This quiz assumes you’ve mastered the material in our Cell Communication Module.

[qwiz random=”true” style=”width: 600px !important;” quiz_timer=”true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Cell Signaling Click-On Challenge” dataset=”cell-signaling-click-on-challenge” dataset_intro=”false” spaced_repetition=”false”]

[h] Cell Signaling Click-on Challenge

[i] Note the timer in the top right. Your goal is accuracy and speed. A good strategy: once through slowly, then additional trials for improvement.

 

 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”cell-signaling-click-on-challenge|f3500ab6b95b7″ question_number=”1″] Cell Signaling: Key Components

The process of reception

Excellent. “1” is reception. 

Hint: look for something the represents a ligand binding with a receptor 
The process of transduction

Nice! “II” is transduction.

HINT: Transduction takes the original signal and sends it deep within the cytoplasm. 
The cellular response

Awesome. Either “III” or “4” represent the cellular response. 

HINT: The response is the end (the goal) of the cell communication process . What’s at the end? 
The ligand

Yes! “1” represents the ligand. 

HINT: The ligand is the original signal. It’s what binds with the receptor. 
The receptor

Nice Job. “2” is the receptor.  

HINT: In this representation, the receptor is embedded in the cell membrane. 
Relay molecules

Yes! 3a, 3b, and 3c are relay molecules involved with signal transduction. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for a series of molecules that move the signal from the membrane (“b”) deep into the cell.
The ligand

Yes! “1” is the ligand.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  The ligand has a shape that complements the shape of the receptor.
The cellular response

Yes! “4” represents the cellular response.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The cellular response is at the end.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” question_number=”2″ dataset_id=”cell-signaling-click-on-challenge|11d5eb683eb2f2″] Cell Signaling: Three Key Processes

The process of reception

Excellent. “1” is reception. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for the stage where a ligand binds with a receptor.  
The process of transduction

Nice! “II” is transduction.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Transduction takes the original signal and, through a series of relay molecules, sends it deep within the cytoplasm. 
The process of cellular response

Awesome. “III” represents the cellular response. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The response is the end (the goal) of the cell communication process . What’s at the end? 
The ligand

Yes! “1” represents the ligand. 

HINT: The ligand is the original signal. It’s what binds with the receptor. 
The receptor

Nice Job. “2” is the receptor.  

HINT: In this representation, the receptor is embedded in the cell membrane. 
The 2nd Messenger

Yes! 3a represents the 2nd Messenger. 

HINT: The 1st messenger was the ligand that bonded with the receptor. The 2nd messenger comes after the receptor, but before the response. 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”cell-signaling-click-on-challenge|f30d1a60de5b7″ question_number=”3″] Reception: Key Components

The G-protein coupled receptor.

Excellent! “1” is the G-protein coupled receptor.  

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: This is a receptor that has a binding site outside of the membrane, and inside the cytoplasm.  
G-protein

Yes! Number “2” represents the G protein 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: the G-protein is embedded in the membrane, but it’s NOT a transmembrane protein.  
Adenylyl Cyclase

Nice! Number 4 represents adenylyl cyclase 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Adenylyl cyclase has an active site that projects some distance into the cytoplasm.  

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”cell-signaling-click-on-challenge|f2b6152474db7″ question_number=”4″] Process of reception

The G-protein coupled receptor.

Excellent! “1” is the G-protein coupled receptor.  

HINT: This is a receptor that has a binding site outside of the membrane, and inside the cytoplasm.  
When activated, this will activate adenylyl cyclase

Yes! Number “2” represents the G protein , which activates adenylyl cyclase.

 HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The G-protein is what activates adenylyl cyclase.
The enzyme that activates the second messenger.

Nice! Number 4 represents adenylyl cyclase, which will convert ATP into cAMP. 

 HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  You’re looking for Adenylyl cyclase. It has an active site that projects some distance into the cytoplasm.  
Ligand binding site

Nice! The top of the receptor (at 1) is where the ligand binds.  

 HINT FOR NEXT TIME: the binding site sticks out into the cytoplasm (region “a”).

