Click this link for a Cellular Respiration Student Learning Guide

1. Introduction

[qwiz]

[h]Three examples of…

[q]What do beer, yogurt, and a sprinter have in common?

[c]U2hvdyB0aGUgQW5zd2Vy

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[/qwiz]

2. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

11_very-simplified-glycolysisWe’ve seen in a previous tutorial that glycolysis produces three products

  • ATP
  • NADH, and
  • the  3-carbon molecule pyruvic acid, or pyruvate.

Despite the fact that energy from glucose was used to make the ATP and the NADH, the third product, pyruvic acid, still has lots of chemical energy.

10_aerobic-v-anaerobic-respirationThe ATP produced by glycolysis can immediately be used for cellular work. But what happens to the NADH and pyruvate that comes out of glycolysis depends on the presence or absence of oxygen.

If oxygen is present, then pyruvate and NADH enter the mitochondria. Pyruvate gets completely oxidized in the Link Reaction and the Krebs cycle. The NADH from glycolysis joins with the NADH and FADH2 produced by the Krebs cycle and Link Reaction to power the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. This complete oxidation of pyruvate, along with production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation is called aerobic respiration: respiration with oxygen.

This kind of easy, flat riding is definitely aerobic for the kids…and probably for the Dad, too.

2a. Aerobic respiration consumes oxygen at a sustainable pace

If you’re sitting and reading this tutorial on a computer or some other device, you’re doing it while performing aerobic respiration. If you got up and got on a bicycle and cycled at a leisurely pace, you’d still be doing aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration is done when you can supply your muscles and other organs with enough oxygen to completely oxidize glucose. Aerobic respiration is sustainable. For example (assuming that you’re in reasonable shape), if you’re walking at an aerobic pace you’ll never need to stop to catch your breath.

2b. Anaerobic respiration happens when there’s not enough oxygen. It’s not sustainable.

Harder work requires a switch to anaerobic respiration

Back to our bike ride. You reach a long, steep hill. Your muscles strain to keep the bike moving upward and forward. You start breathing harder to get more oxygen into your lungs. Your heart is beating faster to deliver that oxygen to your muscles.

After a while, your breathing rate and your heart rate reach their maximum. Yet even this maximum isn’t delivering enough oxygen to your system. At that point, you switch over to anaerobic respiration.

Anaerobic respiration is about continuing glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. Why? Simply, it’s because two ATPs are a lot better than no ATP. Anaerobic activities include sprinting (whether running, biking, or swimming) and weightlifting. You can’t sustain these activities, but you can do them in short bursts. During these bursts, your muscles are going to need every ATP they can get.

Look again at glycolysis04_glycolysis-partially-numbered

In order to move past the “cleavage” phase (phase 2), G3P (at “F”) needs to be oxidized. That oxidation can only happen if NAD+ is present (at “G”). But glycolysis converts NAD+ to NADH. So, in order for glycolysis to continue to create its two ATPs/glucose, there needs to be a way for the cell to resupply itself with NAD+. That way is called fermentation. Fermentation oxidizes NADH, converting it to NAD+ so that  glycolysis can continue.

Fermentation happens in people in a process called lactic acid fermentation. Lactic acid fermentation is also used by the bacteria that make yogurt. And yeast carry out fermentations that produce alcohol. Let’s start with that one.

3. Alcohol Fermentation

3a. Fermentation Virtual Demonstration

[qwiz]

[h]Alcohol fermentation demonstration

[q]Here’s an experiment to try at home. Take three flasks.

Put a spoonful of yeast in the first. Put a spoonful of sugar in the second. Put a spoonful of yeast AND a spoonful of sugar in the third. Add water and wait a few hours. Predict what will happen.

[c]Q2xpY2sgd2hlbiB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgcmVhZHkgdG8gY29uZmlybSB5b3VyIHByZWRpY3Rpb24=

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[/qwiz]

3b. Alcohol Fermentation: the details

“A” is glycolysis. Glucose is converted to two molecules of pyruvate (C3H3O3), with a net yield of two ATP and two NADH.

In step “B,” enzymes break the carboxyl group off of pyruvate, producing the two carbon molecule acetaldehyde. The carboxyl group becomes a CO2 molecule. This CO2 becomes the bubbles in beer or champagne or bread. In other alcohol fermentation processes, such as in wine-making, the CO2 is allowed to escape.

