Click the following link for a Carbon and Functional Groups Student Learning Guide to accompany this tutorial.

1. Introduction

In the last tutorial, we saw how carbon can covalently bond with itself and atoms of other elements to form chains, rings, and branched molecules. Carbon’s versatility in forming bonds allows for the possibility of molecules that have the same number and types of atoms, but which have different structures. Consider, for example, the two molecules below. They’re both variations on the formula, C5H12. Molecules with the same number and types of atoms, but with different structures, are called isomers. Once we know a bit more chemistry, we’ll come back to isomers and look at some of their biological implications.

Chain Branched molecules
05_800px-N-Pentane 06_Isopentane

Molecules like the ones shown above, consisting solely of carbon and hydrogen, are called hydrocarbons. Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal) are hydrocarbons. These substances are rich in energy, a legacy of ancient sunlight that was captured by photosynthetic organisms in forests and oceans tens or hundreds of millions of years ago. Since the start of the industrial revolution (about 200 years ago), we humans have been burning these fossil fuels at a tremendous rate. This energy has, in many parts of the globe, altered human existence, enabling us to heat and light our homes, move ourselves in cars, trains, and planes, and power our industries. Though it varies from region to region in the United States, about 81% of our energy in 2015 came from burning fossil fuels (National Academy of SciencesNAS ). But this has come at a cost: fossil fuel emissions have altered the chemistry of our atmosphere, and caused various forms of pollution. And while understanding climate change is not part of the most introductory biology courses, it’s important for every human on planet Earth to know how fossil fuel emissions are disrupting the predictable climate patterns upon which our civilization depends: You can learn more about it from my Greenhouse Effect videos).

07_D-glucose-chain-2D-Fischer
Glucose

While hydrocarbons are essential fuels, they’re not particularly important in living things. Rather, the molecules that make up living things are typically organized like the molecule of glucose (a common sugar) shown to the right. What you see, in this case, is a chain of carbon atoms, with many of the carbons attached to small groups of other atoms. These small groups of atoms act as a unit, and are called functional groups.

Let’s continue using glucose as an example. If you look at carbon number 1, you can see that the carbon, in addition to sharing electrons with a hydrogen atom, is also double bonded to an oxygen. That carbon, with its double bond to an oxygen, is a functional group, and its presence (along with other functional groups) helps to determine the chemistry of whatever molecule it’s attached to. Similarly, Carbons 2 through six are bonded both to hydrogen and to an -OH. The “-OH” is another functional group.

Biology students need to know seven of these groups. Start by taking a few minutes to study the table below. If you are unfamiliar with the idea of polarity and its consequences, you can jump back to my tutorials on water, polarity, and hydrogen bonding.

Functional Groups
 Name Structure Key effect on molecules
Hydroxyl 01_hydroxyl Makes a molecule polar.
 Carbonyl 02_carbonyl Makes a molecule polar.
 Carboxyl 03_carboxyl Makes a molecule acidic (because it can donate H+ to a solution).
 Amino 04_amino Makes a molecule basic (because it picks up an H+ from the solution).
 Sulfhydryl 05_sulfhydryl Two sulfhydryls can form Sulfur-Sulfur bonds (also called “disulfide bridges”), which are important in protein structure.
 Phosphate 06_phosphate-corrected-ionized Important in energy transfer.
Methyl 07_methyl Makes a molecule non-polar. Can bind to DNA, affecting gene activity (usually turning genes “off”)
Acetyl A component of many organic molecules. Can bind to DNA-associated proteins, enhancing gene expression.

2. Quiz : Identifying Functional groups

[qwiz random = “true” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Functional Groups Quiz 1 (M5)”]

[h]Quiz: Identifying Functional Groups

[i]The following quiz will show you structural formulas of each of the functional groups. Some of the questions will ask you to write in the name, hangman style. Others questions will be multiple choice.

