1. Unit 7 Learning Objectives

To see the list of all AP Bio objectives, click the following link to go to our AP Bio Review Outline.

Topic 7.1: Introduction to Natural Selection

  1. Define adaptation.
  2. Explain how while evolution is non-random, the mutations that lead to adaptation are themselves random.
    • Selection is non-random. But If it weren’t for mutation (which is random), all that selection could do would be to cull the population of less adaptive phenotypes. Mutation is what makes the process of natural selection creative and open-ended.
  3. Explain how natural selection works:
    •  Inherited variation, followed by selection for beneficial traits and against harmful traits, shifts the average phenotype in a population, leading to adaptation.
  4. Describe how evolutionary fitness can be measured
    • As an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce.

Topics 7.2 and 7.3: Natural Selection and Artificial Selection

  1. Explain the importance of phenotypic variation to natural selection.
    • Natural selection acts on phenotypic variation in populations. If selective pressure is maintained in the same direction over multiple generations, different phenotypic variations will become more or less common, depending on fitness.
  2. Explain how artificial selection works.
    • During artificial selection, humans select favored phenotypes within plant or animal gene pools, shifting the average phenotype in the desired direction.
  3. Explain how natural selection acts on phenotypes to shift allele frequencies within populations.
    • The result of selection (artificial or natural) is a shift in allele frequencies. But what’s being selected are phenotypes.
  4. Explain the relationship between environmental change and selective pressure
    • As environments change, so do selective pressures. If selective pressure continues in the same direction, there’s directional selection for specific phenotypes. If change is fluctuating, then so will the average phenotype in a population.
  5. Distinguish between directional, disruptive, and stabilizing selection*

Topics 7.4 and 7.5: Population Genetics and Hardy Weinberg

  1. Define gene pool
  2. Define allele frequency
  3. Describe evolution in terms of a population’s gene pool.
    • Evolution is a change in the genetic makeup of a population over time.
  4. Describe the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model.
    • The Hardy-Weinberg model is a mathematical model of a non-evolving population. That means a population in which allele frequencies stay constant over time.
  5. Be able to solve problems related to the two Hardy-Weinberg equations. [Note: you’ll be giving the formulas, so you don’t need to memorize them). The formulas are:
    • p + q = 1, and
    • p2 + 2pq +q2 = 1
  6. State the five conditions associated with non-evolving populations in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium
    • Large population size
    • isolation (no outside alleles coming into or leaving the gene pool)
    • no net mutation
    • random mating (no sexual selection or assortative mating).
    • no beneficial or harmful alleles
  7. Define genetic drift.
    • Genetic drift is a change in gene frequencies caused by random sampling of alleles in small populations.
  8. List and describe two ways in which genetic drift can occur.
    • The founder effect
    • The bottleneck effect.
  9. State the conditions that lead to evolution (change in allele frequencies). These are all violations of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions listed above
    • Violate large population size, and you have genetic drift, shown either by population bottlenecks or by the founder effect.
    • Violate isolation, and you have gene flow.
    • Violate no net mutation, and you have alleles changing frequency as they mutate from one form to another.
    • Violate random mating, and you have evolution caused by sexual selection or assortative mating.
    • Violate no harmful or beneficial alleles, and you have evolution caused by natural selection.

Topic 7.6: Evidence for Evolution, Continuing Ancestry, and Continuing Evolution

  1. Explain what fossils are, and how fossils can be dated.
    • Radioactive decay can show the age of igneous rocks in sedimentary strata adjacent to fossils.
    • The decay of carbon-14 can show the age of relatively recent fossils.
    • Geological strata and the use of index fossils can show relative dates.
  2. Describe homologous structures
    • Structures that show evidence of common ancestry because of similarity in structure or similar embryological origin.
  3. Describe vestigial structures
    • Structures that have lost their function, and only exist because of their inheritance from a common ancestor.
  4. Describe molecular homologies and vestigial features at the molecular level.
    • Shared sequences in proteins and nucleic acids that show evidence of common ancestry.
    • Pseudogenes are inactive gene sequences that persist in the genome.

Topic 7.7. Evidence for Common Ancestry

  1. List and describe the molecular homologies that indicate that all living things share a common ancestor.
    • DNA, RNA, ribosomes, the genetic code, and shared metabolic pathways (chemiosmosis)
  2. List and describe the cellular and genetic homologies that indicate that all eukaryotes share a common ancestor.
    • Membrane-bound organelles, linear chromosomes,  genes with introns, mitochondria

Topic 7.8: Evidence for Continuing Evolution

  1. List and describe the evidence that evolution continues
    • Changes in the fossil record
    • The ongoing evolution of resistance to antibiotics, pesticides, herbicides, antiviral drugs, and chemotherapy drugs.
    • Newly emerging pathogens and diseases.

Topic 7.9: Phylogeny

  1. Describe the types of evidence that can be used to infer evolutionary relationships.
    • Morphological similarities that show homology
    • DNA and RNA sequences
  2. Be able to construct and analyze phylogenetic trees and cladograms. The key things to be able to identify are
    • Common ancestors
    • Which clades are most closely related (and why)
  3. With regards to phylogenetic trees, define (and be able to identify) clades, shared derived features, ancestral features, outgroups, nodes, and common ancestors.
  4. Understand what phylogenetic trees represent in terms of evolutionary understanding.
    • Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are hypotheses about evolutionary relatedness that need to be revised in light of new information.
  5. Compare the value of sequence data and morphological data in terms of constructing phylogenetic trees.
    • Molecular data typically provide more accurate and reliable evidence than morphological traits
  6. Explain how molecular clocks work.
    • Nodes are dated based on correlation with the fossil record. This enables the extrapolation of divergence times in other branches of the same phylogenetic tree.

Topics 7.10-7.12: Speciation, Variation, and Extinction

  1. Explain the biological species concept (what it is, and what its limits are)
    • A species is a population that can interbreed to produce viable, fertile offspring.
    • Doesn’t work for fossil species or asexual species
  2. Describe prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms
  3. Explain what speciation is, and the mechanisms by which it occurs
    • Definition: when an ancestral species splits into two or more reproductively isolated daughter species.
    • Mechanisms: allopatric and sympatric
  4. Compare punctuated equilibrium with gradualism
    • Punctuated equilibrium: long periods of stasis, followed by rapid change.
    • Gradualism: slow evolution at a steady pace over long periods.
  5. Define adaptive radiation and describe its importance
    • Definition: Multiple speciation events from a common ancestor.
    • Importance: it’s the key pattern of life’s reemergence following mass extinction. Also a key pattern on island chains.
  6. Connect a population’s genetic diversity with its ability to withstand environmental pressures.
    • Populations with more genetic diversity are better able to respond to environmental change.
    • Populations with little genetic diversity (because of genetic drift or human manipulation) are at higher risk of extinction.
  7. **Connect variation at the molecular level with fitness
    • Molecular variation can increase fitness.
    • Example: Multiple chlorophylls enhance photosynthesis
    • Example: Multiple hemoglobins (fetal vs adult) maximize oxygen absorption at different developmental stages
  8. Distinguish between extinction and mass extinction.
    • Extinctions occur at a regular background rate.
    • During mass extinction events (of which there have been very few), geological or astronomical events increase extinctions well beyond the background rate.
  9. Explain how human activity is related to extinction
    • Currently, humans are modifying ecosystems to a degree that’s creating a human-caused mass extinction event (see Topic 8.7 below).
  10. Explain the connection between extinction and biodiversity
    • In any particular ecosystem, the level of diversity results from the rate of speciation and the rate of extinction.
    • Mass extinctions create vacant ecological niches that are filled during subsequent adaptive radiation (such as the adaptive radiation of the mammals following the extinction of the dinosaurs).