Step “C” is about regenerating NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. The cell does this by a redox reaction in which acetaldehyde is reduced to ethanol (a two carbon alcohol), while NADH is oxidized. Thise oxidation and reduction is paired together, with the electrons (and hydrogens) flowing from NADH (which is being oxidized) to acetaldehyde (which is being reduced).  You can see this by comparing the formulas for acetaldehyde (C2H3O) and ethanol (C2H6O). Ethanol, with all of those hydrogens, is a more reduced (and more energetic compound). Ethanol, in fact, is a fuel. You can drive a car with it. In California, where I live, up to 10% of the fuel that I put in my car is ethanol (with the other 90% being petroleum-derived gasoline).

4. Lactic Acid Fermentation

Lactic acid fermentation occurs in yogurt making bacteria, and in our very own muscle cells. Whenever we’re low on oxygen (every time we sprint, weightlift, etc). our cells will temporarily shift to lactic acid fermentation. This allows us to keep on producing two ATPs/glucose for a short period of time by continuing glycolysis, without oxidative phosphorylation. Here’s how it works.

19_lactate-fermentation-with-letters

As with alcohol fermentation, the process begins with glycolysis (“A”). In the absence of oxygen, enzymes take pyruvate and reduce it to lactate, or lactic acid. This reduction is accompanied by the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD+. With NAD+ available, glycolysis can continue, at least for a short while.

As you move towards the top of your aerobic zone, your body will try to maximize oxygen delivery to your cells through increasing your heart and breathing rate. As you exceed your aerobic capacity, anaerobic respiration begins. You’ll accumulate lactic acid in your muscle tissue, leading to what athletes experience as a “lactic acid burn.” At a certain point, as lactic acid and other waste products build up, you’ll have to slow down or stop altogether. As you do, you’ll reduce oxygen demand. You’re heart rate and breathing rate will decrease as you shift back to aerobic respiration (with its more efficient production of ATP). The lactic acid, a high energy compound, diffuses out of your muscles into your blood, which carries it to your liver. Liver cells, in turn, convert lactic acid into glucose, which can then diffuse back into the bloodstream to power cellular respiration.

yogurt: a product of lactic acid fermentation

If you’re interested in making yogurt, the process is quite simple. You add yogurt making bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Acidophilus to pasteurized milk (pasteurization lowers the amount of other bacteria in the milk). The Lactobacillus and Acidophilus will take lactose (milk sugar) and use it as a fuel to create ATP. Lactic acid is a metabolic waste product. As it accumulates, the pH of the milk drops to where it causes milk proteins to change from a liquid form to more a a gel, giving yogurt its texture and sourness.

5. Quiz: Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation

[qwiz random = “true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation (M10)”]

[h]Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration

[i]

[q]Which letter or number represents glycolysis?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]QQ ==

[f]IFllcy4g4oCcQeKAncKgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBnbHljb2x5c2lzLg==

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuIEdseWNvbHlzaXMgaXMgdGhlIHBhcnQgb2YgZmVybWVudGF0aW9uIHdoaWNoIHByb2R1Y2VzIHVzZWZ1bCBlbmVyZ3kgZm9yIHRoZSBjZWxsLiBXaGVyZSBkbyB5b3Ugc2VlIHVzZWZ1bCBlbmVyZ3kgYmVpbmcgcHJvZHVjZWQ/PC9wPgo8cD4=

[q]Which letter or number represent a process that removes of a carboxyl group from pyruvic acid?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]Qg ==

[f]IFllcy4gSW4gc3RlcCDigJxC4oCdwqBhIGNhcmJveHlsIGdyb3VwIGlzIHJlbW92ZWQgZnJvbSBweXJ1dmljIGFjaWQsIHdoaWNoIGV4aXRzIHRoZSBzeXN0ZW0gYXMgQ088c3ViPjI8L3N1Yj4=

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBBIGNhcmJveHlsIGdyb3VwIGlzIGEgY2FyYm9uIGJvbmRlZCB0byB0d28gb3h5Z2VuIGF0b21zICh3aXRoIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgYm9uZHMgYmVpbmcgYSBkb3VibGUgYm9uZCkuIFdoZW4gY2FyYm94eWwgaXMgcmVtb3ZlZCwgYSBtb2xlY3VsZSBvZiBDTzxzdWI+Mjwvc3ViPiBpcyBmb3JtZWQuIFdoZXJlIGRvIHlvdSBzZWUgYSBDTzxzdWI+Mjwvc3ViPiBsZWF2aW5nIHRoZSBzeXN0ZW0/PC9wPgo8cD4=

[q]Which letter or number represents a redox (oxidation/reduction) reaction?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]Qw ==

[f]IFllcy4gSW4gc3RlcCDigJxD4oCdwqBhY2V0YWxkZWh5ZGUgKG1vbGVjdWxlIDMpIGlzIHJlZHVjZWQgc28gdGhhdCBOQURIIGNhbiBiZSBveGlkaXplZCB0byBOQUQ8c3VwPis8L3N1cD4uIFRoaXMgcmVnZW5lcmF0ZXMgTkFEPHN1cD4rPC9zdXA+IHNvIHRoYXQgZ2x5Y29seXNpcyBjYW4gY29udGludWUgdG8gZnVuY3Rpb24u

[c]Kg==

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[q]The biological purpose of the reactions below is to generate _________ so that glycolysis can continue.