 


[q]This functional group is

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Cg==[Qq]

[c]c3VsZmh5ZHJ5bCDCoMKg[Qq][c]cGhvc3BoYXRlIMKgwqA=[Qq][c]bWV0aHlsIA==[Qq][c]YWNldHls

Cg==[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBBIGh5ZHJveHlsIGdyb3VwIGNvbnNpc3RzIG9mIGFuIG94eWdlbiBib25kZWQgdG8gYcKgaHlkcm9nZW4s

Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

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Cg==[Qq]

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Cg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgaHlkcm94eWwgZ3JvdXAgY29uc2lzdHMgb2YgYW4gb3h5Z2VuIGJvbmRlZCB0byBhwqBoeWRyb2dlbiw=

Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[c]aHlkcm94eWwgwqAgwqA=[Qq][c]Y2FyYm9ueWwgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]Y2FyYm94eW wgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]YW1pbm8=

Cg==[Qq]

[c]c3VsZmh5ZHJ5bCDCoMKg[Qq][c]cGhvc3BoYXRlIMKgwqA=[Qq][c]bWV0aHlswqA=[Qq][c]YWNldHls

Cg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgaHlkcm94eWwgZ3JvdXAgY29uc2lzdHMgb2YgYW4gb3h5Z2VuIGJvbmRlZCB0byBhwqBoeWRyb2dlbiw=

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgY2FyYm9ueWwgZ3JvdXAgaGFzIGEgY2FyYm9uIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkb3VibGUgYm9uZGVkIHRvIGFuIG94eWdlbiwgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cu

Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[c]aHlkcm94eWwgwqAgwqA=[Qq][c]Y2FyYm9ueWwgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]Y2FyYm94eWwgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]YW1p bm8=

Cg==[Qq]

[c]c3VsZmh5ZHJ5bCDCoMKg[Qq][c]cGhvc3BoYXRlIMKgwqA=[Qq][c]bWV0aHlswqA=[Qq][c]YWNldHls

Cg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgaHlkcm94eWwgZ3JvdXAgY29uc2lzdHMgb2YgYW4gb3h5Z2VuIGJvbmRlZCB0byBhwqBoeWRyb2dlbiw=

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgY2FyYm9ueWwgZ3JvdXAgaGFzIGEgY2FyYm9uIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkb3VibGUgYm9uZGVkIHRvIGFuIG94eWdlbiwgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cu

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgQ2FyYm94eWwgZ3JvdXAgaGFzIGEgY2FyYm9uIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkb3VibGUgYm9uZGVkIHRvIGFuIG94eWdlbiwgYW5kIHNpbmdsZSBib25kZWQgdG8gYSBoeWRyb3h5bCBncm91cCAoLU9IKQ==

Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgc3VsZmh5ZHJ5bCBncm91cCBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiBhIHN1bGZ1ciBhdG9tIGJvbmRlZCB0byBhIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGF0b20u

Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgbWV0aHlsIGdyb3VwIGNvbnNpc3RzIG9mIGEgY2FyYm9uIHNpbmdsZSBib25kZWQgd2l0aMKgdGhyZWUgaHlkcm9nZW5zLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEFuIGFjZXR5bCBncm91cCBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiBhIG1ldGh5bCBncm91cCBjb25uZWN0ZWQgdG8gYSBjYXJib255bCBncm91cC4=

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[c]aHlkcm94eWwgwqAgwqA=[Qq][c]Y2FyYm9ueWwgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]Y2FyYm94eWwgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]YW1pbm8=

Cg==[Qq]

[c]c3VsZmh5ZH J5bCDCoMKg[Qq][c]cGhvc3BoYXRlIMKgwqA=[Qq][c]bWV0aHlswqA=[Qq][c]YWNldHls

Cg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgaHlkcm94eWwgZ3JvdXAgY29uc2lzdHMgb2YgYW4gb3h5Z2VuIGJvbmRlZCB0byBhwqBoeWRyb2dlbiw=

Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[c]aHlkcm94eWwgwqAgwqA=[Qq][c]Y2FyYm9ueWwgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]Y2FyYm94eWwgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]YW1pbm8=

Cg==[Qq]

[c]c3VsZmh5ZHJ5bCDCoMKg[Qq][c]cGhvc3BoYX RlIMKgwqA=[Qq][c]bWV0aHlswqA=[Qq][c]YWNldHls