Topic 7.13: Origin of Life

  1. List the key dates for the emergence of life on Earth.
    • Based on geological evidence, Earth formed about 4.5 bya.
    • Based on biological and geological evidence, life was well established by 3.5 bya.
    • Based on geological and biological evidence, life probably first emerged on Earth about 3.8 bya.
  2. Explain some of the key steps associated with the origin of life on Earth.
    • Conditions in a few locations on the early Earth would have made the abiotic formation of biological monomers possible.
    • A  likely spot for that to have happened is alkaline hydrothermal vents.*
    • Additional prebiotic molecules could have come down from space via meteorites (but this is not nearly as plausible as the hydrothermal vents) 
    • The formation of monomers would have to be followed by the formation of polymers.
    • Next would be the formation of self-replicating polymers. *
    • At some point, the encapsulation of self-replicating polymers within a lipid bubble led to the formation of cells.*
  3. Describe the progress that’s been made in verifying theories related to the origin of life.
    • Organic monomers, including nucleotide precursors and amino acids, have been synthesized in laboratories under abiotic conditions designed to simulate the conditions on the early Earth.
    • The next step —creating complex self-replicating polymers — has not yet been achieved, but there are promising approaches.
  4. Describe the RNA world hypothesis.
    • The RNA world hypothesis promotes the idea that RNA, rather than DNA, served as the first genetic material.

2. Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards

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[h]Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards

[i]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d24b83476a38″ question_number=”1″ topic=”7.1-3.Natural_and_Artificial_Selection”] Define the general phenomenon of “adaptive melanism.”

Illustrative example: Natural Selection

[a] Adaptive melanism (shown above in the rock pocket mouse) is the darkening of the skin, fur, scales, feathers, or appendages (wings in insects, for example) within a population in response to the darkening of the environment. It’s not something that occurs in an individual (such as when a person’s skin becomes tanner during the summer). Rather, it occurs within a population as its gene pool evolves in response to natural selection. The selective pressure that results in adaptive melanism is typically predation.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.1-3.Natural_and_Artificial_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d231e6c49e38″ question_number=”2″] Describe the biological basis of adaptive melanism in the rock pocket mouse, and connect the phenomenon to convergent evolution.

Illustrative example: Natural Selection

[a]In the American southwest, populations of rock pocket mice live on dark, igneous rocks or lighter, sand-colored granite rocks. Predation by birds creates strong selective pressure for camouflage, resulting in a high frequency of dark mice on the dark lava flows, and lighter-colored mice on the granite rocks.

The dark phenotype results from mutations in the melanocortin receptor 1 gene (MC1R). This G-protein-coupled receptor binds to pituitary hormones called melanocortins. Binding stimulates melanocytes (melanin-producing cells) to produce more of the dark pigment melanin. Different populations of dark-substrate-adapted mice have evolved different mutations in the CFTR gene that bring about the same phenotype. In other words, the mutations are not homologous (from a common ancestor). Because these populations evolved the mutations independently, they’re an example of convergent evolution.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d2184a41d238″ question_number=”3″ topic=”7.1-3.Natural_and_Artificial_Selection”] Explain Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

[a] Natural selection explains the phenomenon of design (adaptation) without a designer. The theory begins with two observations. First, in any population, there are inherited variations. Second, in every species, even the ones with the lowest rate of reproduction, parents produce more offspring than will survive into the next generation.

Among the offspring, some will possess inherited advantages that increase their chances of surviving and reproducing. As a result, individuals with those advantages will survive at a higher rate. When they reproduce, they’ll pass on their inherited adaptations to their offspring. As mutation continues to randomly generate new variations, and as the environment removes less adapted individuals from a population and allows better-adapted individuals to survive to reproduce, that population, generation by generation, continually adapts to its environment.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d20101caea38″ question_number=”4″ topic=”7.1-3.Natural_and_Artificial_Selection”] List the three ways in which natural selection can change the distribution of phenotypes in a population.

[a] In any population, most characteristics can be represented by a bell curve of continuous variation. For example, if you’re measuring body length, most individuals will be of average length, with fewer that are shorter, and fewer that are longer. Directional selection (A) selects against one of the extremes. Stabilizing selection (B) selects against both extremes. Disruptive selection (C) selects against the mean.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d1e5113c3a38″ question_number=”5″ topic=”7.1-3.Natural_and_Artificial_Selection”] How is evolutionary fitness measured?

 

[a] Evolutionary fitness is measured by reproductive success: the number of offspring (and offspring of offspring) that survive to reproduce.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d1cdc8c55238″ question_number=”6″ topic=”7.1-3.Natural_and_Artificial_Selection”] Explain how the peppered moth demonstrates an evolutionary change in response to environmental change.

Illustrative example: Natural Selection

 

[a] The Peppered Moth (Biston betularia) provides an example of directly observed directional selection and adaptive melanism (covered in other cards). Before the industrial revolution in England in the 1800s, the moth’s predominant phenotype was peppered: mostly white, with black specks. This camouflaged the moths against bird predation as they rested on light-colored tree trunks which were often covered by whitish-colored lichens. Soot from industrial pollution killed the lichens and darkened the tree trunks, creating an advantage for darker moths. Starting in the mid-1800s, over several decades, the mean phenotype shifted from peppered to dark. Starting in about 1960, soot from pollution declined. The lichens returned, and the tree trunks became lighter. In response, the mean phenotype of peppered moth populations shifted from dark-colored to light-colored.

[!]7.4.Population Genetics and Hardy Weinberg[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d1b42c428638″ question_number=”7″ topic=”7.4-5.Population_Genetics_and_Hardy-Weinberg”] Explain evolution in terms of genes and gene pools.

 

[a] In terms of genes, evolution can be explained as the change in the genetic makeup of a population over time. This change can be adaptive, resulting from natural selection of phenotypes associated with specific alleles. Through natural selection, alleles that code for traits that increase evolutionary fitness (the ability of organisms with these alleles to survive and reproduce) will increase in frequency within a gene pool, while alleles that decrease fitness will decrease in frequency. However, changes in a population’s genetic makeup can also be random, resulting from processes such as genetic drift (discussed in other cards).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d19ce3cb9e38″ question_number=”8″ topic=”7.4-5.Population_Genetics_and_Hardy-Weinberg”] Define genetic drift and describe how a population bottleneck works.

 

[a] Genetic drift is a random change in allele frequencies in a population’s gene pool, usually associated with small population size. In a population bottleneck, some biotic or abiotic factor wipes out a large percentage of the individuals in a population, leaving only a few survivors. Because of the small number of individuals left, it’s possible that the alleles they possess might not be representative of the allele frequencies in the former (larger) population. That includes the possibility that some alleles might completely disappear. Note that the survivors didn’t have any selective advantage: they were merely lucky. The overall effect is that allele frequencies in the new surviving population might be quite different from those in the previous population.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d180f33cee38″ question_number=”9″ topic=”7.4-5.Population_Genetics_and_Hardy-Weinberg”] Describe the founder effect.

 

[a]The founder effect is a type of genetic drift. It can occur when a small number of individuals from a large population found a new population. In that case, because of insufficient sampling,  the allele frequencies in the gene pool of the founders might be different from those in their parent population.

This is illustrated in the diagram on the left, where the red squares and blue circles represent alleles in a gene pool. The new populations on the top and bottom have lost an allele, and in the middle population, the blue allele is in higher frequency than it was in the parent population.

The classic example of the founder effect is the Pennsylvania Amish.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d169aac60638″ question_number=”10″ topic=”7.4-5.Population_Genetics_and_Hardy-Weinberg”] Explain the effect of gene flow on evolving gene pools.

