother cell we now have __________ two
Identical twins, kind of old but kind of new,
From your single celled beginning this is how you __________.
And for single celled eukaryotes it’s ____________ too!

[l]cell wall

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]cytokinesis

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Great!

[l]daughters

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Excellent!

[l]equator

[fx] No. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]grew

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]microfilaments

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

[l]reproductive

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Correct!

[l]vesicles

[fx] No, that’s not correct. Please try again.

[f*] Good!

CHORUS (repeat and fade)

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]

2. Mitosis Quiz: Key Concepts

This first quiz tests you about the significance of cell division. Among other things, it tests you on this diagram. Let your cursor hover over it to see a key.

majorEventsInMitosis
Major events in cell division

[qwiz random = “true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-mitosisKeyConcepts”]

[h] Quiz: key mitosis concepts

[i] Here’s how these quizzes work:

  • Each question is multiple choice, but the entire quiz is like a series of flashcards.
  • If you get the question right, it comes off the deck.
  • If you get the question wrong, it goes to the bottom of the deck, so you can try it again.

[!]QUESTION 1+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]Which of the following is NOT a function that cell division plays in multicellular organisms?

[c] repairing damaged tissues

[c] providing additional cells for growth

[c*] sending signals throughout your body.

[f] No. Note that this question is asking you ‘which is NOT a function of cell division.’ The way that your body repairs damaged tissues is by replacing the damaged cells, and that happens through cell division. Next time you see this question, try to identify a function that’s NOT connected to cell division.

[f] No. Note that this question is asking you ‘which is NOT a function of cell division.’ The primary way that you grew from being a single celled zygote (fertilized egg) to the person with trillions of cells that you are now was through adding additional cells, and that happens through cell division. Next time you see this question, try to identify a function that’s NOT connected to cell division.

[f] Yes! Signaling happens either through waves of ions flowing along nerve cell membranes, or through release of hormones into the bloodstream. In other words, cell division doesn’t play any direct role in these processes.

[!]QUESTION 2+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]Which of the following diseases is most directly related to abnormal cell division?

[c*] cancer

[c] cystic fibrosis

[c] Heart attack

[c] Diabetes

[f] Exactly. Cancer is a disease of abnormal cell division.

[f] No. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease caused by the malfunction of a chlorine ion transporter in the cell membranes of  cells in your lungs and other organs. Next time, choose a disease that is directly related to cell division.

[f] No. Heart attacks are caused by blocked arteries in the heart, which cause the cells downstream of the blockage to become damaged (or even die). Next time, choose a disease that is directly related to cell division.

[f] No. Diabetes is a metabolic disease involving the body’s inability to control blood sugar levels. Next time, choose a disease that is directly related to cell division.

[!]QUESTION 3+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] Genetically, what’s the relationship between the daughter cells that result from cell division, and the parent cell?

[c] The relationship is exactly like the relationship between the mother and a daughter in a human family.

[c*] The daughter cells from mitosis and cell division are exact duplicates, or clones of each other, and of the parent cell.

[c] The daughter cells are identical to each other, but only half-way related to the mother (just like identical twins in a human family).

[f] No. In a human family, a daughter receives half of her DNA from her mother, and half from her father. In mitosis and cell division, the daughter cells receive all of their DNA from the parent cell. In fact, the parent cell, after cell division, no longer exists. It has become the daughter cell, each of which is half new, and half old.

[f] That’s exactly right. Each daughter cell is identical to the other daughter cell, and to the parent cell.  In fact, the parent cell, after cell division, no longer exists. It has become the daughter cells, each of which is half new, and half old.

[f] No. Unlike human identical twins, the cells that result from mitosis and cell division are not only exact genetic copies of one another. They’re also exact copies of the parent cell (who no longer really exists, having become the two daughter cells).

[!]QUESTION 4+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below (showing the major events in cell division), which number is showing the separation of sister chromatids?

[c] 1

[c] 2

[c*] 3

[c] 4

[f] No. In this first step, single chromosomes are becoming doubled chromosomes, each consisting of two sister chromatids. Next time, look for a step where these sister chromatids are being separated into single chromosomes

[f] No. After step 1, the chromosomes are doubled, consisting of two sister chromatids. In step 2, the spindle apparatus is being constructed. Next time, look for a step where these sister chromatids are being separated into single chromosomes.

[f] Awesome! After step 1, the chromosomes are doubled, consisting of two sister chromatids. In step 2, the spindle apparatus is being constructed. In step 3, the sister chromatids are being pulled apart.

[f] No. By step four, the sister chromatids have already been pulled apart into single chromosomes, and the cell is splitting in half, a process called cytokinesis. Next time, look for a step where doubled chromosomes (also known as sister chromatids) are being separated into single chromosomes.

[!]QUESTION 5+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]In the diagram below (showing the major events in cell division), which number is showing chromosome duplication?

[c*] 1

[c] 2

[c] 3

[c] 4

[f] Exactly. In step 1, single chromosomes are being duplicated, becoming doubled chromosomes consisting of two sister chromatids.

[f] No. In step 2, the spindle apparatus is being constructed. The chromosomes are already doubled, and have a characteristic ‘X’ shaped form. Next time, look for a step where single chromosomes (which don’t look like an ‘X,’ are being doubled so that they do look like an ‘X.’

[f] No. In step 3, the sister chromatids are being pulled apart. Next time, look for a step where single chromosomes (which don’t look like an ‘X,’ are being doubled so that they do look like an ‘X.’

[f] No. In step 4,  the cell is splitting in half, a process called cytokinesis. Next time, look for a step where single chromosomes (which don’t look like an ‘X,’ are being doubled so that they do look like an ‘X.’

[!]QUESTION 6+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]In the diagram below (showing the major events in cell division), which number is showing cytokinesis?

[c] 1

[c] 2

[c] 3

[c*] 4

[f] No. In step 1, single chromosomes are being duplicated, becoming doubled chromosomes consisting of two sister chromatids. Next time, look for a step that shows one cell becoming two cells.

[f] No. In step 2, the spindle apparatus is being constructed. Next time, look for a step that shows one cell becoming two cells.

[f] No. In step 3, the sister chromatids are being pulled apart. Next time, look for a step that shows one cell becoming two cells.

[f] Perfect! In step 4,  the cell is splitting in half, a process called cytokinesis.

[!]QUESTION 7+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]In the diagram below (showing the major events in cell division), which number is showing the creation of the spindle apparatus, which is the mechanism for pulling doubled chromosomes (also known as sister chromatids) apart?

[c] 1

[c*] 2

[c] 3

[c] 4

[f] No. In step 1, single chromosomes are being duplicated, becoming doubled chromosomes consisting of two sister chromatids. Next time, look for a step that shows the appearance of an array of fibers in the cell. These fibers make up the spindle apparatus, and their function is to pull apart the sister chromatids.