Cg==[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBBIHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cCBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiBhIHBob3NwaG9ydXMgYXRvbSBzdXJyb3VuZGVkIGJ5IGZvdXIgb3h5Z2Vucy4gVGhlIHBob3NwaG9ydXMgc2hhcmVzIGEgZG91YmxlIGJvbmQgd2l0aCBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIG94eWdlbnMsIGFuZCBhIHNpbmdsZSBib25kIHdpdGggZWFjaCBvZiB0aGUgb3RoZXIgdGhyZWUuIFR3byBvZiB0aGUgb3h5Z2VucyBoYXZlIGEgbmVnYXRpdmUgY2hhcmdlLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[c]aHlkcm94eWwgwqAgwqA=[Qq][c]Y2FyYm9ueWwgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]Y2FyYm94eWwgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]YW1pbm8=

Cg==[Qq]

[c]c3VsZmh5ZHJ5bCDCoMKg[Qq][c]cGhvc3BoYXRlIMKgwqA=[Qq][c]bWV0aH lswqA=[Qq][c]YWNldHls

Cg==[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgQ2FyYm94eWwgZ3JvdXAgaGFzIGEgY2FyYm9uIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkb3VibGUgYm9uZGVkIHRvIGFuIG94eWdlbiwgYW5kIHNpbmdsZSBib25kZWQgdG8gYSBoeWRyb3h5bCBncm91cCAoLU9IKQ==

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEFuIGFtaW5vIGdyb3VwIGNvbnNpc3RzIG9mIGEgbml0cm9nZW4gYXRvbSB3aXRoIHNpbmdsZSBib25kcyB0byB0d28gaHlkcm9nZW4gYXRvbXMu

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgc3VsZmh5ZHJ5bCBncm91cCBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiBhIHN1bGZ1ciBhdG9tIGJvbmRlZCB0byBhIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGF0b20u

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwIGNvbnNpc3RzIG9mIGEgcGhvc3Bob3J1cyBhdG9tIHN1cnJvdW5kZWQgYnkgZm91ciBveHlnZW5zLiBUaGUgcGhvc3Bob3J1cyBzaGFyZXMgYSBkb3VibGUgYm9uZCB3aXRoIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgb3h5Z2VucywgYW5kIGEgc2luZ2xlIGJvbmQgd2l0aCBlYWNoIG9mIHRoZSBvdGhlciB0aHJlZS4gVHdvIG9mIHRoZSBveHlnZW5zIGhhdmUgYSBuZWdhdGl2ZSBjaGFyZ2Uu

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBBIG1ldGh5bCBncm91cCBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiBhIGNhcmJvbiBzaW5nbGUgYm9uZGVkIHdpdGjCoHRocmVlIGh5ZHJvZ2Vucy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEFuIGFjZXR5bCBncm91cCBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiBhIG1ldGh5bCBncm91cCBjb25uZWN0ZWQgdG8gYSBjYXJib255bCBncm91cC4=

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[c]aHlkcm94eWwgwqAgwqA=[Qq][c]Y2FyYm9ueWwgwqAgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]Y2FyYm94eWwgwqDCoA==[Qq][c]YW1pbm8=

Cg==[Qq]

[c]c3VsZmh5ZHJ5bCDCoMKg[Qq][c]cGhvc3BoYXRlIMKgwqA=[Qq][c]bWV0aHlswqA=[Qq][c]YWNl dHls

Cg==[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBBIGh5ZHJveHlsIGdyb3VwIGNvbnNpc3RzIG9mIGFuIG94eWdlbiBib25kZWQgdG8gYcKgaHlkcm9nZW4s

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgY2FyYm9ueWwgZ3JvdXAgaGFzIGEgY2FyYm9uIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkb3VibGUgYm9uZGVkIHRvIGFuIG94eWdlbiwgYXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cu

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgQ2FyYm94eWwgZ3JvdXAgaGFzIGEgY2FyYm9uIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkb3VibGUgYm9uZGVkIHRvIGFuIG94eWdlbiwgYW5kIHNpbmdsZSBib25kZWQgdG8gYSBoeWRyb3h5bCBncm91cCAoLU9IKQ==

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEFuIGFtaW5vIGdyb3VwIGNvbnNpc3RzIG9mIGEgbml0cm9nZW4gYXRvbSB3aXRoIHNpbmdsZSBib25kcyB0byB0d28gaHlkcm9nZW4gYXRvbXMu

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgc3VsZmh5ZHJ5bCBncm91cCBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiBhIHN1bGZ1ciBhdG9tIGJvbmRlZCB0byBhIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGF0b20u