 

[a] Gene flow is the movement of alleles from one population to another. This can involve the movement of individuals, who bring their alleles with them from one population to another, or the movement of gametes (such as pollen flying in the wind or being carried by pollinators between adjacent plant populations). In either case, the effect of gene flow is to diminish differentiation between adjacent populations.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d1500e433a38″ question_number=”11″ topic=”7.4-5.Population_Genetics_and_Hardy-Weinberg”] Explain the importance of mutation in evolution.

 

[a] Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation within and between populations. Active mutations are the basis of the phenotypic variation upon which natural selection acts.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d13671c06e38″ question_number=”12″ topic=”7.4-5.Population_Genetics_and_Hardy-Weinberg”] What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle? In your response, include the five features of a population that’s in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

 

[a] The Hardy-Weinberg principle describes an idealized, non-evolving population. This population has 5 features, and if any of these are not adhered to, allele frequencies in that population will change.

These features are 1)  infinitely large population (preventing genetic drift); 2) no harmful or beneficial alleles (preventing natural selection); 3) random mating (preventing sexual selection); 4) no emigration or immigration (preventing gene flow) and 5) no net mutation of one allele into another (which would decrease the frequency of the former allele and increase the frequency of the latter).

[q json=”true” yy=”5″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” question_number=”13″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d11a8131be38″ topic=”7.4-5.Population_Genetics_and_Hardy-Weinberg”] Describe the meaning of the Hardy Weinberg equation p + q = 1.

 

[a] In the Hardy-Weinberg equations, p = the frequency of the dominant allele, and q = the frequency of the recessive allele.  The first Hardy-Weinberg equation is p + q = 1, which means that for a particular gene locus with only two alleles, the frequency of the dominant allele plus the frequency of the recessive allele equals 100% of the alleles at that locus. Using that equation, if you know the frequency of either the dominant or the recessive allele, you can figure out the other one.

[q json=”true” yy=”5″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” question_number=”14″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d0fe90a30e38″ topic=”7.4-5.Population_Genetics_and_Hardy-Weinberg”]

  1. Describe the meaning of the Hardy-Weinberg equation p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.
  2. Explain what this equation enables you to figure out about a population’s genetic structure.

 

[a] The equation,  p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1,  means that the frequency of homozygous dominant individuals (p2), plus the frequency of heterozygotes (2pq), plus the frequency of all the recessive individuals (q2) = all the individuals in the population. Once you know the frequency of recessives (which you can identify by phenotype), then you can figure out the frequency of q (it’s the square root of the frequency of recessives). Then you can figure out the frequency of the dominant allele (1-q= p), and then the frequency of heterozygotes (2pq).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d0dba3f0b238″ question_number=”15″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.4-5.Population_Genetics_and_Hardy-Weinberg”] Sickle cell disease is caused by a recessive allele in the gene for hemoglobin. It can significantly decrease the quality of life and lifespan. Yet the allele is in high frequency in certain populations. Explain.

Illustrative example: Population Genetics

 

[a] Sickle cell disease occurs only in children born with two copies of the recessive allele that codes for a defective form of hemoglobin. Heterozygotes, with only one mutated version of the hemoglobin gene, can experience a small amount of sickling, but not enough to generate the pain crises and tissue damage experienced by homozygotes. However, the change in hemoglobin chemistry creates a hostile environment for the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria. The result is that heterozygotes have resistance to malaria, resulting in natural selection that has increased the frequency of the sickling allele in populations that live in malaria-prone areas. This phenomenon is called heterozygote advantage, and it can explain the high frequency of an allele that is harmful in homozygotes.

[!]7.6-7.8.Evidence of Evolution and Common Ancestry[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d0c2076de638″ question_number=”16″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] DDT is a pesticide (a substance that kills agricultural pests, usually insects) that was first developed in the 1940s. It was widely used for mosquito control as a way of reducing malaria (because mosquitos are the main vector for spreading the plasmodium parasite that causes malaria). In almost every country where it has been used, however, mosquitoes have developed resistance to this pesticide’s effect. Explain.

Illustrative example: Natural Selection

[a]Resistance to DDT in mosquito populations evolved through natural selection. Here’s how: In any mosquito population, there is variation in the susceptibility of individuals to the pesticide. Early on in a mosquito control campaign, most of the mosquitoes are killed by DDT. However, a small number survive, and they pass on the genes that made their survival possible to their offspring. In addition, in each generation, random mutations result in individuals whose resistance is superior to the mean level of resistance in the previous generation. Over time, mosquito populations come to consist largely of individuals with high levels of resistance.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d0a86aeb1a38″ question_number=”17″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] Describe the evolutionary origins of chloroplasts and provide evidence.

[a] The double membrane of chloroplasts (“1” and “2” above), their bacterial-like DNA (“3), their bacteria-like ribosomes (4), and their reproduction through binary fission are evidence for the origin of chloroplasts as independent cyanobacteria that were taken up by an early eukaryotic cell. The result of this endosymbiotic merger led to algae and plants.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d09122743238″ question_number=”18″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] Define convergent evolution.

[a] Convergent evolution occurs when similar selective pressures result in superficially similar adaptations on the part of populations that are subject to these pressures. The similarity is analogous (similar function, but not structure), as opposed to homologous (arising from common ancestry).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d07785f16638″ question_number=”19″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”]Birds and bats have forelimbs that have evolved into wings.  Dolphins and sharks share a similar hydrodynamic shape. In both cases, these adaptations arose separately. Name and explain the type of evolution at work.

Illustrative example: Evolution 

[a] The wings of birds and bats are a convergent solution to the challenge of flying, a challenge that was met separately in different vertebrate lineages (birds evolved from dinosaurs; bats are mammals). Both dolphins and sharks are subject to the selective pressure of having to move efficiently through water: as a result, both have, through natural selection, converged upon a similarly hydrodynamic shape.

The wings of bats and birds and the shape of dolphins and sharks are examples of convergent evolution. In both cases, the adaptations are analogous (similar function, but not structure), rather than homologous (deriving from a common ancestor).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d05de96e9a38″ question_number=”20″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] Use the idea of convergent evolution to explain the loss of pelvic spines (Form B) in separate populations of stickleback fish.

Illustrative example: Evolution

[a] Sticklebacks are small marine fish that migrate up freshwater streams to breed. Thousands of years ago, separate populations of stickleback fish became trapped in freshwater lakes, where they were cut off from their marine predators. Once isolated from these predators, each of these populations lost its protective ventral spines. Genetic analysis shows that the mutations that underlie this loss are different in different populations. In other words, the loss of spines in these freshwater populations occurred independently in each population in response to similar selective pressures. The loss of spines is therefore an analogous feature, caused by convergent evolution.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d0444cebce38″ question_number=”21″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] Describe how homologous features provide evidence for evolution.

[a] Homologous features are traits that share a common underlying structure and a common embryological origin, but which have been modified in different evolutionary lineages, often to serve different functions. For example, in humans, cats, birds, and whales the forelimb is built from the same bones, but these have been modified in each lineage to serve different functions.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d02ab0690238″ question_number=”22″] Describe how embryological development provides evidence for evolution.

 

[a]Early embryos of vertebrates look similar. Throughout development, the embryo differentiates, adopting the body form of the adults of that lineage. This similarity of the pattern indicates common ancestry, with subsequent descent with modification in each lineage. In addition, embryos often show vestigial features (a concept addressed in another card) that can only be explained through inheritance from a common ancestor.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4d01113e63638″ question_number=”23″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] What is biogeography? How does biogeography provide evidence for evolution?

 

[a] Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of species and varieties. The pattern of distribution fits the idea that populations first evolve in one area, then spread to adjacent areas, where subsequent evolution occurs.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cff2cf4ba238″ question_number=”24″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] Describe how fossils provide evidence for evolution.