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[f]WWVzLiBOQUQ8c3VwPis8L3N1cD4gaXPCoHJlcXVpcmVkIGluIG9yZGVyIGZvciB0aGUgcmVkb3ggcmVhY3Rpb25zIHRoYXQgb2NjdXIgZHVyaW5nIHRoZSAmIzgyMjA7aGFydmVzdCYjODIyMTsgcGhhc2Ugb2YgZ2x5Y29seXNpcyB0byBwcm9jZWVkLg==

[f]Tm8uIEdseWNvbHlzaXMgcHJvZHVjZXMgQ088c3ViPjI8L3N1Yj4sIGFuZCBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IHJlcXVpcmUgaXQuIFRoaW5rIG9mIGEgbW9sZWN1bGUgdGhhdCBpcyBhYnNvbHV0ZWx5IHJlcXVpcmVkIGluIG9yZGVyIGZvciB0aGUgcmVkb3ggcmVhY3Rpb25zIHRoYXQgb2NjdXIgZHVyaW5nIHRoZSAmIzgyMjA7aGFydmVzdCYjODIyMTsgcGhhc2Ugb2YgZ2x5Y29seXNpcyB0byBwcm9jZWVkLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q]Which letter or number represents glucose?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]MQ ==

[f]IFllcy4gR2x1Y29zZSBpcyBudW1iZXIgMS4=

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIHN0YXJ0aW5nIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBmb3IgZ2x5Y29seXNpcz88L3A+CjxwPg==

[q]Which letter or number represents pyruvic acid?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]Mg ==

[f]IFllcy4gUHlydXZpYyBhY2lkIGlzIG51bWJlciAyLg==

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBXaGF0IGlzIHRoZSAzIGNhcmJvbiBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0IGNvbWVzIG91dCBvZiBnbHljb2x5c2lzPzwvcD4KPHA+

[q]Which letter or number represents ethanol?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]NA ==

[f]IFllcy4gRXRoYW5vbMKgaXMgbnVtYmVyIDQu

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBXaGF0IG1vbGVjdWxlIHJlc3VsdHMgYWZ0ZXIgcHlydXZpYyBhY2lkIChudW1iZXIgMikgaXMgbW9kaWZpZWQgYnkgZW56eW1lcyBpbiBzdWNoIGEgd2F5IHRoYXQgaXQgZmlyc3TCoGxvc2VzIGEgQ088c3ViPjI8L3N1Yj4gYW5kwqB0aGVuIGdldHMgY2hlbWljYWxseSByZWR1Y2VkPzwvcD4KPHA+

[q]Of the molecules listed below, the only one that results from alcohol fermentation which can directly power cellular work is

[c]QVRQIMKgIM KgIMKgIA==[c]cHlydXZhdGUgwqAgwqAgwqA=[c]TkFESCDCoCDCoCDCoA==[c]TkFEPHN1cD4rIMKgIMKgIMKgPC9zdXA+[c]YWxjb2hvbDwvcD4K

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[q]The reaction responsible for filling the balloon in the flask on the right is…

 

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]Qg ==

[f]IFllcy7CoFRoZSByZWFjdGlvbiBhdCAmIzgyMjA7QiYjODIyMTsgcHJvZHVjZXMgdGhlIENPPHN1Yj4yPC9zdWI+IHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBmaWxsaW5nIHRoZSBiYWxsb29uLiBUaGlzIHByb2R1Y3Rpb24gb2YgQ088c3ViPjI8L3N1Yj4gZHVyaW5nIGFsY29ob2wgZmVybWVudGF0aW9uIGlzIHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciB0aGUgYnViYmxlcyBpbiBiZWVyLCBicmVhZCwgYW5kIGNoYW1wYWduZS4=

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuIExvb2sgZm9yIGEgcmVhY3Rpb24gd2hlcmUgdGhlIGdhc8KgQ088c3ViPjI8L3N1Yj7CoGlzIHByb2R1Y2VkLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q]Which letter or number represents pyruvic acid?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]Mg ==