[f] Terrific! In step 2, the spindle apparatus is being constructed.

[f] No. In step 3, the sister chromatids are being pulled apart. Next time, look for a step that shows the appearance of an array of fibers in the cell. These fibers make up the spindle apparatus, and their function is to pull apart the sister chromatids.

[f] No. In step 4,  the cell is splitting in half, a process called cytokinesis. Next time, look for a step that shows the appearance of an array of fibers in the cell. These fibers make up the spindle apparatus, and their function is to pull apart the sister chromatids.

[!]QUESTION 8+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]In the diagram below (showing the major events in cell division), which number shows replication of DNA?

[c*] 1

[c] 2

[c] 3

[c] 4

[f] Nice! In step 1, single chromosomes are being duplicated, becoming doubled chromosomes consisting of two sister chromatids. Doubling of chromosomes comes about through replication of DNA.

[f] No. In step 2, the spindle apparatus is being constructed. DNA replication occurs as single chromosomes (which don’t look like an ‘X’) become doubled chromosomes (which do look like an ‘X’). Next time, find a step where this change in chromosome appearance occurs.

[f] No. In step 3, the sister chromatids are being pulled apart. DNA replication occurs as single chromosomes (which don’t look like an ‘X’) become doubled chromosomes (which do look like an ‘X’). Next time, find a step where this change in chromosome appearance occurs.

[f] No. In step 4,  the cell is splitting in half, a process called cytokinesis. DNA replication occurs as single chromosomes (which don’t look like an ‘X’) become doubled chromosomes (which do look like an ‘X’). Next time, find a step where this change in chromosome appearance occurs.

[x]
If you want to take this quiz again, click the button below

[restart]

[/qwiz]

3. Mitosis Quiz: Mechanisms of Mitosis

The quiz below tests you on the following two diagrams. You can see a key to each one by letting your cursor hover over the diagram.

Spindle_apparatus(wikipedia, original) mitosis phases for quiz

 

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-mitosisMechansisms”]

[h] Mitosis Quiz: Mechanisms of Mitosis.

[i]Biohaiku

Doubled Chromosomes

Two linked sister chromatids

In anaphase part

 

 

 

[!]QUESTION 1+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] The correct sequence of the phases of cell division and mitosis is

[c] interphase, prophase, telophase, anaphase, cytokinesis

[c] cytokinesis, metaphase, prophase, telophase, anaphase

[c] telophase, interphase, metaphase, prophase, cytokinesis

[c] prophase, anaphase, interphase, cytokinesis, metaphase

[c*] interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

[f] That’s not it. I find that the mnemonic ‘I Put My Apple There, Charlie” helps me keep the order of the phases straight. See if you can use that the next time you see this question to identify the correct sequence.

[f] That’s not it. I find that the mnemonic ‘I Put My Apple There, Charlie” helps me keep the order of the phases straight. See if you can use that the next time you see this question to identify the correct sequence.

[f] That’s not it. I find that the mnemonic ‘I Put My Apple There, Charlie” helps me keep the order of the phases straight. See if you can use that the next time you see this question to identify the correct sequence.

[f] That’s not it. I find that the mnemonic ‘I Put My Apple There, Charlie” helps me keep the order of the phases straight. See if you can use that the next time you see this question to identify the correct sequence.

[f] Correct! If you ever have trouble remembering in the future, I find that the mnemonic ‘I Put My Apple There, Charlie” helps me keep the order of the phases straight.

[!]QUESTION 2+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to a sister chromatid?

[c*] 1

[c] 2

[c] 3

[c] 4

[f] Good job. Number 1 is pointing to one of the sister chromatids.

[f] No. Number 2 is pointing to a kinetochore. The sister chromatids are the doubled chromosomes that emerge at the end of interphase, just before mitosis starts. In this diagram, the sister chromatid is the major structure shown. Think about that when you see this question next time.

[f] No. Number 3 represents the spindle fibers. The sister chromatids are the doubled chromosomes that emerge at the end of interphase, just before mitosis starts. In this diagram, the sister chromatid is the major structure shown. Think about that when you see this question next time.

[f] No. Number 4 represents the centromere, which is what holds the two sister chromatids together. The sister chromatids are the doubled chromosomes that emerge at the end of interphase, just before mitosis starts. In this diagram, the sister chromatid is the major structure shown. Think about that when you see this question next time.

[!]QUESTION 3+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the centromere?

[c] 1

[c] 2

[c] 3

[c*] 4

[f] That’s not it. Number 1 is pointing to one of the sister chromatids. The centromere is what holds the two sister chromatids together. Keep that in mind when you see this question again.

[f] No. Number 2 is pointing to a kinetochore. The centromere is what holds the two sister chromatids together. Keep that in mind when you see this question again.

[f] No. Number 3 represents the spindle fibers. The centromere is what holds the two sister chromatids together. Keep that in mind when you see this question again.

[f] Exactly. Number 4 represents the centromere, which is what holds the two sister chromatids together.

[!]QUESTION 4+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to a kinetochore?

[c] 1

[c*] 2

[c] 3

[c] 4

[f] No. Number 1 is pointing to one of the sister chromatids. A kinetochore is like a handle that the spindle fibers (shown at 3)  grab onto as they move chromosomes to the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart. Next time, try to identify a part that looks like one of these handles.

[f] Terrific! Number 2 is pointing to a kinetochore. The kinetochore is like a handle that the spindle fibers grab onto as they move chromosomes to the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart.

[f] No. Number 3 represents the spindle fibers. A kinetochore is like a handle that the spindle fibers (shown at 3)  grab onto as they move chromosomes to the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart. Next time, try to identify a part that looks like one of these handles.

[f] No. Number 4 represents the centromere, which is what holds the two sister chromatids together. A kinetochore is like a handle that the spindle fibers (shown at 3)  grab onto as they move chromosomes to the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart. Next time, try to identify a part that looks like one of these handles.

[!]QUESTION 5+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the spindle fibers?

[c] 1

[c] 2

[c*] 3

[c] 4

[f] No. Number 1 is pointing to one of the sister chromatids. The spindle fibers are the ‘strings’ that grab onto the sister chromatids and pull them apart. Next time, think about which arrow is pointing to a part that looks most similar to a group of strings.

[f] No. Number 2 is pointing to a kinetochore. The kinetochore is like a handle that the spindle fibers grab onto as they move chromosomes to the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart.  The spindle fibers are the ‘strings’ that do this grabbing and pulling. Next time, think about which arrow is pointing to a part that looks most similar to a group of strings.

[f] Awesome. Number 3 represents the spindle fibers.

[f] No. Number 4 represents the centromere, which is what holds the two sister chromatids together. The spindle fibers are the ‘strings’ that do this grabbing and pulling. Next time, think about which arrow is pointing to a part that looks most similar to a group of strings.