 

[a] The fossil record shows 1) that living things have changed over time (that the array of species in the past was different from that which exists today), and 2) that specific lineages have changed over time. In addition, within many specific lineages are found 3) transitional forms — remains of organisms that show features common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendants.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cfdb86d4ba38″ question_number=”25″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] What are molecular homologies? How do they serve as evidence for evolution?

 

[a] Molecular homologies are molecules that, by their structure and monomer sequence, indicate common ancestry. An example is hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying molecule in all vertebrates. In all vertebrates, hemoglobin has the same structure (two alpha chains and two beta chains). The differences in the amino acid sequence of hemoglobin in different species correspond to morphological similarities and differences among various vertebrate species and the fossil record. This pattern repeats with other proteins, such as cytochrome c; specific gene sequences; and RNA.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cfc1ea51ee38″ question_number=”26″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] Diverse species share common genes for animal development. List two examples, and describe how this provides evidence for evolution.

 

[a] Diverse animal species share a common set of genes that control development. For example, a gene called eyeless is a master switch that turns on eye development in animals as diverse as arthropods and vertebrates. Homeotic genes, versions of which are shared by all animals. specify which limbs should grow in which section of the body. These shared genes are homologies and indicate that all animals share a common ancestor that existed about 600 million years ago.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cfaaa1db0638″ question_number=”27″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] What are the deep homologies that unify all life?  List six.

 

[a]The best evidence for the idea that all life has a common ancestry is in the molecules and biochemical mechanisms shared by all living things. These include 1) the use of DNA as genetic material, 2) the use of the same genetic code to convert the information in DNA into proteins, 3) translating RNA into protein through ribosomes, 4) shared metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, 5) use of ATP for cellular energy transfer, and 6) use of chemiosmosis and ATP synthase to generate ATP.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cf9105583a38″ question_number=”28″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] Describe how relative dating of fossils works.

 

[a] Relative dating uses the idea of superposition to determine the relative age of a fossil. The basic idea is that when sedimentary strata (layers) are formed, younger material will be laid on top of older layers. In a bed of fossils, the fossils in deeper layers (C) are going to be older than the fossils in layers that are closer to the surface (A). This analysis is made more complex, however, by geological faults, and layers that can be flipped upside down by geological processes.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cf7768d56e38″ question_number=”29″] Describe how absolute dating of fossils works.

 

[a]Absolute dating of fossils is based on the decay of radioactive isotopes in fossilized remains, or in nearby volcanic strata that are interspersed with sedimentary strata. The key idea is half-life: the time it takes for half of a sample of radioactive isotopes to decay from one element to another. For example, the half-life of the radioactive isotope Carbon-14 is 5,730 years. If a fossil bone is found in which half of the carbon-14 has decayed to nitrogen, then the bone is 5,730 years old. If 1/4 of the carbon 14 is left, then the bone is 11,460 years (two half-lives) old.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cf5dcc52a238″ question_number=”30″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] What are vestigial structures, and how do they serve as evidence of evolution?

 

[a] A vestigial structure has no apparent function but was inherited from an ancestor for whom that structure had a function. For example, whales, have no hind limbs but have a pelvis onto which to attach those limbs. That’s because their ancestors possessed hindlimbs, which were lost as whales adapted to their aquatic lifestyle.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cf442fcfd638″ question_number=”31″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] How can DNA and/or amino acid sequences provide evidence for common ancestry?

 

[a] Shared sequences of DNA, and shared amino acid sequences in proteins, are molecular homologies. In the same way that the forearm of a human and a cat are homologous, shared DNA and amino acid sequences were also present in a common ancestor of the species in question. Their differences, if any, are the result of mutations that have occurred over evolutionary time. The closer the sequences of DNA and amino acids are among species, the closer these species can be said to be related.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cf283f412638″ question_number=”32″ topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] How can the amino acid sequences of proteins such as cytochrome c provide evidence for common ancestry?

Illustrative example: Evidence for evolution

[a] Cytochrome c is a  protein that’s 104 amino acids long. It plays a key role in the electron transport chain, and in triggering apoptosis (programmed cell death). The amino acid sequence for cytochrome c in humans and chimpanzees is identical, which corresponds to the close anatomical and physiological similarities between chimps and humans. That sequence, however, is slightly different from the one found in cows, pigs, and sheep (which all have identical sequences to one another). This indicates that humans and chimps have a more recent common ancestor with one another than they do with cows, pigs, or sheep (and vice versa).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cf0c4eb27638″ question_number=”33″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] What is a conserved evolutionary feature?

 

[a] A conserved evolutionary feature is one that evolved in a common ancestor and then was passed to that species’ descendants. For example, the vertebrate skeleton has been conserved among all vertebrates. Conserved features can be anatomical,  genetic (DNA or RNA sequences), physiological (chemiosmosis and the Krebs cycle), molecular (amino acid sequences), etc.

NOTE: Homologies are conserved features that, over evolutionary time, have evolved distinct functions in descendant species (such as the forelimb of the human, adapted for grasping and swinging, and the forelimb of a bat, adapted for flight).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cef2b22faa38″ question_number=”34″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] What are some of the fundamental molecular and cellular features shared across the three domains of life, which provide evidence that life had a single origin?

 

[a] The list of conserved features that point to a single origin for all living things include 1) the use of DNA as genetic material, 2) transcription of DNA into RNA to bring genetic information to ribosomes; 3) a universal genetic code for translating mRNA into protein; 4) chemiosmotic energy production, with the pumping of protons linked to the production of ATP; 5) use of ATP as a common energy currency.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ced915acde38″ question_number=”35″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] What are some of the common features that point to a single origin of all eukaryotes? List six.

 

[a] Conserved features shared by all eukaryotes include 1) a nucleus that separates the chromosomes from the cytoplasm; 2) mitochondria or organelles derived from mitochondria; 3) membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum of Golgi apparatus;  4) genes with introns that need to be removed before protein synthesis; 5) linear chromosomes, and 6) sexual reproduction involving gamete production and fusion of gametes to form a diploid zygote.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cebf792a1238″ question_number=”36″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.6-8.Evidence_of_Evolution_and_Common_Ancestry”] Darwin’s original conception of evolutionary change envisioned evolution as a slow, gradual, process. What are examples of more rapid evolutionary change that has emerged since Darwin’s time?

 

[a] Some examples of rapid evolutionary change include

  1. Measured changes in mean beak size in populations of Galapagos finches in response to drought and other environmental changes.
  2. The evolution of antibiotic resistance in various species of bacteria, including the emergence of MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus).
  3. Evolution of resistance to antiviral drugs in HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus)
  4. Evolution of resistance to DDT and other pesticides in insects in response to widespread pesticide application.
  5. The emergence of chemotherapy-resistant cell lines in individuals undergoing cancer treatment.

[!]7.9.Phylogeny[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cea5dca74638″ question_number=”37″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny”] What is phylogeny? What is a phylogenetic tree?

 

[a] Phylogeny means “evolutionary history.” A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree (like the one shown here) is a branching diagram or “tree” showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other taxonomic groups (such as genera or families). Phylogenetic trees are based upon similarities and differences in morphological, molecular, and/or genetic characteristics.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ce8e94305e38″ question_number=”38″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny”] Define “clade.”

 

[a] A clade is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all of that ancestor’s descendants. All of the numbers in the accompanying diagram indicate clades.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″  unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ce72a3a1ae38″ question_number=”39″] Define “shared derived character.”