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIEEgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwIGNvbnNpc3RzIG9mIGEgcGhvc3Bob3J1cyBhdG9tIHN1cnJvdW5kZWQgYnkgZm91ciBveHlnZW5zLiBUaGUgcGhvc3Bob3J1cyBzaGFyZXMgYSBkb3VibGUgYm9uZCB3aXRoIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgb3h5Z2VucywgYW5kIGEgc2luZ2xlIGJvbmQgd2l0aCBlYWNoIG9mIHRoZSBvdGhlciB0aHJlZS4gVHdvIG9mIHRoZSBveHlnZW5zIGhhdmUgYSBuZWdhdGl2ZSBjaGFyZ2Uu

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBBIG1ldGh5bCBncm91cCBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiBhIGNhcmJvbiBzaW5nbGUgYm9uZGVkIHdpdGjCoHRocmVlIGh5ZHJvZ2Vucy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]RmFidWxvdXMuIEFuIGFjZXR5bCBncm91cCBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiBhIG1ldGh5bCBncm91cCBjb25uZWN0ZWQgdG8gYSBjYXJib255bCBncm91cC4=

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[hangman]

[c]aHlkcm 94eWw=[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBUaGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgaHlkcm94eWw=Lg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[hangman]

[c]Y2FyYm 9ueWw=[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBUaGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgY2FyYm9ueWw=Lg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[hangman]

[c]Y2FyYm 94eWw=[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBUaGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgY2FyYm94eWw=Lg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[hangman]

[c]YW1p bm8=[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBUaGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgYW1pbm8=Lg==

Cgo=

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[hangman]

[c]c3VsZmh5 ZHJ5bA==[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBUaGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgc3VsZmh5ZHJ5bA==Lg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[hangman]

[c]cGhvc3 BoYXRl[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBUaGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgcGhvc3BoYXRlLg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[hangman]

[c]bWV0 aHls[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBUaGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgbWV0aHlsLg==

Cg==

[Qq]
[q]This functional group is

[hangman]

[c]YWNl dHls[Qq]

[f]WWVzLiBUaGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGlzIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgYWNldHlsLg==[Qq]

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]

3. Ionized functional groups

Three of the functional groups, carboxyl, amino, and phosphate can be shown in an ionized or an unionized form. You should be able to recognize both forms when you see them attached to molecules. Study the table below.

Functional Groups
 Name Non-ionized form Ionized form
 Carboxyl 03_carboxyl 03a_carboxyl-ionized
 Amino 04_amino 04a_amino-group-ionized
 Phosphate 06a_phosphate-unionized 06_phosphate-corrected-ionized

4. More about Isomers

At the beginning of this tutorial, I described how molecules with the same number and types of atoms, but different arrangements of those atoms, are called isomers. There are three types of isomers to know about.

Structural isomers are the kind we looked at above (and shown again below for your convenience).

Chain Branched molecules
05_800px-N-Pentane 06_Isopentane

Both of these molecules have the same molecular formula (C5H12), but their structural arrangement differs. The different arrangement can have the effect of giving these molecules different physical and chemical properties.

A second type of isomer is a cis-trans isomer. Cis-trans isomers are result of the fact that double bonds (two shared pairs of electrons) are geometrically fixed, and don’t allow the atoms they join to rotate around the bond axis. Take a look at these two molecules, both of which have the formula C4H8.

C4H8, cis configuration C4H8, trans configuration
08_220px-cis-2-butene-svg 09_220px-trans-2-butene-svg

They are obviously isomers, with a different geometry. Note how the two methyl groups in the molecule on the left are on the same side of the double bond, which is referred to as a cis configuration. In the molecule on the right, the two methyl groups are on opposite sides of the double bond, which is referred to as a trans configuration. As with structural isomers, the different location of the methyl groups can alter the chemical and physical properties of these molecules.

You might have heard about trans-fats, and how they’re bad for your heart. That’s correct, and you’ll learn more about them in my videos and interactive tutorials about biochemistry. Click here if you want to jump ahead to that topic now.

The last type of isomers are molecules that are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. That sounds abstract, but it’s actually simple. Hold your hands out in front of you. Your hands are analogous to enantiomers: same bones, same digits, with a mirror image structure. If you made a mold that perfectly fit your right hand, your left hand wouldn’t be able to fit into it. These types of isomers are called called enantiomers.