[!]QUESTION 6+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the spindle fibers?

[c] 1

[c*] 2

[c] 3

[c] 4

[c] 5

[f] No. Number 1 is pointing to the centrosome (which for our purposes is pretty much synonymous with ‘centriole’). The centrsome creates the spindle. The spindle fibers are the ‘strings’ (actually, protein microtubules) that first position the chromosomes in the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart. Next time you see this question, try to identify the part that looks most like an array of strings.

[f] Nice! The spindle fibers are the ‘strings’ (actually, protein microtubules) that first position the chromosomes in the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart.

[f] No. Number 3 is pointing to the nuclear membrane, which in this phase of mitosis, is disintegrating. The spindle fibers are the ‘strings’ (actually, protein microtubules) that first position the chromosomes in the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart. Next time you see this question, try to identify the part that looks most like an array of strings.

[f] No. Number 4 is pointing to one of the chromosomes. The spindle fibers are the ‘strings’ (actually, protein microtubules) that  position the chromosomes in the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart. Next time you see this question, try to identify the part that looks most like an array of strings.

[f] No, but you’re very close. Number 5 is pointing to the aster, an array of short microtubules that radiates out from the centrosomes. The spindle fibers are essentially the same thing, only longer, appearing as an array of string-like fibers that position the chromosomes in the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart. Next time you see this question, try to identify the part that looks most like an array of strings.

[!]QUESTION 7+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the aster?

[c] 1

[c] 2

[c] 3

[c] 4

[c*] 5

[f] No. Number 1 is pointing to the centrosome (also called the centriole). The centriole creates the spindle. The aster is an array of short microtubules that radiates out from the centrosome. Next time you see this question, try to identify this array of short fibers.

[f] No, but you’re close. Number 2 is pointing to the spindle fibers, which are different from the aster because the spindle fibers are longer, and stretch across the cell. The aster is an array of short microtubules that radiates from the centrosome. Next time you see this question, try to identify this array of short fibers.

[f] No. Number 3 is pointing to the nuclear membrane, which in this phase of mitosis, is disintegrating. The aster is an array of short microtubules that radiates from the centrosome (but which, unlike the spindle fibers, don’t stretch across the cell). Next time you see this question, try to identify this array of short fibers.

[f] No. Number 4 is pointing to one of the chromosomes. The aster is an array of short microtubules that radiates from the centrosome (but which, unlike the spindle fibers, don’t stretch across the cell). Next time you see this question, try to identify this array of short fibers.

[f] Correct! Number 5 is pointing to the aster, an array of short microtubules that radiates out from the centrosome.

[!]QUESTION 8+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to a chromosome?

[c] 1

[c] 2

[c] 3

[c*] 4

[c] 5

[f] No. Number 1 is pointing to the centrosome (which for our purposes, is pretty much synonymous with ‘centriole’). The chromosomes are the ‘X’ shaped structures. They contain the cell’s DNA, and dividing them up is the whole purpose of mitosis.

[f] No, Number 2 is pointing to the spindle fibers. The chromosomes are the ‘X’ shaped structures. They contain the cell’s DNA, and dividing them up is the whole purpose of mitosis and cell division.

[f] No. Number 3 is pointing to the nuclear membrane, which in this phase of mitosis, is disintegrating. The chromosomes are the ‘X’ shaped structures. They contain the cell’s DNA, and dividing them up is the whole purpose of mitosis and cell division.

[f] Excellent! Number 4 is pointing to the chromosomes. They contain the cell’s DNA, and dividing them up is the whole purpose of cell division and mitosis.

[f] No. Number 5 is pointing to the aster. The chromosomes are the ‘X’ shaped structures. They contain the cell’s DNA, and dividing them up is the whole purpose of mitosis and cell division.

[!]QUESTION 9+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to a centrosome (which for our purposes, is pretty much synonymous with the term ‘centriole’)?

[c*] 1

[c] 2

[c] 3

[c] 4

[c] 5

[f] Way to go! Number 1 is pointing to the centrosome. The centrosome creates the spindle. The spindle is the array of ‘strings’ (actually, protein microtubules) that first positions the chromosomes in the center of the cell, and then pulls the sister chromatids apart.

[f] No, Number 2 is pointing to the spindle fibers. The centrosome is the source of the spindle and aster. Next time you see this question, identify the part that looks like it’s radiating an array of fibers.

[f] No. Number 3 is pointing to the nuclear membrane, which in this phase of mitosis, is disintegrating. The centrosome is the source of the spindle and aster. Next time you see this question, identify the part that looks like it’s radiating an array of fibers.

[f] Excellent! Number 4 is pointing to the chromosomes. The centrosome is the source of the spindle and aster. Next time you see this question, identify the part that looks like it’s radiating an array of fibers.

[f] No, but you’re very close. Number 5 is pointing to the aster. The aster radiates out from the centrosome. Next time you see this question, use this information to choose the correct answer.

[!]QUESTION 10+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the disintegrating nuclear membrane?

[c] 1

[c] 2

[c*] 3

[c] 4

[c] 5

[f] No. Number 1 is pointing to the centrosome (also called the centriole). The nuclear membrane (which is disintegrating during this phase of mitosis) surrounds the chromosomes, the X-shaped structures in the center of the cell.

[f] No, Number 2 is pointing to the spindle fibers. The nuclear membrane (which is disintegrating during this phase of mitosis) surrounds the chromosomes, the X-shaped structures in the center of the cell.

[f] Terrific! Number 3 is pointing to the nuclear membrane, which in this phase of mitosis, is disintegrating.

[f] No. Number 4 is pointing to the chromosomes. The nuclear membrane surrounds the chromosomes.

[f] No. Number 5 is pointing to the aster. The nuclear membrane (which is disintegrating during this phase of mitosis) surrounds the chromosomes, the X-shaped structures in the center of the cell.

[!]QUESTION 11+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In the diagram below, which number is pointing to a the part that contains the DNA?

[c*]1

[c]2

[c]3

[c]4

[f]Good job. Number 1 is pointing to one of the sister chromatids, which contains the DNA, the molecule of heredity.

[f]No. Number 2 is pointing to a kinetochore. The kinetochores are like handles that the spindle fibers use to separate the chromosomes. As a hint, consider that the part that contains the DNA is the biggest thing shown in this diagram.

[f] No. Number 3 represents the spindle fibers, which are made of protein microtubules. As a hint, consider that the part that contains the DNA is the biggest thing shown in this diagram.

[f] No. Number 4 represents the centromere, which is what holds the two sister chromatids together. As a hint, consider that the part that contains the DNA is the biggest thing shown in this diagram.

[!]QUESTION 12+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the part that holds the two sister chromatids together?

[c]1

[c]2

[c]3

[c*]4

[f]That’s not it. Number 1 is pointing to one of the sister chromatids. Try to identify a part that connects this sister chromatid to the other sister chromatid.