[a]A shared derived character is a trait that identifies a clade. It evolved in the common ancestor of that clade and sets it apart from other clades. For example, lungs and four limbs are shared derived traits that separate the clade that includes “N” through “S” (four-limbed vertebrates) from group “M” (a fish). The vertebral column is a shared derived character separating the vertebrates (“M” through “S”) from non-vertebrate chordates, such as the hagfish (“L”).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ce5b5b2ac638″ question_number=”40″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny”]In phylogenetic analysis, what is an outgroup?

 

[a] When constructing a phylogenetic tree, an outgroup is a more distantly related group of organisms used to determine the evolutionary relationships among the other organisms in the tree (the “ingroup”). The outgroup is a point of comparison for the ingroup. Speaking phylogenetically, the outgroup is a species (or another taxon) that is not a part of the clade to which all of the other organisms in the phylogenetic tree belong. In the accompanying diagram, “A” is the outgroup for clade II.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ce3f6a9c1638″ question_number=”41″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny”] On a phylogenetic tree, what are nodes and sister groups?

 

[a] On a phylogenetic tree, the nodes are where two branches diverge. The nodes, therefore, represent the common ancestor of the two lineages represented by the branches. In the diagram, letters A through E are nodes. Sister groups are the descendants that split apart from the same node (such as the common cactus finch and the large ground finch).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ce17d5d1f238″ question_number=”42″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny”] What type of evidence is typically used to construct a phylogenetic tree?

 

[a] Before the 1960s, classification and phylogenetic analysis was based on morphological similarities between living organisms or fossils. Since the emergence of sequencing technologies in the 1960s and 70s, nucleotide sequences in DNA and RNA (and amino acid sequences in proteins) have become the “gold standard” in determining phylogenetic relationships.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″  unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cdfe394f2638″ question_number=”43″] Define “ancestral feature.”

[a]A trait that members of a clade share, but which is also shared by larger, more inclusive clades, is called an ancestral feature. For example, the clade that includes “G” and its descendants (rats and gorillas) is the mammal clade. An ancestral feature of this clade would be “claws or nails.” Mammals have this trait, but it’s also found in other organisms outside the clade (such as birds, alligators, and lizards).

[!]7.10- 7.11.Speciation and Extinction[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cde6f0d83e38″ question_number=”44″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] What is the biological species concept, and what are some of its limitations?

 

[a] The biological species concept defines a species as a group of organisms that can naturally interbreed to produce viable, fertile offspring, and which is reproductively isolated from other such groups. The concept falters with closely related species (which can often hybridize), with extinct or asexual species (to which we can’t apply the criterion of reproductive isolation), or with most prokaryotic species (which don’t have sex in the way that eukaryotes do, but which frequently exchange genes through horizontal gene transfer). When the biological species can’t be applied, biologists designate species using morphological, phylogenetic, or ecological criteria.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cdcfa8615638″ question_number=”45″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] Compare and contrast the idea of punctuated equilibrium with gradualism, and explain how the two ideas can be reconciled with one another.

 

[a] Punctuated equilibrium was developed to account for the fact that while many transitional forms have been found in the fossil record, it’s also common to see abrupt changes in a lineage. To account for this, the idea of punctuated equilibrium posits that evolution is characterized by periods of stability, in which a species stays morphologically constant, followed by periods of rapid change. This punctuated model of evolution was designed to supplant the more Darwinian idea of gradualism, which sees evolution as occurring slowly over long periods.

These two models are not as far apart as has been portrayed. For example, it’s thought that new species generally arise in small, somewhat isolated subpopulations living on the periphery of their parent species’ range. In that case, the chance of individuals in this smaller, evolving subpopulation being fossilized would be lower (because it’s a smaller population), making a gradual change in that population look like a more abrupt change. And, in any case, even punctuated models see evolution as happening over thousands of generations.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cdb3b7d2a638″ question_number=”46″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] Contrast the allopatric and sympatric models of speciation.

 

[a] Allopatric speciation involves a geographical barrier (1); sympatric speciation occurs without a geographical barrier (2).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cd9c6f5bbe38″ question_number=”47″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] Explain the allopatric model of speciation.

Importance for the AP exam: High 

[a] Allopatric speciation involves geographical isolation leading to genetic differentiation, which eventually leads to reproductive isolation. Imagine a species that’s spread out over a geographical range (stage 1). Some geographical barrier (“b”) splits the species into isolated subpopulations, with no gene flow (“a”) between them. Environmental differences lead to different selective pressures in each subpopulation, leading to genetic differentiation (stages 2 and 3). Eventually, the two populations become so different that when the geographic barrier is removed (stage 4), the populations can longer interbreed. They’ve become separate species.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cd8526e4d638″ question_number=”48″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] Explain how sympatric speciation occurs in plants.

 

[a] Sympatric speciation occurs without a geographical barrier subdividing a species into isolated populations. In plants, it can occur through polyploidy (shown at left) and allopolyploidy (polyploidy followed by hybridization, which is not shown). Because these processes change chromosome numbers, they cause instant, one-generation reproductive isolation between the newly emerged species and its parent species.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cd6b8a620a38″ question_number=”49″] Explain how sympatric speciation occurs in animals.

[a] Sympatric speciation occurs without a geographical barrier subdividing a species into isolated populations. In animals, sexual selection can lead to reproductive isolation between subspecies, a process that has led to the evolution of hundreds of species of Cichlids (a type of fish) in Lake Victoria. Adaptation to specific habitats or microhabitats can also lead to reproductive isolation and speciation, such as the evolution of a variety of lice that inhabits different parts of birds (head lice, wing lice, etc).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cd5441eb2238″ question_number=”50″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] What are reproductive isolating mechanisms? Compare and contrast pre and post-zygotic forms of isolation.

[a] Reproductive isolating mechanisms are processes or physical barriers that keep the gene pools of closely related species separate. Prezygotic isolating mechanisms prevent the formation of a zygote. Postzygotic barriers can exist between species that are close enough to mate and form a zygote. In this case, the formation of a zygote does not ultimately lead to the production of successful individuals who can survive and produce offspring themselves.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cd3cf9743a38″ question_number=”51″ topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] List and describe 5 prezygotic isolating mechanisms.

[a] Prezygotic isolating mechanisms prevent the formation of a zygote. They can be

  1. Behavioral (different mating rituals or courtship behaviors);
  2. Temporal (breeding during different times of the day or different seasons);
  3. Mechanical (structural barriers that prevent sperm or pollen from reaching an egg: think of long tubes in flowers or the structures that insects use for mating);
  4. Habitat (imagine one species of wildflower that’s adapted to a wet environment, while a closely related one lives in drier areas); or
  5. Gametic (the molecules on a sperm cell that induce an egg cell to allow fertilization are not complementary to receptors on the egg cell).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cd25b0fd5238″ question_number=”52″ topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] List and describe 3 postzygotic isolating mechanisms.

[a] Postzygotic barriers can exist between species that are close enough to mate and form a zygote. These include

  1. Hybrid inviability: hybrid organisms don’t develop.
  2. Hybrid sterility: hybrid offspring are healthy, but can’t reproduce.
  3. Hybrid breakdown: the hybrids are healthy and can reproduce, but the next generation (the F2s) are inviable or infertile.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cd0c147a8638″ question_number=”53″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] It’s estimated that most of the species that have ever existed have, for natural reasons, become extinct. Leaving out mass extinction events and human-caused extinctions, describe the process that a species goes through as it heads towards extinction.

Importance for the AP exam: Medium 

[a] Most extinctions begin with a lowering of a species’ population. This can be caused by an adverse change in the physical environment or the arrival of a competitor that reduces the species’ fitness and reproductive rate. Decreased population size can lead to genetic drift that results in a loss of genetic diversity. As variability decreases, there can be reduced fitness. As the population becomes more genetically uniform, its ability to adapt to environmental change becomes further reduced. Together, these factors create a positive feedback loop called an extinction vortex, with often leads to extinction.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ccf277f7ba38″ question_number=”54″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] What is adaptive radiation?