The two molecules below are both chemical relatives of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

D-dopa (biologically inactive) L-dopa (biologically active)
10_d-dopa 11_l-dopa-290px-34-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanin_levodopa-svg

10a_d-dopa-from-campbell
D-dopa

11b-l_dopa-from-campbell
L-dopa

Neurotransmitters are the chemicals used to send signals from one nerve cell to the next. Dopamine works in the brains of animals (including humans) in processes including pleasurable reward to stimuli, attention, memory, and learning.

D-dopa and L-dopa look pretty similar, right? Let’s focus on the structural formulas. Remember that in this type of structural formula, every angle vertex indicates a carbon atom. Note that the amino group in D-dopa is shown as being attached to its carbon with a dashed wedge. That dashed wedge means that the amino group is below the plane of the molecule. In L-dopa, there’s a solid wedge connecting the amino group to its carbon. That solid wedge indicates that the amino group is above the plane of the molecule.

That difference might seem trivial, but it makes these molecules as different (and as non-interchangeable) as your left and right hands. That’s because enzymes, the proteins which carry out the chemical reactions inside your cells and body compartments (like your stomach) work by binding with the molecules they interact with. In the same way that you can’t put a right handed glove on your left hand, an enzyme that can fit with L-dopa can’t fit with D-dopa. The consequence is that L-dopa can serve as a medicine for people with Parkinson’s disease, a condition where the brain produces insufficient amounts of dopamine. D-dopa has no pharmacological use.

5. Another Quiz : Functional groups and isomers

That’s about all you need to know about carbon and functional groups to succeed in a first-year, introductory biology course. When we study proteins (as well as other key biological molecules) in the next module of our course, you’ll see that it will be useful to be able to identify functional groups, and to hold in mind which ones are polar, non-polar, acidic, basic, and so on. In the quiz that follows, just to keep you on your toes, some of the functional groups shown below are in their ionized form, but others are not. Enjoy!

[qwiz qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Functional Groups Quiz 2 (M5)”]

[h]Functional groups and isomers

[i]

[q]In the diagram below, a hydroxyl group is shown at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]ID U=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhIGh5ZHJveHlsIGdyb3VwIGlzIGF0ICYjODIyMDs1LiYjODIyMTs=[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgaHlkcm94eWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgbGlrZSBhIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlLCBidXQgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBtaXNzaW5nIGEgaHlkcm9nZW4u

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, a methyl group is shown at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]ID I=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhIG1ldGh5bMKgZ3JvdXAgaXMgYXQgJiM4MjIwOzIuJiM4MjIxOw==[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgbWV0aHlswqBncm91cCBpcyBsaWtlIGEgbWV0aGFuZcKgbW9sZWN1bGUsIChDSA==NA==KSwgYnV0IGl0JiM4MjE3O3MgbWlzc2luZyBhIGh5ZHJvZ2VuLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, a phosphate group is shown at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq Ax[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhIHBob3NwaGF0ZcKgZ3JvdXAgaXMgYXQgJiM4MjIwOzEuJiM4MjIxOw==[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgcGhvc3BoYXRlwqBncm91cCBpcyB0aGUgb25seSBvbmUgd2l0aCBwaG9zcGhvcnVzLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, a sulfhydryl group is shown at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A2[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhIHN1bGZoeWRyeWzCoGdyb3VwIGlzIGF0ICYjODIyMDs2LiYjODIyMTs=[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBMb29rIGF0IHRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIHRoaXMgZnVuY3Rpb25hbCBncm91cCAoJiM4MjIwO3N1bGZoeWRyeWwmIzgyMjE7KS4gVGhlIGZpcnN0IHN5bGxhYmxlIHRlbGxzIHlvdSB3aGljaCBlbGVtZW50IHRvIGxvb2sgZm9yLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, a carboxyl group is shown at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq Az[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhIGNhcmJveHlswqBncm91cCBpcyBhdCAmIzgyMjA7My4mIzgyMjE7[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgdHdvwqBoaW50cy4gMSkgVGhlIG5hbWUgJiM4MjIwO2NhcmJveHlsJiM4MjIxOyBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgb25lIG9mIHRoZSBrZXkgZWxlbWVudHMgaW4gdGhpcyBncm91cC4gMikgVGhlIGNhcmJveHlswqBncm91cCBpc8Kgb25lIG9mIHRoZSBmdW5jdGlvbmFsIGdyb3VwcyB0aGF0IGNhbiBiZSBpbiBhbiBpb25pemVkIGZvcm0gKG1lYW5pbmcgdGhhdCBpdCB3aWxsIGhhdmUgYSBjaGFyZ2UgKGluZGljYXRlZCBieSBhICYjODIyMDtwbHVzJiM4MjIxOyBvciBhICYjODIyMDttaW51cyYjODIyMTsgc2lnbikuwqBTbywgbG9vayBmb3IgdGhlIGVsZW1lbnQgSSYjODIxNzt2ZSBoaW50ZWQgYXQsIGFuZCBhIGNoYXJnZS4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, a carbonyl group is shown at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A3[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhIGNhcmJvbnlswqBncm91cCBpcyBhdCAmIzgyMjA7Ny4mIzgyMjE7[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgY2FyYm9ueWzCoGdyb3VwJiM4MjE3O3MgbmFtZSBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgb25lIG9mIGl0cyBtb3N0IGltcG9ydGFudCBlbGVtZW50cy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, an amino group is shown at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A0[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhbiBhbWlubyBncm91cCBpcyBhdCAmIzgyMjA7NC4mIzgyMjE7[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGXCoGZvdXJ0aCBsZXR0ZXIgaW4gdGhlIHdvcmQgJiM4MjIwO2FtaW5vJiM4MjIxOyBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgYSBrZXkgZWxlbWVudCBpbiB0aGlzIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAu

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, an acetyl is shown at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A4[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhbiBhY2V0eWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgYXQgJiM4MjIwOzguJiM4MjIxOw==[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBBY2V0eWwgZ3JvdXBzIGhhdmUgYSBtZXRoeWwgZ3JvdXBzIGFuZCBhIGNhcmJvbnlsIGdyb3VwLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, the functional group that’s used to deactivate stretches of DNA (turning genes off) is at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]ID I=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhIG1ldGh5bMKgZ3JvdXAgaXMgYXQgJiM4MjIwOzIuJiM4MjIxOyBUaGVzZSBncm91cHMgYXJlIG9mdGVuIHVzZWQgaW4gZ2VuZSBpbmFjdGl2YXRpb24u[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LsKgVGhpcyBwcm9jZXNzIG9mIHR1cm5pbmcgZ2VuZXMgb2ZmIGJ5IGFkZGluZyBhIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgaXMgY2FsbGVkICYjODIyMDttZXRoeWxhdGlvbi4mIzgyMjE7

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, the functional group that’s often used in energy transfer is at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq Ax[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhIHBob3NwaGF0ZcKgZ3JvdXAgaXMgc2hvd24gYXQgJiM4MjIwOzEuJiM4MjIxOyBUaGVzZSBhcmUgb2Z0ZW4gdXNlZCBpbiBlbmVyZ3kgdHJhbnNmZXIgKGFzIGluIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSBhZGVub3NpbmUgdHJpcGhvc3BoYXRlLCBBVFApLg==[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LsKgVGhlc2UgdHlwZSBvZiBlbmVyZ3kgdHJhbnNmZXJzIGFyZSByZWZlcnJlZCB0byBhcyA=cGhvc3Bob3J5bGF0aW9ucw==Lg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, the functional group that plays a key role in protein structure through the formation of disulfide bridges is

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A2[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOiBhIHN1bGZoeWRyeWzCoGdyb3VwIGlzIHNob3duIGF0ICYjODIyMDs2LiYjODIyMTsgVHdvIHN1bGZoeWRyeWwgZ3JvdXBzIGNhbiBmb3JtIGEgc3RydWN0dXJlIGNhbGxlZCBhICYjODIyMDtkaXN1bGZpZGUmIzgyMjE7IGJyaWRnZSwgd2hpY2ggY2FuIGJlbmQgYSBwcm90ZWluIGludG8gYSBwYXJ0aWN1bGFyIHNoYXBlICh3aGljaCBoZWxwcyB0byBkZXRlcm1pbmUgdGhlIHByb3RlaW4mIzgyMTc7cyBzaGFwZSwgd2hpY2ggaW4gdHVybiBoZWxwcyBkZXRlcm1pbmUgaXRzIGZ1bmN0aW9uKS4=[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LsKgVGhlIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBpcyBjYWxsZWQgYSAmIzgyMjA7ZGlzdWxmaWRlIGJyaWRnZS4mIzgyMjE7IFdoYXQgZWxlbWVudCBuYW1lIGRvIHlvdSBzZWUgaW4gJiM4MjIwO2Rpc3VsZmlkZS4mIzgyMjE7IFdoaWNoIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgaGFzIHRoYXQgZWxlbWVudD8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]Note that in this question, the diagram is just for reference. The two functional groups that can make the molecule they’re attached to an acid are