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”cell-signaling-click-on-challenge|f1526f0c29db7″ question_number=”5″] Reception: The details

Ligand binding, G-protein activation

Nice: “II” represents binding of the ligand, activating the G protein.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: “8” is the ligand. Where is it bound to the receptor?
G-protein binds to adenylyl cyclase, activating a cellular response.

Awesome. “III” shows adenylyl cyclase activating a cellular response.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. The G protein is at 2. Where is it bound to something in a way that causes a cytoplasmic response (indicated by 5)?
Ligand has left receptor, G-protein deactivates, cellular response ends.

Yes. In “IV,” the G-protein unbinds and the cellular response ends.  

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Where is the G-protein moving back to where it was before the ligand bound to the receptor? 

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”cell-signaling-click-on-challenge|efe26a74b39b7″ question_number=”6″] Reception and cellular response

ATP

Nice! “6” is ATP! 

HINT: ATP has thee phosphate groups, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base.  
Cyclic AMP (the second messenger)

Correct! “7” is cAMP, the 2nd Messenger. 

HINT: Adenylyl cyclase (at 5) converts ATP to Cyclic AMP. 
A phosphorylation cascade.

Awesome. “8” and the arrows leading from it represent a phosphorylation cascade..

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The phosphorylation cascade is started by the second messenger and ends with the cellular response.  
G-protein

Nice! “3” represents the G-protein. 

HINT: The G-protein diffuses along the membrane between the receptor (2) and adenylyl cyclase (5).  
The cellular response

Yes! “9” is the cellular response: generally activating an enzyme or a gene.  

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The phosphorylation cascade (at 8) leads to a cellular response.
Enzyme that converts ATP into cAMP

Nice! “5” is adenylyl cyclase, which converts ATP into cyclic AMP.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Find ATP (at 6). Based on the arrows in the diagram, what must be converting it into cyclic AMP (at 7)?
The first messenger

Nice! The ligand is the first messenger.

HINT. The first messenger is the ligand that binds with the receptor. 
G-Protein Coupled Receptor

Very Nice: “2” is the G protein coupled receptor.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. The ligand binds with the receptor.

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”cell-signaling-click-on-challenge|ee5e76376d1b7″ question_number=”7″] Reception and phosphorylation cascade.

phosphorylation cascade

Yes! The kinases on the bottom right are part of a phosphorylation cascade. 

HINT. Find the molecules that are receiving phosphates and becoming phosphorylated.  
G-protein

Nice! The G-protein is at “3.” 

HINT: The G-protein is in the membrane, between the receptor and adenylyl cyclase.  
Adenylyl Cyclase

Yes! “4” is adenylyl cyclase

 HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Look for the enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP.
G protein coupled receptor

Good work! “2” is the G protein coupled receptor.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  The receptor is what binds with the ligand. 
What could be a hormone.

Awesome: “1,” the ligand, could be a hormone. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The ligand (which binds with a receptor) could be a hormone. 

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” dataset_id=”cell-signaling-click-on-challenge|214b113d24059e” question_number=”11″] Steroid hormone action.

Ribosome

Excellent. “L” is a ribosome.

Hint: Ribosomes read mRNA and make protein.
mRNA in the nucleus.

Nice! “K” is mRNA

Hint. RNA is a single stranded molecule.
Steroid hormone, outside of the cell.

Awesome:  “F” is a steroid hormone.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME : The hormone you’re looking for is built from four fused carbon rings (and it’s outside of the cell). 
Unbound cytoplasmic receptor

Correct! “G” is an unbound cytoplasmic receptor.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME : Find what the hormone (F) binds with (before it binds). 
Receptor-hormone complex

Excellent: It’s “H.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME : In the cytoplasm (C), find where the cytoplasmic receptor has bound with the hormone (F).
Gene activation

Nice: “I” and “J” show the hormone interacting with a gene.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME : Find where the hormone is in the nucleus, interacting with DNA.
A nucelar pore

Outstanding: “E” is one of the many nuclear pores in this diagram.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME : The nuclear pores are how hormones enter the nucleus, and how mRNA leaves.

[x]

Satisfied with your accuracy and speed? If not, try it again!

[restart]

[/qwiz]