 

[a] Adaptive radiation occurs when one parent species produces several descendant species, each of which has unique adaptations and fills a different ecological niche. The 14 species of Galapagos finches, all of which are the descendants of a single species from the South American mainland, are an example.

[!]Extinction[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ccdb2f80d238″ question_number=”55″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] Explain the species diversity in any geographical area in relationship to speciation and extinction rates.

 

[a] Species diversity (the number of species in a particular area, up to and including our entire planet) is a function of two opposing processes: speciation and extinction. If the rate of speciation exceeds the rate of extinction, then species diversity increases. If the rate of extinction exceeds that of speciation, then species diversity decreases.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ccc192fe0638″ question_number=”56″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] What are mass extinctions?

 

[a] Mass extinctions are widespread, rapid decreases in Earth’s biodiversity. These events often have geological or astronomical causes, though biological causes are possible as well. While there’s no consensus on the degree of species loss required for an event to qualify as mass extinction, there is agreement that there have been at least five major extinction events during the past 600 million years (the numbered peaks in the diagram).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ccaa4a871e38″ question_number=”57″ topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] Describe the Permian-Triassic extinction, also known as the “Great Dying.”

Illustrative example: Mass extinction

 

[a] The Permian-Triassic extinction is estimated to have killed 57% of all taxonomic families, 83% of all genera, and over 90% of all species. Known as the “Great Dying,” it involved massive volcanic eruptions that could have released enough carbon dioxide to warm the planet and reduce the oxygen capacity of the oceans. This would have led to the breakdown of oceanic food chains. Changes in ocean chemistry could have led to a bloom of purple sulfur bacteria, which would have released poisonous hydrogen sulfide into the oceans, further depleting ocean life. On land, the dust clouds associated with volcanic eruptions would have disrupted photosynthesis and caused food chains to collapse. Finally, the formation of the supercontinent Pangea would have reduced coastlines, causing additional extinction of marine flora and fauna.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cc8e59f86e38″ question_number=”58″ topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] Describe the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction.

Illustrative example: Mass extinctions. 

 

[a] The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction occurred about 65 million years ago. It was caused by an asteroid or comet that smashed into Earth in what is now the Gulf of Mexico. Ejecta (dust and rocks) from the impact, as it reentered the atmosphere, would have superheated the air by several hundred degrees, wiping out terrestrial life all over the planet, only allowing burrowing animals to survive. Dust in the atmosphere would have blocked sunlight, leading to a collapse of oceanic food chains. The most notable victims were the dinosaurs, pterosaurs (flying reptiles), and plesiosaurs (large marine reptiles).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cc74bd75a238″ question_number=”59″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction”] What’s the connection between mass extinction and adaptive radiation?

 

[a] One effect of mass extinction is to leave vacant a variety of ecological niches (ways for a species to make a living). This leads to a pattern where mass extinctions (2) are followed by extensive adaptive radiation (3) in the species that survive (4). An example of this is the diversification of placental mammals that followed the Cretaceous extinction that wiped out the dinosaurs.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection”  topic=”7.10-11.Speciation_and_Extinction” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cc5b20f2d638″ question_number=”60″]How is human activity affecting extinction rates?

 

[a] Humans are the cause of what’s been called the Sixth Extinction. Through 1) destruction and fragmentation of habitat, 2) overhunting/overharvesting animals, and 3) intentionally or unintentionally introducing invasive species into new habitats, humans are causing a decline in global biodiversity that could rival the 5 previous mass extinctions that have occurred over the past 500 million years.

[!]7.12.Variations in Populations[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cc43d87bee38″ question_number=”61″ topic=”7.12.Variations_in_Populations”] Why is phenotypic variation important for evolution?

[a] Phenotypic variation is the raw material upon which natural selection acts. Natural selection selects for organisms with phenotypes that confer a selective advantage, allowing individuals with these advantageous phenotypes to survive and reproduce at higher rates than organisms with less advantageous phenotypes. With no phenotypic variation, there can be no natural selection and no adaptation.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cc27e7ed3e38″ question_number=”62″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.12.Variations_in_Populations”] What’s the connection between a species’ genetic variability and its ability to adapt to environmental change?

[a] Species that lose their genetic variability become less resilient, losing their ability to adapt to changes in their environment. Loss of genetic variability can occur through a population bottleneck, and species that survive these bottlenecks are often at risk of extinction since they lack the genetic variability that would enable them to survive further environmental change.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cc0e4b6a7238″ question_number=”63″ topic=”7.12.Variations_in_Populations”] Explain how variations in phospholipid structure can serve an adaptive function in browsing mammals that forage in snowy environments.

Illustrative example: Molecular diversity

[a]

In mammals such as elk that walk through the snow as they forage for food in winter, there’s a gradient of phospholipid structure in the cell membranes of their leg cells. Closer to the hoof, the phospholipids have more unsaturated fatty acids. Closer to the body’s core, they have more saturated fatty acids. That’s because the temperature in the extremities can be far below the temperature in the core (just like your hands are often colder than your torso). Having more unsaturated fatty acids in the membranes toward the hoof keeps those membranes fluid, despite the cold. By contrast, closer to the core the increased saturation of fatty acids maintains the right amount of membrane fluidity in those cells. Membrane fluidity, in turn, establishes conditions for the proper diffusion of substances across the membrane.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cbeb5eb81638″ question_number=”64″ topic=”7.12.Variations_in_Populations”] Explain how variation in hemoglobin maximizes oxygen absorption in humans and other placental mammals at various life stages.

Illustrative example: Molecular diversity

[a] Hemoglobin is the protein that transports oxygen in red blood cells in almost all vertebrates. Before birth, humans and other mammals produce fetal hemoglobin, a hemoglobin variant that has a much higher affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin. Because of that, oxygen will diffuse from the mother’s red blood cells in the placenta to the red blood cells of the fetus. Within about six months after birth, the production of fetal hemoglobin is replaced by the production of adult hemoglobin.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cbd1c2354a38″ question_number=”65″ topic=”7.12.Variations_in_Populations”] Explain how variation in chlorophyll types increases the efficiency of photosynthesis.

Illustrative example: Molecular diversity

 

[a] Chlorophyll is the key light-absorbing pigment in photosynthesis. Green plants have two main types: chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.  Their difference comes down to one functional group: chlorophyll a has a methyl group whereas chlorophyll b has an acetyl group. Whereas the peak absorption of chlorophyll a is in the red part of the spectrum, the peak absorption of chlorophyll b is in the blue portion of the spectrum. Having both types of chlorophyll thus increases the amount of light energy that plants can use during photosynthesis. Chlorophyll b is particularly prevalent in shade-adapted plants.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cbb37d9ab638″ question_number=”66″ topic=”7.12.Variations_in_Populations”] Explain how humans affect variation in other species.

 

[a] Humans affect variation in other species in at least two ways:

  1. Through artificial selection or selective breeding. As humans have created breeds of animals or varieties of plants with desired traits, the gene pools of those breeds or varieties have become less diverse. Many crops are clones, making them vulnerable to pests and parasites.
  2. Through changing the environment in ways that (usually unintentionally) select for a particular suite of survival traits in the plants and animals we interact with. For example, the use (and overuse) of pesticides, antibiotics, and herbicides has resulted in selection for resistance in insects (and other pests), bacteria, and weeds, respectively.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cb978d0c0638″ question_number=”67″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.12.Variations_in_Populations”] How does a population’s genetic diversity enable it to survive in a changing environment?