[c]bWV0aHlsIGFuZCBjYXJib255bA==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LsKgTG9vayBmb3IgdGhlIHR3byBmdW5jdGlvbmFsIGdyb3VwcyB0aGF0LCBpbiB0aGVpciBpb25pemVkIGZvcm0sIGhhdmUgbmVnYXRpdmUgY2hhcmdlcy4gVGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBuZWdhdGl2ZSBiZWNhdXNlIHRoZXkgbG9zdCBhIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGlvbiwgd2hpY2ggaGFzIGRpc3NvbHZlZCBpbnRvIHRoZSBzdXJyb3VuZGluZyBzb2x1dGlvbiwgbWFraW5nIHRoYXQgc29sdXRpb24gbW9yZSBhY2lkaWMu[Qq]

[c]wqBwaG9zcGhhdGUgYW5kIGFtaW5v[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LsKgTG9vayBmb3IgdGhlIHR3byBmdW5jdGlvbmFsIGdyb3VwcyB0aGF0LCBpbiB0aGVpciBpb25pemVkIGZvcm0sIGhhdmUgbmVnYXRpdmUgY2hhcmdlcy4gVGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBuZWdhdGl2ZSBiZWNhdXNlIHRoZXkgbG9zdCBhIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGlvbiwgd2hpY2ggaGFzIGRpc3NvbHZlZCBpbnRvIHRoZSBzdXJyb3VuZGluZyBzb2x1dGlvbiwgbWFraW5nIHRoYXQgc29sdXRpb24gbW9yZSBhY2lkaWMu[Qq]

[c]c3VsZmh5ZHJ5bMKgYW5kIGNhcmJveHls[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LsKgTG9vayBmb3IgdGhlIHR3byBmdW5jdGlvbmFsIGdyb3VwcyB0aGF0LCBpbiB0aGVpciBpb25pemVkIGZvcm0sIGhhdmUgbmVnYXRpdmUgY2hhcmdlcy4gVGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBuZWdhdGl2ZSBiZWNhdXNlIHRoZXkgbG9zdCBhIGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGlvbiwgd2hpY2ggaGFzIGRpc3NvbHZlZCBpbnRvIHRoZSBzdXJyb3VuZGluZyBzb2x1dGlvbiwgbWFraW5nIHRoYXQgc29sdXRpb24gbW9yZSBhY2lkaWMu[Qq]

[c]Y2FyYm94eWwgYW5k IHBob3NwaGF0ZQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOsKgVGhlIHR3byBmdW5jdGlvbmFsIGdyb3VwcyB0aGF0IG1ha2UgdGhlIG1vbGVjdWxlIHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgYXR0YWNoZWQgdG8gYW4gYWNpZCBhcmUgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGFuZCBjYXJib3h5bA==

Cg==

Jm5ic3A7

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the diagram below, the functional group can make the molecule it’s attached to a base is

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]wq A0[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iOsKgdGhlIGFtaW5vIGdyb3VwLCBhdCA0LCBjYW4gYWJzb3JiIGEgaHlkcm9nZW4gaW9uIGZyb20gdGhlIHNvbHV0aW9uIGl0JiM4MjE3O3MgaW4sIG1ha2luZyB0aGUgc29sdXRpb24gbW9yZSBiYXNpYy4=[Qq]

[c]Kg==[Qq]

[f]Tm8sIGJ1dCBoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LsKgQW1tb25pYSBpcyBhIGJhc2UgdGhhdCBoYXMgYSBzdHJ1Y3R1cmUgcmVsYXRlZCB0byB0aGlzIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAuIEFtbW9uaWEmIzgyMTc7cyBmaWZ0aCBsZXR0ZXIgaGFzIGFuIGVsZW1lbnQgdGhhdCB3aWxsIGxlYWQgeW91IHJpZ2h0IHRvIHRoaXMgZnVuY3Rpb25hbCBncm91cC4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]A general term for two or more molecules with the same molecular formula but a different arrangement of the atoms in these molecules is