[f]No. Number 2 is pointing to a kinetochore. Try to identify a part that connects the two sister chromatids. The sister chromatids are the largest structures shown in this diagram.

[f]No. Number 3 represents the spindle fibers. . Try to identify a part that connects the two sister chromatids. The sister chromatids are the largest structures shown in this diagram.

[f]Exactly. Number 4 represents the centromere, which is what holds the two sister chromatids together.

[!]QUESTION 13+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the ‘handles’ that the spindle fibers grab on to as they move and then separate the sister chromatids?

[c]1

[c*]2

[c]3

[c]4

[f] No. Number 1 is pointing to one of the sister chromatids. What you’re looking for is something equivalent to a handle that the spindle fibers (shown at 3)  grab onto as they move chromosomes to the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart. Next time, try to identify a part that looks like one of these handles.

[f]Terrific! Number 2 is pointing to a kinetochore. The kinetochore is like a handle that the spindle fibers grab onto as they move chromosomes to the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart.

[f]No. Number 3 represents the spindle fibers. What you’re looking for is something equivalent to a handle that the spindle fibers (shown at 3)  grab onto as they move chromosomes to the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart. Next time, try to identify a part that looks like one of these handles.

[f]No. Number 4 represents the centromere, which is what holds the two sister chromatids together. What you’re looking for is something equivalent to a handle that the spindle fibers (shown at 3)  grab onto as they move chromosomes to the center of the cell, and then pull the sister chromatids apart. Next time, try to identify a part that looks like one of these handles.

[!]QUESTION 14+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q]In the diagram below, which number is pointing to the protein microtubules that move and then separate the sister crhomatids?

[c]1

[c]2

[c*]3

[c]4

[f]No. Number 1 is pointing to one of the sister chromatids. You’re looking for the spindle fibers, protein microtubules, which are the ‘strings’ that grab onto the sister chromatids and pull them apart. Next time, think about which arrow is pointing to a part that looks most similar to a group of strings.

[f]No. Number 2 is pointing to a kinetochore. You’re looking for the spindle fibers, protein microtubules which are the ‘strings’ that grab onto the sister chromatids  (at the kinetochore) and pull them apart. Next time, think about which arrow is pointing to a part that looks most similar to a group of strings.

[f] Awesome. Number 3 represents the spindle fibers. These fibers are protein microtubules that manipulate and then pull apart the sister chromatids.

[f]No. Number 4 represents the centromere, which is what holds the two sister chromatids together. You’re looking for the spindle fibers, protein microtubules which are the ‘strings’ that grab onto the sister chromatids  (at the kinetochore) and pull them apart. Next time, think about which arrow is pointing to a part that looks most similar to a group of strings.

[x]
If you want to take this quiz again, click the button below

[restart]

[/qwiz]

4. Quiz: Phases of Mitosis

This quiz tests you about the phases of mitosis. You should be familiar with the following diagrams before you take the quiz. For each phase shown, you should be able to identify the phase in an unlabeled diagram, explain what’s happening, and describe what would happen next.

If you hover your cursor over the diagram, you can see a key to each phase.

mitosisAllPhases
Phases of mitosis and cytokinesis

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-mitosisPhases”]

[h]Quiz: Phases of Mitosis.

[i]

 

[!]Question 1++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c] interphase

[c] prophase

[c] late prophase/prometaphase

[c*] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[c] telophase

[c] cytokinesis

[f] No. Notice that the chromosomes are in the middle of the cell. The ‘m’ in the word ‘middle’ is a clue to the name of this phase.

[f] No. Notice that the chromosomes are in the middle of the cell. The ‘m’ in the word ‘middle’ is a clue to the name of this phase.

[f] No. Notice that the chromosomes are in the middle of the cell. The ‘‘m’ in the word ‘middle’ is a clue to the name of this phase.

[f] Excellent. This cell is in metaphase, which you can tell by the fact that the chromosomes are in the middle of the cell.

[f] No. In anaphase, the sister chromatids are pulled apart. Notice that the chromosomes are still doubled, and that they are in the middle of the cell. The ‘‘m’ in the word ‘middle’ is a clue to the name of this phase.

[f] No. In telophase, you’d see one elongated cell with two nuclei. Here, there’s no nucleus at all. In addition, notice that the chromosomes are still doubled, and that they are in the middle of the cell. The ‘m’ in the word ‘middle’ is a clue to the name of this phase.

[f] No. In cytokinesis, the cell is clearly splitting into two. Notice that in this cell the chromosomes are still doubled, and that they are in the middle of the cell. The ‘m’ in the word ‘middle’ is a clue to the name of this phase.

[!]QUESTION 2++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In terms of cell division and mitosis, what’s the next thing that will happen to the cell shown in the diagram?

[c] The cell will replicate its chromosomes.

[c] The cell will split into two daughter cells.

[c] Two nuclear membranes will form around each set of daughter chromosomes.

[c*] Sister chromatids will be split apart.

[f] No. The chromosomes have already replicated themselves. That’s why the chromosomes have an ‘X’ like appearance. Now, there are doubled chromosomes in the middle of the cell. These doubled chromosomes need to be separated. What’s the next most likely step?

[f] No. Each daughter cell will have to reform its nucleus before the cell can split. Now, there are doubled chromosomes in the middle of the cell. These doubled chromosomes need to be separated. What’s the next most likely step?

[f] No. Before that can happen, the doubled chromosomes need to be pulled apart. Think about that the next time you see this question.

[f] Excellent. This cell is in metaphase, with chromosomes lined up in the middle of the cell. In the next phase, anaphase, the spindle fibers will separate these sister chromatids.

[!]QUESTION 3++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c*] interphase

[c] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c] telophase

[f] Excellent. In interphase, the cell’s nuclear membrane is intact. You can see the nucleolus, and there’s no spindle.

[f] No. In prophase, the chromosomes condense. In this phase, you can’t see distinct chromosomes. Next time, make another choice.

[f] No. If this were metaphase, the chromosomes would be lined up along the cell equator. A well developed spindle would be visible. Next time, make another choice.

[f] No. If this were telophase, you would see two nuclei forming within one elongated cell. Next time, make another choice.

[!]QUESTION 4++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In terms of cell division and mitosis, what’s the next thing that will happen to the cell shown in the diagram?

[c] The cell will replicate its chromosomes.

[c] The cell will split into two daughter cells.

[c] Two nuclear membranes will form around each set of daughter chromosomes.

[c] Sister chromatids will be split apart.

[c*] The DNA will condense into distinct chromosomes.

[f] No. The chromosomes have already replicated themselves. But the chromosomes are still spread out throughout the nucleus. How will the chromosomes have to change for cell division to proceed?