 

[a] Genetic diversity is a key asset in a population’s ability to respond to environmental change. As the environment changes, a diverse population is more likely to contain individuals who can survive in the new conditions, and thus pass their genes on to future generations. Conversely, populations with little genetic diversity are less likely to be able to survive the selective pressure associated with environmental changes, putting them at higher risk for extinction.

[!]7.13.Origin of Life[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cb7b9c7d5638″ question_number=”68″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] When did life first evolve on Earth? What’s the evidence?

[a] There’s widespread evidence for life on Earth as long ago as 3.4 billion years ago (bya), and life might have emerged even earlier than that. The consensus date for the emergence of life is about 3.8 bya.

The evidence for this claim consists of 1) fossilized bacterial mats (stromatolites), 2) microfossils of bacterial cells and 3) chemical traces of what’s called “biogenic carbon” (carbon of biological origin), all of which date back to 3.4 bya (or earlier).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cb61fffa8a38″ question_number=”69″ topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] Describe the fossilized stromatolites and fossilized cells that serve as evidence for the earliest traces of life on Earth.

[a]

Stromatolite – MNHT

Stromatolites are layered bacterial mats, consisting of layers of cells interleaved with layers of sediments. These are formed in some areas on Earth today (such as Shark Bay in Australia). The oldest fossilized stromatolites have been dated (through radiometric dating) as 3.4 billion years old.

Inside these fossilized stromatolites are microfossils. These are fossils that are cellular in size, and can only be visualized with an electron microscope. When ancient fossil stromatolites are sectioned and viewed under an electron microscope, structures that match cells in size and form can be seen.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cb43bb5ff638″ question_number=”70″ topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”]Isotopic signatures can serve as evidence for the earliest traces of life on Earth. Explain.

Illustrative example. Evidence for the origin of life

[a] When living things take in carbon, they preferentially take in carbon-12 over a heavier (and much rarer) isotope, carbon-13. In carbon that’s biological in origin, the ratio of carbon 12 to carbon 13 is much higher than in carbon samples of non-biological origin. Samples of carbon from 3.4 billion years ago (and even up to 3.8 billion years ago) show that this carbon was captured by living things. Note that using isotopic signatures alone, claims have been made for an origin of life that occurred over 4 billion years ago, but these are not widely accepted.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cb2c72e90e38″ question_number=”71″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] It’s been said that life emerged on Earth about as early as it possibly could have. Explain.

[a]Our solar system, including our Earth, formed about 4.6 bya from a stellar nebula. As the planets formed, there was a period of massive collisions when the early Earth was under continual bombardment by comets, asteroids, and even planet-sized objects. These bombardments would have made life impossible.  Yet signs of life are unambiguous at 3.4 bya, and life might have evolved as early as 3.8 bya, which is close to when the period of heavy bombardment was coming to a close. Hence, life emerged on our world just about as early as it could have.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cb0e2e4e7a38″ question_number=”72″] Describe some the conditions on the early Earth during the period when life first emerged.

[a]Life on Earth emerged when conditions were quite different from conditions today. First of all, Earth had very little land: just a few islands above a world ocean. The young moon was much closer, causing massive tides in these oceans. The Earth spun more quickly on its axis: a day might have been as short as eight hours. The atmosphere was different, consisting of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and no molecular oxygen (O2).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4caf6e5d79238″ question_number=”73″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] In any origin of life scenario, what’s the first step? Explain.

[a] In any origin of life scenario, the first step is the formation of monomers: the amino acids, nucleotides, monosaccharides, and fatty acids that serve as the building blocks of life. Only if these molecules are present can more complex molecules (like proteins and nucleic acids) come into being.

Monomer formation is difficult to explain because these monomers don’t spontaneously form. Rather, these energy-rich molecules are generated biologically by plants, cyanobacteria, and algae during photosynthesis. So the challenge in explaining the origin of life is to explain how to generate monomers abiotically (in the absence of life).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cadaf548e238″ question_number=”74″ topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] The Miller-Urey experiment was an attempt to validate Oparin and Haldane’s idea, proposed in the 1920s, of monomers emerging in a primordial soup. What was the primordial soup?

[a] The primordial-soup model posits that in the Earth’s early oxygen-free atmosphere, available energy could cause molecules like methane and ammonia to combine to form monomers (monosaccharides, amino acids, etc.), which would accumulate in the early oceans, forming a primordial soup. This, in turn, would set the stage for more complex molecules to form, leading to the emergence of life.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection”  topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4cac158c61638″ question_number=”75″] Describe the Miller-Urey experiment and its results.

[a]The Miller-Urey experiment validated the idea of the abiotic formation of monomers. The experiment combined methane, ammonia, and hydrogen (thought at that time to be a plausible mix for the Early earth’s atmosphere) in a reaction chamber (5). The chamber was connected to a flask containing heated water (2) which represented the early Earth’s oceans. Sparks (5) simulated lightning. After several days, the circulating mixture in the apparatus was sampled, and analysis showed the presence of several amino acids (the monomers of proteins).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4caa568376638″ question_number=”76″ topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] Why is the Miller-Urey experiment widely regarded as a keystone in origin of life research, and why has it been widely criticized?

[a] The overall achievement of the Miller-Urey experiment was validation of the idea that monomers can be formed abiotically. In subsequent years, this has been confirmed in a variety of experimental settings, with many different starting compounds and energy sources. This idea has also been validated by the discovery of monomers on meteorites (meaning that certain monomers can form out in space). However, the experiment has been criticized for using an atmosphere with highly reduced gases (methane, ammonia, and hydrogen), which are now thought to have been unlikely on the early Earth, and which made it much easier to produce compounds such as amino acids.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection”  topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ca8977a8b638″ question_number=”77″] The Miller-Urey experiment was an attempt to validate the  “primordial soup” model of monomer formation. Recently, this idea that life evolved in small pools of water has fallen out of favor. Why? 

[a]One reason why the primordial soup model of monomer formation is out of favor is that the next step — the polymerization of monomers to create polymers such as RNA and protein — would be difficult in a watery environment. That’s because monomers combine to form polymers through dehydration synthesis, a reaction that only occurs in a watery solution with the help of enzymes. Without enzymes (which are themselves polymers), it’s hard to imagine how polymer formation could have happened. In other words, life’s first nursery was unlikely to have been any type of soupy, open body of water. Rather, a system like a hydrothermal vent is a much more likely venue for the origin of life.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ca563ea31e38″ question_number=”78″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] How was the early earth’s atmosphere different from the atmosphere today?

[a] The Earth’s earliest atmosphere (like that of Mars and Venus) lacked molecular oxygen (O2). That’s because O2 only exists on Earth because of photosynthesizing organisms that oxidize water and release O2 as a waste product. Thus, free O2, which makes up about 21% of the atmosphere today, is a planetary-scale biogenic signature: a feature that arises only in the presence of life.

Fun speculation: If in the future, a space probe finds itself orbiting a planet with an O2-rich atmosphere, we’ll be fairly certain that this is a planet where life (at least microbial life) is flourishing (even before our probe lands and takes samples).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ca3ca2205238″ question_number=”79″ topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] The early Earth’s atmosphere was quite different from the atmosphere today. Why is that important for the origin of life?

[a] Unlike today’s atmosphere, which consists of about 21% oxygen, the early Earth’s atmosphere has no free oxygen (O2). The reason why this is important to the origin of life is that for life to arise, its molecular components, biological monomers, need to arise. These monomers are reduced molecules, and in the presence of oxygen, their spontaneous tendency is to become oxidized. A world with abundant oxygen is not a world where new life could arise, and the presence of a reducing (or at least non-oxidizing) atmosphere and ocean was probably a precondition for the emergence of the monomers (amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, and monosaccharides) that were combined to create the polymers in the first living cells.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ca23059d8638″ question_number=”80″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] What is the RNA world hypothesis?