[hangman]

[c]aXNv bWVy[Qq]

[f]QSBnZW5lcmFsIHRlcm0gZm9yIHR3byBvciBtb3JlIG1vbGVjdWxlcyB3aXRoIHRoZSBzYW1lIG1vbGVjdWxhciBmb3JtdWxhIGJ1dCBhIGRpZmZlcmVudCBhcnJhbmdlbWVudCBvZiB0aGUgYXRvbXMgaW4gdGhlc2UgbW9sZWN1bGVzIGlzIA==aXNvbWVyLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]Two molecules that are non-superimposable mirror images of one another are known as

[hangman]

[c]ZW5hbnRp b21lcnM=[Qq]

[f]VHdvIG1vbGVjdWxlcyB0aGF0IGFyZSBub24gc3VwZXJpbXBvc2FibGUgbWlycm9yIGltYWdlcyBvZiBvbmUgYW5vdGhlciBhcmUga25vd24gYXMgZW5hbnRpb21lcnMuwqA=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]Cis-trans isomers are molecules with the same number and type of atoms, but with different arrangement of these atoms around a __________ bond.

[hangman]

[c]ZG91 Ymxl[Qq]

[f]Q2lzLXRyYW5zIGlzb21lcnMgYXJlIG1vbGVjdWxlcyB3aXRoIHRoZSBzYW1lIG51bWJlciBhbmQgdHlwZSBvZiBhdG9tcywgYnV0IHdpdGggZGlmZmVyZW50IGFycmFuZ2VtZW50IG9mIHRoZXNlIGF0b21zIGFyb3VuZCBhIA==ZG91YmxlwqBib25kLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the molecule below, the functional group attached to carbon number 1 is a _________ group.

[hangman]

[c]Y2FyYm 9ueWw=[Qq]

[f]RXhjZWxsZW50LiBUaGUgZnVuY3Rpb25hbCBncm91cCBhdHRhY2hlZCB0byBjYXJib24gbnVtYmVyIDEgaXMgYSA=Y2FyYm9ueWw=IGdyb3VwLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the molecule below, the functional group attached to carbon number 4 is a _________ group.

[hangman]

[c]aHlkcm 94eWw=[Qq]

[f]TmljZS4gVGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgYXR0YWNoZWQgdG8gY2FyYm9uIG51bWJlciA0IGlzIGEgaHlkcm94eWw=wqBncm91cC4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the molecule below, the functional group attached to the left side of the central carbon is a(n) _________ group (note: the central carbon has the R1 hanging below it: you’ll learn what that is very soon).

[hangman]

[c]YW1p bm8=[Qq]

[f]QXdlc29tZS4gVGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgdG8gdGhlIGxlZnQgb2YgdGhlIGNlbnRyYWwgY2FyYm9uIGlzIGFuwqA=YW1pbm8=wqBncm91cC4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the molecule below, the functional group attached to the right side of the central carbon is a(n) _________ group (note: the central carbon has the R1 hanging below it: you’ll learn what that is very soon).

[hangman]

[c]Y2FyYm 94eWw=[Qq]

[f]QXdlc29tZS4gVGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uYWwgZ3JvdXAgdG8gdGhlIHJpZ2h0wqBvZiB0aGUgY2VudHJhbCBjYXJib24gaXMgYW7CoA==Y2FyYm94eWw=wqBncm91cC4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q]In the molecule below, there are three of the same functional groups in a row, indicated by letters “A,” “B,” and “C.” This is a ______________ group.

[hangman]

[c]cGhvc3 BoYXRl[Qq]

[f]VGVycmlmaWMuIFRoZSB0aHJpY2UgcmVwZWF0ZWQgZnVuY3Rpb25hbCBncm91cCBpcyBhwqDCoA==cGhvc3BoYXRlwqBncm91cC4=[Qq]

[/qwiz]

6. What now?

Link to

  1. Proceed to Biochemistry (Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids)
  2. return to the Carbon and functional groups menu