[f]IFllcy4gUHlydXZpYyBhY2lkIGlzIG51bWJlciAyLg==

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBXaGF0IGlzIHRoZSAzIGNhcmJvbiBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0IGNvbWVzIG91dCBvZiBnbHljb2x5c2lzPzwvcD4KPHA+

[q]Which letter or number represents lactic acid?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]Mw ==

[f]IFllcy4gTGFjdGljwqBhY2lkIGlzIG51bWJlciAzLg==

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuIExhY3RpYyBhY2lkIHJlc3VsdHMgd2hlbiBweXJ1dmljIGFjaWQgKGF0ICYjODIyMDsyJiM4MjIxOykgZ2V0cyByZWR1Y2VkLiBXaGljaCBtb2xlY3VsZSBsb29rcyBsaWtlIGEgcmVkdWNlZCB2ZXJzaW9uIG9mIHB5cnV2aWMgYWNpZD88L3A+CjxwPg==

[q]Which letter or number represents glucose?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]MQ ==

[f]IFllcy4gR2x1Y29zZSBpcyBudW1iZXIgMS4=

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIHN0YXJ0aW5nIHN1YnN0cmF0ZSBmb3IgZ2x5Y29seXNpcz88L3A+CjxwPg==

[q]What type of fermentation is being shown below?

[c]YWxjb2hvbMKg IMKgIMKgIMKg[c]bGFjdGljIGFjaWQ8L3A+Cg==

[f]WWVzLsKgVGhlIHR3byBjbHVlcyB0aGF0IGluZGljYXRlIHRoYXQgdGhpcyBpcyBhbiBhbGNvaG9sIGZlcm1lbnRhdGlvbiBhcmXCoHRoZSBwcm9kdWN0aW9uIG9mIENPPHN1Yj4yPC9zdWI+IGluIHN0ZXAgJiM4MjIwO0IsJiM4MjIxOyBhbmQgdGhlIHByb2R1Y3Rpb24gb2YgdGhlIGhpZ2hseSByZWR1Y2VkIHR3by1jYXJib24gbW9sZWN1bGUgZXRoYW5vbCAoQzxzdWI+Mjwvc3ViPkg8c3ViPjY8L3N1Yj5PKSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgbW9sZWN1bGUgNC4=

[f]Tm8uwqBMYWN0aWMgYWNpZCBmZXJtZW50YXRpb24gZG9lc24mIzgyMTc7dCBwcm9kdWNlIGFueSBDTzxzdWI+Mjwvc3ViPsKgKHdoaWNoIGlzIG9jY3VycmluZyBpbiBzdGVwICYjODIyMDtCJiM4MjIxOykgYW5kIGl0IHJlc3VsdHMgaW4gbGFjdGF0ZSAobGFjdGljIGFjaWQpIHdoaWNoIGlzIGEgdGhyZWUgY2FyYm9uIG1vbGVjdWxlLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q]What type of fermentation is being shown below?

[c]YWxjb2hvbMKgIMKgIMKgIMKg[c]bGFjdGljIGFj aWQ8L3A+Cg==

[f]Tm8uIEFsY29ob2wgZmVybWVudGF0aW9uIHByb2R1Y2VzwqAgQ088c3ViPjLCoDwvc3ViPmFuZCBwcm9kdWNlcyBldGhhbm9sIChDPHN1Yj4yPC9zdWI+SDxzdWI+Njwvc3ViPk8pwqBhcyBhIHdhc3RlIHByb2R1Y3Qu

[f]WWVzLiBUaGlzIGlzIExhY3RpYyBhY2lkIGZlcm1lbnRhdGlvbiwgYXMgeW91IGNhbiBzZWUgYnkgdGhlIGRpcmVjdCByZWR1Y3Rpb24gb2YgcHlydXZpYyBhY2lkIChtb2xlY3VsZSAmIzgyMjA7MiYjODIyMTspIHRvIGxhY3RpYyBhY2lkIChtb2xlY3VsZSAmIzgyMjA7MyYjODIyMTspIGluIHN0ZXAgJiM4MjIwO0ImIzgyMjE7PC9wPgo8cD4=

[q]What type of fermentation occurs in animal cells when there’s not enough oxygen for oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP?