[f] No. Many things will have to happen before the cell is ready to split. One of these things has to do with changing the appearance and arrangement of the cell’s DNA, which is organized into chromosomes.

[f] No. Way before that can happen, the cell will need to change the appearance and arrangement of its DNA, which is organized into chromosomes.

[f] No. That happens during anaphase. Before we can even approach this stage, we have to organize the duplicated DNA so that it looks like sister chromatids. How will that happen?

[f] Exactly! That is what happens during prophase, along with the disappearance of the nucleolus, and the disintegration of the nuclear membranes.

[!]QUESTION 5++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c] interphase

[c*] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c] telophase

[c] cytokinesis

[f] No. In interphase, the cell’s nuclear membrane is intact. You can see the nucleolus, and there’s no spindle.

[f] That’s correct.  In prophase, as you can see, the chromosomes condense, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes start to move away from one another.

[f] No. If this were metaphase, the chromosomes would be lined up along the cell equator. A well developed spindle would be visible. Next time, make another choice.

[f] No. If this were telophase, you would see two nuclei forming within one elongated cell. Next time, make another choice.

[f] No. In cytokinesis, the cell is clearly splitting into two. Here’s a hint: we’re in an early phase of cell division, but not right at the start.

[!]QUESTION 6++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c] interphase

[c] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c*] anaphase

[c] telophase

[f] No. In interphase, the cell’s nuclear membrane is intact. You can see the nucleolus, and there’s no spindle. Note that in this cell, the sister chromatids have been pulled apart. The ‘A’ in ‘apart’ is a clue to the name of this phase.

[f] No.  In prophase, the chromosomes condense, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes start to move away from one another. Note that in this cell, the sister chromatids have been pulled apart. The ‘A’ in ‘apart’ is a clue to the name of this phase.

[f] No. If this were metaphase, the chromosomes would be lined up along the cell equator. A well developed spindle would be visible. Note that in this cell, the sister chromatids have been pulled apart. The ‘A’ in ‘apart’ is a clue to the name of this phase.

[f] Fabulous. This cell is in anaphase, which you can tell by the fact that the sister chromatids have been pulled apart.

[f] No. If this were telophase, you would see two nuclei forming within one elongated cell. Note that in this cell, the sister chromatids have been pulled apart. The ‘A’ in ‘apart’ is a clue to the name of this phase.

 [!]QUESTION 7+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In terms of cell division and mitosis, what’s the next thing that will happen to the cell shown in the diagram?

[c] The chromosomes will line up in the middle of the cell.

[c] The cell will split into two daughter cells.

[c*] A nuclear membrane will form around each set of daughter chromosomes.

[c] The DNA will be duplicated.

[f] No. As you can see in the diagram, the sister chromatids have already been pulled apart. Moving them to the middle would literally be a step backwards. Think about where you find chromosomes in a mature cell, and you’ll be able to figure out the answer to this question when you see it again.

[f] No, but that’s close. In between splitting apart the sister chromatids, which is what you see here, and division of the cell, is one more stage. Think about where you find chromosomes in a mature cell, and you’ll be able to figure out the answer to this question when you see it again.

[f] Correct! After anaphase, during which the sister chromatids have been pulled apart, the next step would be to re-form new nuclei, with membranes surrounding the daughter chromosomes.

[f] No. That happened long ago, during the middle of interphase. After splitting apart the sister chromatids, which is what you see here, what would have to happen? Think about where you find chromosomes in a mature cell, and you’ll be able to figure out the answer to this question when you see it again.

[!]QUESTION 8+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c] interphase

[c] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[c] telophase

[c*] cytokinesis

[f] No. Interphase is the very beginning of the process of cell division, and many things have to happen before the cell is ready to split into two. Next time, choose a phase closer to the end of the cell division process.

[f] No.  In a cell in prophase, you’d be able to see distinct chromosomes. And you wouldn’t see a cell that’s about to split into two daughter cells. Next time, choose a much later phase in the process.

[f] No. If this were metaphase, the chromosomes would be lined up along the cell equator. Additionally, a metaphase cell would not be splitting into two daughter cells. Next time, choose a phase that’s at the end of the process.

[f] No. In anaphase, you’d see a single cell in which the sister chromatids had just been pulled apart. But the cell would be along way from splitting into two. Next time, choose a phase that’s close to the end of the process.

[f] No, but you’re very close. A telophase cell has already formed two new nuclei. What would have to happen to this cell for it to form two daughter cells? Next time you see this question, if you can think of the name of the last phase of the cell division process, you’ll have the answer.

[f] Terrific! This cell is indeed undergoing cytokinesis, and is about to split into two daughter cells.

[!]QUESTION 9+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c] interphase

[c] prophase (early)

[c*] late prophase/prometaphase

[c] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[f] No. In interphase, the cell’s nuclear membrane is intact. You can see the nucleolus, and there’s no spindle. This cell is just about to be in the middle of mitosis. Use that clue, and next time choose another answer.

[f] No, but you’re very close. In a cell in early prophase, the centrosomes would still be close together, and a complete spindle would not have yet formed. What phase would follow?

[f] Exactly. This cell in late prophase. You can tell this by the fact that the nuclear membrane has almost completely disintegrated, by the nearly fully formed spindle, and by the movement of the doubled chromosomes toward the cell equator.

[f] No. In a metaphase cell, you’d see the doubled chromosomes lined up in the middle of the cell. In this diagram, they’re being pulled toward the middle, but they’re not there yet. Which phase would immediately precede metaphase?

[f] No. In anaphase, you’d see a single cell in which the sister chromatids had just been pulled apart. In this diagram, the chromosomes are still doubled. Next time, choose a phase that’s earlier in the process.

[!]QUESTION 10+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In terms of cell division and mitosis, what’s the next thing that will happen to the cell shown in the diagram?

[c*] The chromosomes will line up in the middle of the cell.

[c] The cell will split into two daughter cells.

[c] Two nuclear membranes will form around each set of daughter chromosomes.

[c] Sister chromatids will be split apart.

[f] Excellent. The chromosomes are already hooked onto spindle fibers. Now the cell needs to move the chromosomes to the middle of cell, so that the sister chromatids can be pulled apart.

[f] No. Many things will have to happen before the cell is ready to spilt. One of these things has to do with positioning the doubled chromosomes so that the sister chromatids can be pulled apart. How can that happen?

[f] No. Way before that can happen, the cell needs to separate the sister chromatids making up the doubled chromosomes. How can the cell position the sister chromatids so that they can be pulled apart?

[f] No. That happens during anaphase. What has to happen immediately before anaphase?

[!]QUESTION 11+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] The diagram below shows a cell in which phase of mitosis/cell division?

[c] interphase

[c] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[c*] telophase

[c] cytokinesis

[f] No. In a lot of ways, this cell looks like an interphase cell, except for that it has two strange features: two nuclei, and a very elongated shape. The presence of two nuclei indicates that this cell is close to the end of the cell division process (and not at the beginning).