[c]YWxjb2hvbMKgIMKgIMKgIMKg[c]bGFjdGljIGFj aWQ8L3A+Cg==

[f]Tm8uIEFsY29ob2wgZmVybWVudGF0aW9uIGlzIHR5cGljYWxseSBhc3NvY2lhdGVkIHdpdGggeWVhc3QgY2VsbHMu

[f]WWVzLsKgTGFjdGljIGFjaWQgZmVybWVudGF0aW9uIG9jY3VycyBpbiBhbmltYWwgY2VsbHMgd2hlbiB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIG5vdCBlbm91Z2ggb3h5Z2VuIGZvciBveGlkYXRpdmUgcGhvc3Bob3J5bGF0aW9uIG9mIEFEUCB0byBBVFAuPC9wPgo8cD4=

[q]Which letter or number shows a redox (oxidation/reduction) reaction?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]Qg ==

[f]IFllcy7CoFN0ZXAgJiM4MjIwO0ImIzgyMjE7IHNob3dzIHB5cnV2aWMgYWNpZCBiZWluZyByZWR1Y2VkIHRvIGxhY3RpYyBhY2lkIGFzIE5BREggaXMgb3hpZGl6ZWQgdG8gTkFEPHN1cD4rPC9zdXA+

[c]Kg==

[f]Tm8uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuwqBUbyBmaW5kIGEgcmVkb3ggKG94aWRhdGlvbi9yZWR1Y3Rpb24pIHJlYWN0aW9uLCBsb29rIGZvciBhIHBsYWNlIHdoZXJlIG1vbGVjdWxlcyBhcmUgZ2FpbmluZyBvciBsb3NpbmcgaHlkcm9nZW4gYXRvbXMgKGFsb25nIHdpdGggZWxlY3Ryb25zLCB3aGljaCBjYW4gYmUgaGFyZGVyIHRvIHRyYWNrIGluIGEgZGlhZ3JhbSBsaWtlIHRoZSBvbmUgYWJvdmUpLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q]In cells, fermentation occurs in

[c]bWl0b2Nob25kcmlh

[c]bHlzb3NvbWVz

[c]dGhlIGN5dG 9wbGFzbQ==

[c]dGhlIG51Y2xldXM=

[f]Tm8uwqBNaXRvY2hvbmRyaWEgYXJlIHdoZXJlIG94aWRhdGl2ZSBwaG9zcGhvcnlsYXRpb24gb2NjdXJzLg==

[f]Tm8uwqBMeXNvc29tZXMgYXJlIHdoZXJlIGludHJhY2VsbHVsYXIgZGlnZXN0aW9uIGFuZCByZWN5Y2xpbmcgb2Ygd29ybiBvdXQgY2VsbCBwYXJ0cyBvY2N1cnMu

[f]WWVzLsKgRmVybWVudGF0aW9uIGlzIGNhcnJpZWQgb3V0IGJ5IGVuenltZXMgaW4gdGhlIGN5dG9wbGFzbS4=

[f]Tm8uIFRoZSBudWNsZXVzIGlzIHdoZXJlIGdlbmV0aWMgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gaXMgc3RvcmVkLjwvcD4KPHA+

[q]Activities that can be sustained indefinitely (or, at least for a very long period of time) are

[c]ZnVu

[c]YWVyb2 JpYw==

[c]YW5hZXJvYmlj

[f]V2VsbCwgZG9lc24mIzgyMTc7dCBpdCBkZXBlbmQgb24gdGhlIGFjdGl2aXR5PyBHZXQgc2VyaW91cywgYW5kIHRyeSBhbm90aGVyIGFuc3dlciE=

[f]WWVzLiBBY3Rpdml0aWVzIHRoYXQgYXJlIGFlcm9iaWMgYXJlIGNhcnJpZWQgb3V0IGF0IGEgc3VzdGFpbmFibGUgcGFjZS4=

[f]Tm8uIFdpdGggYSBtZWFzbHkgcHJvZHVjdGlvbiBvZiAyIEFUUHMvZ2x1Y29zZSBhbmQgdGhlIGJ1aWxkdXAgb2YgbGFjdGljIGFjaWQsIGFuYWVyb2JpYyByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiBjYW4gb2NjdXIgb25seSBmb3IgYSByZWxhdGl2ZWx5IHNob3J0IHBlcmlvZCBvZiB0aW1lIChhIGZldyBtaW51dGVzKS4=


[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]When food is broken down for energy in cells with oxygen, the process is

[c]IGFlcm 9iaWM=

[c]IGFuYWVyb2JpYw==

[f]IFllcy4gQnJlYWtkb3duIG9mIGZvb2Qgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4gaXMgYWVyb2JpYy4=
[f]IE5vLiDigJhBbmFlcm9iaWPigJkgbWVhbnMg4oCYd2l0aG91dCBveHlnZW4u4oCZIElmIHRoZXJl4oCZcyBveHlnZW4sIGl0IGNhbuKAmXQgYmUgYW5hZXJvYmljLjwvcD4K


[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Breakdown of food for energy WITHOUT oxygen is called

[c]IGFlcm9iaWM=

[c]IGFuYWVy b2JpYw==

[f]IE5vLiDigJhBZXJvYmlj4oCZIG1lYW5zIOKAmHdpdGggb3h5Z2VuLuKAmSBJZiB0aGVyZeKAmXMgbm8gb3h5Z2VuLCBpdCBjYW7igJl0IGJlIGFlcm9iaWMu
[f]IFllcy4g4oCYQW5hZXJvYmlj4oCZIG1lYW5zIOKAmHdpdGhvdXQgb3h5Z2VuLuKAmTwvcD4K


[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]You’re riding your bike on a flat road. The pace is nice and easy. You could do it all day. Your production of ATP is

[c]IGFlcm 9iaWM=

[c]IGFuYWVyb2JpYw==

[f]IFllcy4gQXRobGV0aWMgYWN0aXZpdGllcyB0aGF0IGNhbiBiZSBzdXN0YWluZWQgZm9yIGxvbmcgcGVyaW9kcyBvZiB0aW1lLCBhbmQgd2hpY2ggY2FuIGJlIGFjY29tcGxpc2hlZCB3aXRoIG1vZGVyYXRlLCBzdXN0YWluYWJsZSBoZWFydCBhbmQgYnJlYXRoaW5nIHJhdGVzLCBhcmUgYWVyb2JpYy4=
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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]You’re lifting weights. After ten repetitions, your muscles start to burn, and you’re having more and more difficulty lifting the weight. Your production of ATP is

[c]IGFlcm9iaWM=

[c]IGFuYWVy b2JpYw==

[f]IE5vLiBBdGhsZXRpYyBhY3Rpdml0aWVzIHRoYXQgY2FuIGJlIHN1c3RhaW5lZCBmb3IgbG9uZyBwZXJpb2RzIG9mIHRpbWUsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBjYW4gYmUgYWNjb21wbGlzaGVkIHdpdGggbW9kZXJhdGUsIHN1c3RhaW5hYmxlIGhlYXJ0IGFuZCBicmVhdGhpbmcgcmF0ZXMsIGFyZSBhZXJvYmljLiBUaGUgd2VpZ2h0IGxpZnRpbmcgZGVzY3JpYmVkIGFib3ZlIGlzIG5vdCBhZXJvYmljLg==

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]When humans and other animals perform anaerobic respiration, one of the byproducts is

[c]IGdsdWNvc2U=

[c]IG94eWdlbg==

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRl

[c]IGxhY3Rp YyBhY2lk

[f]IE5vLiBHbHVjb3NlIGlzIHRoZSBzdGFydGluZyBmdWVsIHNvdXJjZSBmb3IgbW9zdCBmb3JtcyBvZiByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiwgbm90IGEgYnlwcm9kdWN0Lg==
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[f]IE5vLiBDYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBpcyBhIGJ5cHJvZHVjdCBvZiBhZXJvYmljIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIGluIGh1bWFucy4=
[f]IFllcy4gV2hlbiBodW1hbnMgYW5kIG90aGVyIGFuaW1hbHMgbGFjayBzdWZmaWNpZW50IG94eWdlbiwgdGhleeKAmWxsIGNyZWF0ZSBBVFAgdGhyb3VnaCBhIGZvcm0gb2YgYW5hZXJvYmljIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIHRoYXQgcHJvZHVjZXMgbGFjdGljIGFjaWQgYXMgYSBieXByb2R1Y3QuPC9wPgo=


[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Lactic acid fermentation is a form of _____________ respiration.

[c]IGFlcm9iaWM=

[c]IGFuYWVy b2JpYw==

[f]IE5vLiBDZWxscyBwcm9kdWNlIEFUUCB0aHJvdWdoIGxhY3RpYyBhY2lkIGZlcm1lbnRhdGlvbiBvbmx5IHVuZGVyIHdoZW4gdGhleSBsYWNrIHN1ZmZpY2llbnQgb3h5Z2VuLg==
[f]IFllcyDigJhBbmFlcm9iaWPigJkgbWVhbnMg4oCYd2l0aG91dCBveHlnZW4uIENlbGxzIHdpbGwgcHJvZHVjZSBBVFAgdGhyb3VnaCBsYWN0aWMgYWNpZCBmZXJtZW50YXRpb24gb25seSB1bmRlciB3aGVuIHRoZXkgbGFjayBzdWZmaWNpZW50IG94eWdlbi48L3A+Cg==