[f] No. In a prophase cell, the chromosomes would have condensed into their characteristic ‘X’ shape, which you don’t see here. Also, you do see two nuclei, indicating that the stage that this cell is in is close to the end of the cell division process.

[f] No. In a metaphase cell, you’d see the doubled chromosomes lined up in the middle of the cell. The presence of two nuclei indicates that this cell is close to the end of the cell division process (and not in the middle.)

[f] No, but you’re close. In anaphase, you’d see a single cell in which the sister chromatids had just been pulled apart. You would not see the two nuclei which you see in this diagram. Next time, choose the phase just after anaphase.

[f] Excellent. This cell is in telophase, which you can tell by the presence of two nuclei in one, elongated cell.

[f] No. In cytokinesis, the cell is actually dividing into two. Choose a slightly earlier phase next time.

[!]QUESTION 12+++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In terms of cell division and mitosis, what’s the next thing that will happen to the cell shown in the diagram?

[c] The sister chromatids will be pulled apart.

[c*] The cell will split into two daughter cells.

[c] The chromosomes will move to the middle of the cell.

[c] The DNA will be duplicated.

[f] No. As you can see in the diagram, new nuclei are reforming. That means that sister chromatids have already been split apart. Here you see one elongated cell, with two nuclei. For the next step, ask yourself the question, ‘What will have to happen to this cell in order to make it into two daughter cells?’

[f] Exactly. After telophase, where you see one elongated cell with two nuclei, the next step would be to divide the cell into two.

[f] No. That would be moving backwards, toward metaphase. Here you see one elongated cell, with two nuclei. For the next step, ask yourself the question, ‘What will have to happen to this cell in order to make it into two daughter cells?’

[f] No. That happened long ago, during the middle of interphase. Here you see one elongated cell, with two nuclei. For the next step, ask yourself the question, ‘What will have to happen to this cell in order to make it into two daughter cells?’

[x]

If you want to take this quiz again, click the button below

[restart]

[/qwiz]

5. Another Mitosis Quiz

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-MitosisQuiz5″]

[h]Quiz: Many Mitosis Questions

[i]

[!]Question 1++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] When do chromosomes first condense and become visible?

[c] interphase

[c*] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[c] telophase

[f] No. During interphase, the chromosomes are spread out and can’t be seen distinctly.

[f] Correct. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible.

[f] No. During metaphase, the chromosomes are condensed and visible, but this condensation happens earlier in the cell division process.

[f] No. During anaphase, the chromosomes are condensed and visible, but this condensation happens earlier in the cell division process.

[f] No. During telophase, the chromosomes once gain spread out in the daughter nuclei, and no longer are distinct and visible. Condensation occurs much earlier in the process.

[!]Question 2++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] When are the sister chromatids pulled apart?

[c] cytokinesis

[c] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c*] anaphase

[c] telophase

[f] No. During cytokinesis, the chromosomes are full-fledged single chromosomes, each enclosed in a nucleus. The separation of sister chromatids happens earlier in the process. The ‘a’ in the word ‘apart’ is a clue to the answer to this question.

[f] No. During prophase, the sister chromatids are still attached by a centromere. The separation of sister chromatids happens later in the process. The ‘a’ in the word ‘apart’ is a clue to the answer to this question.

[f] No. During metaphase, the sister chromatids are still attached by a centromere. The separation of sister chromatids happens later in the process. The ‘a’ in the word ‘apart’ is a clue to the answer to this question.

[f] Fabulous! It’s during anaphase that sister chromatids get pulled apart. If you ever have trouble remembering, just connect the ‘a’ in the word ‘apart’ to the ‘a’ in ‘anaphase.’

[f] No. During telophase, the sister chromatids have already been pulled apart, and, as full-fledged chromosomes, are being enclosed in new nuclei. The separation of sister chromatids happens earlier in the process. The ‘a’ in the word ‘apart’ is a clue to the answer to this question.

[!]Question 3++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] Transmission of hereditary information is associated with

[c] centrosomes

[c*] chromosomes.

[c] centromeres.

[c] ribosomes.

[f] No. Centrosomes are responsible for creating a spindle that pulls apart chromosomes, but the centrosomes aren’t directly connected with transmitting hereditary information.

[f] Yes. Chromosomes are the linear strings of DNA that hold and transmit hereditary information.

[f] No. The centromeres are regions of chromosomes that play the key role of holding together sister chromatids.

[f] No. Ribosomes are key in translating hereditary information during protein synthesis, but the don’t transmit that information.

[!]Question 4+++++++++++++[/!]

[q] The longest period of a cell’s life cycle is:

[c] Prophase

[c] Telophase

[c*] Interphase

[c] Anaphase

[c] Metaphase

[f] No. All of the phases of mitosis, including prophase, make up only a small portion of the cell’s life cycle. What precedes mitosis?

[f] No. All of the phases of mitosis, including telophase, make up only a small portion of the cell’s life cycle. What precedes mitosis?

[f] Exactly. Interphase is by far the longest period of a cell’s life cycle. It’s MUCH longer than all of the stages of mitosis combined.

[f] No. All of the phases of mitosis, including anaphase, make up only a small portion of the cell’s life cycle. What precedes mitosis?

[f] No. All of the phases of mitosis, including metaphase, make up only a small portion of the cell’s life cycle. What precedes mitosis?

[!]Question 5++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In an animal cell, when would a ring of microfilaments be pulling in the membrane as the cell divides into two daughter cells?

[c*] cytokinesis

[c] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[c] telophase

[f] Correct. During cytokinesis, an animal cell divides into two by pinching in its membrane, and separating the cell into two daughter cells, each with full set of chromosomes inside a newly formed nucleus.

[f] No. During prophase, the cell is a long way from dividing into two daughter cells. Next time, choose a later phase in the process.

[f] No. During metaphase, the cell is about in the middle of the cell division process. Next time, choose a later phase.

[f] No. During anaphase, the cell is pulling apart the sister chromatids to form two new complete sets of chromosomes. But it’s still not quite ready to divide. Next time, choose a later phase in the process.

[f] No, but you’re very close. During telophase, chromosomes, are being enclosed in new nuclei. Division into two cells would immediately follow this stage.

[!]Question 6++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] When does the nucleolus – the site of ribosome assembly – disappear?

[c*] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[c] telophase

[f] That’s right. The nucleolus disappears during prophase.

[f] No. During metaphase, the nucleolus has already disappeared. Choose an earlier phase in the process.

[f] No. During anaphase, the nucleolus has already disappeared. Choose an earlier phase in the process.

[f] No. During telophase, the nucleolus reappears in each of the two daughter nuclei. Choose a much earlier phase in the process.