[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Yogurt is sour because the bacteria used to create yogurt from milk create

[c]IGFsY29ob2w=

[c]IGdsdWNvc2U=

[c]IGxhY3Rp YyBhY2lk

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRl

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[f]IE5vLiBHbHVjb3NlIGlzIGEgc3VnYXIgdGhhdCBpcyB0aGUgc3RhcnRpbmcgZnVlbCBmb3IgbW9zdCBmb3JtcyBvZiByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4gSXQgdGFzdGVzIHN3ZWV0LCBub3Qgc291ci4=
[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIGJhY3RlcmlhIHVzZWQgdG8gY3JlYXRlIHlvZ3VydCBmZXJtZW50IHRoZSBzdWdhcnMgaW4gbWlsayB0byBsYWN0aWMgYWNpZCwgd2hpY2ggZ2l2ZXMgeW9ndXJ0IGl0cyBzb3VyIHRhc3RlLg==
[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBpcyBhIHByb2R1Y3Qgb2Ygc29tZSBraW5kcyBvZiBmZXJtZW50YXRpb24sIGl04oCZcyBub3QgcHJvZHVjZWQgYnkgeW9ndXJ0LWNyZWF0aW5nIGJhY3RlcmlhIHdoZW4gdGhleSBmZXJtZW50IG1pbGsgc3VnYXJzLjwvcD4K


[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Beer and wine are made through

[c]IGFsY29ob2wgZm VybWVudGF0aW9u

[c]IGxhY3RpYyBhY2lkIGZlcm1lbnRhdGlvbg==

[c]IGFlcm9iaWMgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24=

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIGFsY29ob2wgaW4gYmVlciBhbmQgd2luZSBhcmUgcHJvZHVjZWQgYnkgeWVhc3QgdGhhdCBmZXJtZW50IHBsYW50IHN1Z2FycyBpbnRvIGFsY29ob2wuIENhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGlzIHJlbGVhc2VkIGFzIGEgYnlwcm9kdWN0Lg==
[f]IE5vLiBMYWN0aWMgYWNpZCBmZXJtZW50YXRpb24gb2NjdXJzIHVuZGVyIGFuYWVyb2JpYyBjb25kaXRpb25zIGluIGFuaW1hbCBtdXNjbGUgdGlzc3VlLCBhbmQgaW4gY2VydGFpbiBiYWN0ZXJpYSB0aGF0IGZlcm1lbnQgbWlsayBzdWdhcnMgdG8gbGFjdGljIGFjaWQu
[f]IE5vLiBBZXJvYmljIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIHRha2VzIGdsdWNvc2UgYW5kIGJyZWFrcyBpdCBkb3duIGFsbCB0aGUgd2F5IHRvIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGFuZCB3YXRlci4gVGhpbmsgb2YgdGhlIGtpbmQgb2YgYmV2ZXJhZ2UgYmVlciBhbmQgd2luZSBhcmUsIGFuZCB5b3XigJlsbCBoYXZlIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIuPC9wPgo=


[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]The bubbles in beer are made of

[c]IGFsY29ob2w=

[c]IGNhcmJvbi BkaW94aWRl

[c]IG94eWdlbg==

[c]IGxhY3RpYyBhY2lk

[f]IE5vLiBCZWVyIGNvbnRhaW5zIGFsY29ob2wsIGJ1dCB0aGUgYnViYmxlcyBhcmUgZmlsbGVkIHdpdGggdGhlIGdhcyB0aGF0IGdldHMgcHJvZHVjZWQgYXMgYSBieXByb2R1Y3QgZHVyaW5nIGFsY29ob2wgZmVybWVudGF0aW9uLg==
[f]IFllcy4gRHVyaW5nIGFsY29ob2wgZmVybWVudGF0aW9uLCB5ZWFzdCBmZXJtZW50IHBsYW50IHN1Z2FycyB0byBhbGNvaG9sLCBhbmQgcmVsZWFzZSBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBhcyBhIGJ5cHJvZHVjdC4=
[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgb25seSBveHlnZW4gcHJvZHVjaW5nLXByb2Nlc3Mgd2XigJl2ZSBkaXNjdXNzZWQgaXMgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMuIFRyeSB0byByZW1lbWJlciB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGUgZ2FzIHRoYXQgZ2V0cyBwcm9kdWNlZCBhbG9uZyB3aXRoIGFsY29ob2wgZHVyaW5nIGFsY29ob2wgZmVybWVudGF0aW9uLg==
[f]IE5vLiBMYWN0aWMgYWNpZCBpcyB3aGF0IGdldHMgcHJvZHVjZWQgd2hlbiBhbmltYWxzIGRvIGFlcm9iaWMgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24uIFdoZW4gYmVlciBpcyBwcm9kdWNlZCwgaXTigJlzIGFsY29ob2wgZmVybWVudGF0aW9uLiBUcnkgdG8gcmVtZW1iZXIgdGhlIG5hbWUgb2YgdGhlIGdhcyB0aGF0IGdldHMgcHJvZHVjZWQgYWxvbmcgd2l0aCBhbGNvaG9sIGR1cmluZyBhbGNvaG9sIGZlcm1lbnRhdGlvbi48L3A+Cg==


[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Yeast are placed in a flask containing sugar and water. A balloon is placed over the mouth of the flask. Several hours later, the balloon has inflated. What happened?

[c]IE94eWdlbiByZWxlYXNlZCBkdXJpbmcgYWVyb2JpYyByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiBjYXVzZWQgdGhlIGJhbGxvb24gdG8gaW5mbGF0ZS4=

[c]IENhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIHJlbGVhc2VkIGR1cmluZyBhZXJvYmljIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIGNhdXNlZCB0aGUgYmFsbG9vbiB0byBpbmZsYXRlLg==

[c]IENhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIHJlbGVhc2VkIGR1cmluZyBhbGNvaG9sIGZl cm1lbnRhdGlvbiBjYXVzZWQgdGhlIGJhbGxvb24gdG8gaW5mbGF0ZS4=

[f]IE5vLiBGaXJzdCBvZiBhbGwsIGFlcm9iaWMgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24gY29uc3VtZXMgb3h5Z2VuIChhcyBvcHBvc2VkIHRvIHJlbGVhc2luZyBpdCkuIFRoZSBnYXMgeW914oCZcmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgaXMgdGhlIG9uZSBwcm9kdWNlZCBkdXJpbmcgYWxjb2hvbCBmZXJtZW50YXRpb24u
[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZ2FzIGlzIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlLCBidXQgdGhlIHJlYWN0aW9uIGluIHRoZSBmbGFzayBpcyBub3QgYWVyb2JpYyByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4=
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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Alcoholic fermentation is a form of

[c]IGFlcm9iaWMgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24u

[c]IGFuYWVyb2JpYyBy ZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4=

[c]IHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLg==

[f]IE5vLiBBbGNvaG9sIGZlcm1lbnRhdGlvbiBvbmx5IG9jY3VycyB3aGVuIG94eWdlbiBpcyBsYWNraW5nIChzbyBpdCBjYW7igJl0IGJlIGFlcm9iaWMp
[f]IFllcy4gQWxjb2hvbCBmZXJtZW50YXRpb24gaXMgYSBmb3JtIG9mIGFuYWVyb2JpYyByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4=
[f]IE5vLiBQaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBpcyBob3cgcGxhbnRzIHByb2R1Y2UgY2FyYm9oeWRyYXRlcy4gQWxjb2hvbCBmZXJtZW50YXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgYnJlYWtpbmcgZG93biBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGVzIHRvIGFsY29ob2wgYW5kIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlLjwvcD4K


[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]Aerobic respiration requires

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlLg==

[c]IG94eW dlbi4=

[c]IGxhY3RpYyBhY2lkLg==

[c]IGFsY29ob2wu

[f]IE5vLiBBZXJvYmljIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIGNyZWF0ZXMgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgKGFuZCBkb2VzbuKAmXQgcmVxdWlyZSBpdCku
[f]IFllcy4gQWVyb2JpYyBtZWFucyDigJh3aXRoIG94eWdlbizigJkgYW5kIGl0IG9ubHkgb2NjdXJzIHdoZW4gc3VmZmljaWVudCBveHlnZW4gaXMgcHJlc2VudC4=
[f]IE5vLiBMYWN0aWMgYWNpZCBpcyBwcm9kdWNlZCBpbiBvbmUgZm9ybSBvZiBhbmFlcm9iaWMgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24sIGFuZCBpdOKAmXMgbm90IHJlcXVpcmVkIGZvciBhZXJvYmljIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIHRvIG9jY3VyLg==
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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]The release of energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen is

[c]IHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lz

[c]IGFlcm9iaWMgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24u

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[q topic= “aerobic_and_anaerobic_respiration”]The processes of fermentation and aerobic respiration are similar in that both produce

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[x][restart]

[/qwiz]

Next steps

This tutorial ends this series on cellular respiration. From here, you can go back to the Cellular respiration main menu, or choose a new tutorial from the menu above.