[!]Question 7++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] Cytokinesis refers to the division of the:

[c*] Cytoplasm

[c] Nucleus

[c] Mitochondria

[c] Chromosomes

[f] Nice. During cytokinesis, the cell splits in two, dividing up the cytoplasm (and the entire cell).

[f] No. Division of the nucleus is limited to the events of mitosis.

[f] No. Related to their amazing status as practically independent organisms that live inside our cells, mitochondrial replication is taken care of by the mitochondria themselves, who continue to reproduce in much the same way as their bacterial ancestors did, billions of years ago.

[f] No. Division of the chromosomes occurs during mitosis, during anaphase, when sister chromatids are spit apart.

[!]Question 8++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In anaphase, the sister chromatids

[c*] separate from each other.

[c] condense and become thicker.

[c] join together.

[c] become attached to spindle fibers.

[f] Exactly. During anaphase, sister chromatids are pulled apart.

[f] No. Condensation of chromosomes is what happens during prophase.

[f] No. The sister chromatids are joined together during interphase, when DNA replication occurs.

[f] No. The spindle fibers attach to the sister chromatids during prophase.

[!]Question 9++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] When would the cell have two nuclei?

[c] interphase

[c] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[c*] telophase

[f] No. During interphase, the cell has only one nucleus. Choose a later phase in the process.

[f] No. During prophase, the cell is manipulating its chromosomes in preparation for separating the sister chromatids. During this phase, there is no nucleus. Choose a later phase in the process.

[f] No. During metaphase, the cell is manipulating its chromosomes in preparation for separating the sister chromatids. During this phase, there is no nucleus. Choose a later phase in the process.

[f] No. During anaphase, the cell is pulling apart the sister chromatids. During this phase, there is no nucleus. Choose a later phase in the process.

[f] Fabulous! During telophase, two new nuclei have formed around each set of daughter chromosomes.

[!]Question 10++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] Cells that result from mitosis have identical:

[c] Kinds of proteins

[c] Numbers of proteins

[c*] Genetic information

[c] Numbers of mitochondria

[f] No. Mitosis results in genetically identical daughter cells. However, as the daughter cells develop, different genes can be activated or suppressed, resulting in production of different kinds proteins.

[f] No. Mitosis results in genetically identical daughter cells. However, as the daughter cells develop, different genes can be activated or suppressed, resulting in production of different numbers proteins.

[f] Exactly. Mitosis results in genetically identical daughter cells.

[f] No. The dividing up of mitochondria is a fairly random and statistical affair. The number of mitochondria in a cell can vary widely, and it’s highly unlikely that the exact number of mitochondria will be found in the daughter cells after cytokinesis.

[!]Question 11++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] In a plant cell, when would the Golgi apparatus be sending vesicles filled with cellulose to build a new cell wall?

[c*] cytokinesis

[c] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[c] telophase

[f] Correct. During cytokinesis, a plant cell divides into two as the Golgi sends vesicles with cellulose. The vesicles release the cellulose, which forms a cell plate, then a new cell wall, dividing the cell in two.

[f] No. During prophase, the cell is a long way from dividing into two daughter cells. Next time, choose a later phase in the process.

[f] No. During metaphase, the cell is about in the middle of the cell division process. Next time, choose a later phase.

[f] No. During anaphase, the cell is pulling apart the sister chromatids to form two new complete sets of chromosomes. But it’s still not quite ready to divide. Next time, choose a later phase in the process.

[f] No, but you’re very close. During telophase, chromosomes are being enclosed in new nuclei. Division into two cells, which in plants involves building a new cell wall, would immediately follow this stage.

[!]Question 12++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] Step 1 of cell division is called mitosis, and step 2 is called

[c*] cytokinesis.

[c] mitokinesis.

[c] replication.

[c] centromere.

[f] That’s correct. The second step of cell division is cytokinesis, the splitting of the cell.

[f] No. This sounds logical (including both mitosis and the name for cell division), but try to remember just the name for splitting the cell. The ‘kinesis’ part, by the way, is an enormous hint.

[f] No. On an overall level, there is replication, making this a logical choice. But what you’re looking for here is a word that refers to splitting the cell into two daughter cells.

[f] No. The centromere is the region of a chromosome that connects one sister chromatid to another sister chromatid.

[!]Question 13++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] The period of cell growth prior to division is

[c] replication.

[c] reproduction.

[c] anaphase.

[c*] interphase.

[f] No. Replication of DNA occurs prior to division, but that’s not the name of the phase.

[f] No. Reproduction is only occurring if a new organism is being created. Often, division is simply creating new cells for an existing organism. Think of the name of a phase.

[f] No. Anaphase is when sister chromatids are being pulled apart. It’s not prior to division. Rather, it’s a part of division. Think of the name of a phase.

[f] Correct! Interphase is the period of cell growth that precedes cell division.

[!]Question 14++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] When does chromosome replication occur in a eukaryotic cell?

[c] Prophase

[c] Metaphase

[c] Anaphase

[c*] Interphase

[f] No. During prophase, you can see that the chromosomes are already doubled, and consist of two sister chromatids. Pick an earlier phase.

[f] No. During metaphase, you can see that the chromosomes are already doubled, and consist of two sister chromatids. Pick an earlier phase.

[f] No. Anaphase is, in some ways, the opposite of chromosome replication, because it’s when chromosomes get pulled apart. Pick an earlier phase in the process.

[f] Correct. Interphase is when chromosomes are replicated.

[!]Question 15++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] When does the spindle first appear?

[c] interphase

[c*] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[f] No. During interphase, the spindle hasn’t yet formed. Choose a later step in the process.

[f] Exactly. During prophase, the centrosomes start to produce the spindle.

[f] No. During metaphase, the spindle is at its fullest development. But it formed earlier in the cell division process.

[f] No. By anaphase, the spindle has been around for a long time. Choose an earlier phase in the process.

[!]Question 16++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] When are the chromosomes lined up in the middle of the cell?

[c] interphase

[c] early prophase

[c] late prophase/prometaphase

[c*] metaphase

[c] anaphase

[c] telophase

[f] No. During interphase, the chromosomes are still inside the nucleus. The letter ‘m’ in the word ‘middle’ is a clue to the answer to this question.

[f] No. In early prophase, chromosomes have condensed, but they are somewhat randomly arranged in the nucleus. The letter ‘m’ in the word ‘middle’ is a clue to the answer to this question.

[f] No. In late prophase/prometaphase, the chromosomes have been hooked up to spindle fibers, but they’re not yet in the middle of the cell. The letter ‘m’ in the word ‘middle’ is a clue to the answer to this question.

[f] Excellent. This cell is in metaphase, which you can tell by the fact that the chromosomes are in the middle of the cell.

[f] No. In anaphase, the sister chromatids are being pulled apart, away from the middle of the cell. Next time you see this question, remember that the ‘m’ in middle is a clue to the name of this phase.

[f] No. In telophase, the chromosomes are no longer distinctly visible, and, inside new nuclei, they’ve moved to opposite ends to the cell. Next time you see this question, remember that the ‘m’ in middle is a clue to the name of this phase.

[!]Question 17++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] A region of attachment for two sister chromatids is the:

[c] Centrosome

[c*] Centromere

[c] Aster

[c] Spindle fiber

[f] No. The centrosome produces the spindle fibers that manipulate and divide chromosomes during mitosis.

[f] Yes. The centromere is what connects the two sister chromatids.

[f] No. The aster consists of the short microtubules (protein fibers) that surround each centrosome.

[f] No. The spindle fibers are the ‘ropes’ that the cell uses to pull sister chromatids apart.

[!]Question 18++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] Microtubules become attached to each chromatid at its:

[c] Centrosome

[c] Centromere

[c] Aster

[c*] Kinetochore

[f] No. The centrosome produces the microtubule spindle fibers that attach to the chromatids.

[f] No. The centromere is what holds together the sister chromatids.

[f] No. The aster is an array of microtubules that radiates out from the centrosome.

[f] Right. The kinetochore is ‘like a handle that the fibers can grasp, as they pull apart the chromosomes, splitting them in half’ (a quote from the ‘Mitosis Rap!’).

[!]Question 19++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] When do sister chromatids first become full fledged chromosomes?

[c] cytokinesis

[c] prophase

[c] metaphase

[c*] anaphase

[c] telophase

[f] No. During cytokinesis, the chromosomes are full fledged chromosomes, but they graduated from being sister chromatids earlier in the process.

[f] No. During prophase, each chromosome is doubled, and consists of two sister chromatids that are attached by a centromere. Next time, choose a later stage in the process.

[f] No. During metaphase, each chromosome is doubled, and consists of two sister chromatids that are attached by a centromere. Next time, choose a later stage in the process.

[f] Nice. It’s during anaphase that the sister chromatids are pulled apart, and become full-fledged chromosomes.

[f] No. During telophase, the chromosomes are full fledged chromosomes, but they graduated from being sister chromatids earlier in the process.

[!]Question 20++++++++++++++[/!]

[q] Which of the following does not occur during prophase?

[c] The nuclear membrane disintegrates

[c] Nucleoli break up

[c] The spindle apparatus forms

[c] The chromosomes condense

[c*] DNA replicates

[f] No. Note that what you’re looking for is something that DOES NOT happen during prophase. Nuclear membrane disintegration does occur.

[f] No. ‘Nucleoli’ is plural for ‘nucleolus.’ Note that what you’re looking for is something that DOES NOT happen during prophase. Break up of the nucleolus does occur.

[f] No. Note that what you’re looking for is something that DOES NOT happen during prophase. Spindle formation by the centrosomes is a key event of prophase.

[f] No. Note that what you’re looking for is something that DOES NOT happen during prophase. The chromosomes do condense during prophase.

[f] Excellent. Of the items listed here, the only one that doesn’t happen is DNA replication. DNA replication occurs during interphase

[x]

If you want to take this quiz again, click the button below

[restart]

[/qwiz]

6. A Cell Cycle Quiz

[qwiz random = “true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Cell Cycle”]

[h]The Cell Cycle

[i]The following quiz is based upon this diagram
[!]++++++question 1++++++[/!]

[q]Which number represents “M” phase?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 1

[f] Yes. “1” is “M” phase, which includes mitosis and cytokinesis.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. “M” phase is everything except for interphase.

[!]++++++question 2++++++[/!]

[q]Which number represents interphase?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 2

[f] Yes. “2” is interphase. The vast majority of the time in the the cell’s life cycle is spent in this phase.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Interphase is the longest part of the cell cycle.

[!]++++++question 3++++++[/!]

[q]Which number represents “G1” phase?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 3

[f] Yes. “3” is G1 phase, the part of interphase in which the cell is actively growing. During G1, the cell synthesizes proteins and mRNAs in preparation for the next phase phase of the cycle, the S phase.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint.G1 is the first part of interphase.

[!]++++++question 4++++++[/!]

[q]Which number represents the phase in which the cell is growing, and producing proteins and RNAs in preparation for synthesizing new DNA?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 3

[f] Yes. “3” is G1 phase, the part of interphase in which the cell is actively growing. During G1, the cell synthesizes proteins and mRNAs in preparation for the next phase phase of the cycle, the S phase.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint.This part of the cycle is also referred to as G1. It’s the first part of interphase.

[!]++++++question 5++++++[/!]

[q]Which number represents the S phase of the cell cycle?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 4

[f] Yes. 4 is the “S” phase, the part of interphase in which the cell is synthesizing new DNA.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint.The S phase occurs in the middle of interphase.

[!]++++++question 6++++++[/!]

[q]Which number most specifically represents the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell is synthesizing new DNA?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 4

[f] Yes. 4 is the “S” phase, the part of interphase in which the cell is synthesizing new DNA.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. The cell is synthesizing new DNA during “S” phase, which occurs during the middle of interphase.

[!]++++++question 6++++++[/!]

[q]Which represents the G2 phase of the cell cycle?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 5

[f] Yes. 5 is the “G2” phase, the part of interphase in which the cell producing materials in preparation for mitosis and cytokinesis.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. The G2 phase is the last part of interphase.

[!]++++++question 7++++++[/!]

[q]Which represents mitosis?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 6

[f] Yes. 6 is mitosis, the division of the nucleus.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Mitosis occurs after interphase. It’s the first part of the “M” phase of the cell cycle.

[!]++++++question 8++++++[/!]

[q]Which represents the part of the cycle in which sister chromatids are separated?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 6

[f] Yes. 6 is mitosis, which is when sister chromatids are separated from one another.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Sister chromatids are separated during mitosis, which occurs right after interphase ends.

[!]++++++question 9++++++[/!]

[q]Highly specialized cells can leave the cell cycle and enter a phase called G0. Which number represents this?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 8

[f] Yes. 8 represents a cell leaving the cell cycle and entering G0.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Look, in the diagram for a nerve cell, a highly specialized cell that has left the cell cycle and entered the G0 phase.

[!]++++++question 10++++++[/!]

[q]Sometimes, specialized cells that have left the cell cycle and entered the G0 phase can, if induced by the environment, reenter the cell cycle.  Which number represents this?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 9

[f] Yes. 9 represents a specialized cell re-entering the cell cycle.

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Look, in the diagram for a nerve cell that, despite its specialized role, is re-entering the cell cycle.

[!]++++++question 11++++++[/!]

[q]Which number in the diagram below represents cytokinesis?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c*] 7

[f] Yes. 7 represents cytokinesis, or “cell splitting.”

[c]*

[f]No. Here’s a hint. Cytokinesis is the last part of the cell cycle.

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]

 Link to