[a] The RNA world hypothesis is the idea that life emerged as a population of self-replicating molecules of RNA.  Because RNA can be both information (as in messenger RNA) and act as a catalyst (as in ribosomal RNA), it’s thought that early in Earth’s history, a population of RNAs that could catalyze their own reproduction could arise. Once this happened, then mutation during replication would lead to variation. Subsequent natural selection would lead to greater complexity, leading to protocells, setting the stage for the emergence of DNA-based life.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4ca07150ed638″ question_number=”81″ topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] What are two attributes of RNA that make it a better candidate than DNA for playing the role of the first genetic molecule?

[a] RNA is thought to be a better candidate for the first genetic molecule than DNA because RNA can serve as both genetic information (as it does in RNA viruses and mRNA) and as a catalyst for chemical reactions (as it does in ribozymes — shown on the left — and as the catalytic part of ribosomes). DNA, by contrast, is purely informational.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution_and_Natural_Selection” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset|4c9dad82cea38″ question_number=”82″ topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] Using the RNA-world hypothesis, sketch out the steps to the emergence of DNA-based and cell-based life.

[a] The RNA-world hypothesis posits that as life was arising, a population of self-replicating RNAs emerged (1 and 2). During self-replication, some errors would arise, leading to diverse RNAs that could be subject to natural selection. Those RNA replicators that could replicate more quickly and efficiently would come to dominate their populations.  At some point, self-replicating RNA polymers became paired with amino acids and polypeptides, leading to the emergence of RNA-protein systems (3). Next, these self-replicating RNA-protein systems would have had DNA replace RNA as the genetic material (4). Finally, encapsulation by lipid membranes would lead to the first cells (5).

[x][restart]

[/qdeck]

3. Unit 7 Cumulative Multiple Choice Quiz

[qwiz style=”width: 650px !important; min-height: 450px !important;” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 7 Cumulative Multiple Choice” dataset=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset”]

[h] Unit 7 Cumulative Multiple Choice

[i]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c91048226e38″ question_number=”1″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.1.Intro_to_Natural_Selection”] In 1858, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace proposed a theory of evolution. Which of the following observations aided in the development of this theory?

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Cg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c8efaf7bf638″ question_number=”2″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.2.Natural_Selection”] For an evolutionary biologist studying birds, which of the following would be the best way to gauge an individual’s “fitness?”

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[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c8ccc2c99a38″ question_number=”3″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.2.Natural_Selection”] A non-poisonous butterfly species (Species D) has the same color pattern as a highly poisonous species (Species E). The population of non-poisonous Species D is higher than that of poisonous Species E.

Given this scenario, what will be the effect of Species D’s mimicry on the fitness of Species E?

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[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c8b0d23aea38″ question_number=”4″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.2.Natural_Selection”] The next question is based on the following description of three species of frogs.

* Species A, after laying eggs, provides no parental care for its eggs and larvae.
* Species B is preyed upon by a fish that prefers small larvae.
* Species C faces progressively decreasing opportunities for breeding with increasing age.

Assuming that resources available for reproduction are similar for A, B, and C, which of the following reproductive strategies would be favored by each species?

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Cg==

Cg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c89039947238″ question_number=”5″ topic=”7.3.Artificial_Selection”] The image below is a scatter graph that shows the growth rate and egg productivity in a flock of chickens.

A breeder has divided this flock into four groups, A, B, C, and D. If the breeder wants to increase the flocks’ growth rate and egg-laying productivity, which group should she select from?

[c]IEEg[Qq][c]IE Ig[Qq][c]IEMg[Qq][c]IEQ=

Cg==[Qq]

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[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWJvdXQgYXJ0aWZpY2lhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24sIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzaWMgaWRlYSBpcyB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIHVzZSBhbmltYWxzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSBkZXNpcmVkIHRyYWl0cyBhcyBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jay4gVGhlIGJyZWVkZXIgd2FudHMgYm90aCBhIGhpZ2ggZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUgYW5kIGVnZy1sYXlpbmcgcHJvZHVjdGl2aXR5LiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgbGFiZWxzIGZvciBlYWNoIGF4aXMgb24gdGhpcyBncmFwaC4gVGhlIGNoaWNrZW5zIGluIGdyb3VwIA==Qw==IGhhdmUgbG93IGVnZy1sYXlpbmcgcHJvZHVjdGl2aXR5ICh0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgd2h5IHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgZG93biBvbiB0aGUgWS1heGlzLCB3aGljaCBpcyBmb3IgZWdnLWxheWluZyBwcm9kdWN0aXZpdHkpLiBCdXQgdGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBoaWdoIGluIHRlcm1zIG9mIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlICh3aGljaCBpcyB3aHkgdGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBvbiB0aGUgcmlnaHQgb2YgdGhlIFgtYXhpcywgd2hpY2ggaXMgZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUpLiBXaGljaCBncm91cCBpcyBoaWdoIGZvciBib3RoIGVnZyBsYXlpbmcgYW5kIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlPw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWJvdXQgYXJ0aWZpY2lhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24sIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzaWMgaWRlYSBpcyB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIHVzZSBhbmltYWxzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSBkZXNpcmVkIHRyYWl0cyBhcyBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jay4gVGhlIGJyZWVkZXIgd2FudHMgYm90aCBhIGhpZ2ggZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUgYW5kIGVnZy1sYXlpbmcgcHJvZHVjdGl2aXR5LiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgbGFiZWxzIGZvciBlYWNoIGF4aXMgb24gdGhpcyBncmFwaC4gVGhlIGNoaWNrZW5zIGluIGdyb3VwIA==RA==IGhhdmUgbG93IGVnZy1sYXlpbmcgcHJvZHVjdGl2aXR5ICh0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgd2h5IHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgZG93biBvbiB0aGUgWS1heGlzLCB3aGljaCBpcyBmb3IgZWdnLWxheWluZyBwcm9kdWN0aXZpdHkpLiBUaGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIGFsc28gbG93IGluIHRlcm1zIG9mIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlICh3aGljaCBpcyB3aHkgdGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBvbiB0aGUgbGVmdCBvZiB0aGUgWC1heGlzLCB3aGljaCBpcyBncm93dGggcmF0ZSkuIFdoaWNoIGdyb3VwIGlzIGhpZ2ggZm9yIGJvdGggZWdnIGxheWluZyA=YW5kIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlPw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c86fa0edfa38″ question_number=”6″ topic=”7.3.Artificial_Selection”] The image below is a scatter graph that shows the growth rate and egg productivity in a flock of chickens.

A breeder has divided this flock into four groups, A, B, C, and D. If the breeder is selecting for maximum growth rate (for meat production), and has less interest in egg production, which group should she select from?

[c]IEEg[Qq][c]IEIg[Qq][c]IE Mg[Qq][c]IEQ=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcXVlc3Rpb24gYWJvdXQgYXJ0aWZpY2lhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24sIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzaWMgaWRlYSBpcyB0aGF0IHlvdSB3YW50IHRvIHVzZSBhbmltYWxzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSBkZXNpcmVkIHRyYWl0cyBhcyBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jay4gVGhlIGJyZWVkZXIgd2FudHMgYSBoaWdoIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlIGJ1dCBoYXMgbGVzcyBpbnRlcmVzdCBpbiBlZ2ctbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eS4gVGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGxhYmVscyBmb3IgZWFjaCBheGlzIG9uIHRoaXMgZ3JhcGguIFRoZSBjaGlja2VucyBpbiBncm91cCA=QQ==IGhhdmUgaGlnaCBlZ2ctbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eSAodGhhdCYjODIxNztzIHdoeSB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIHVwIG9uIHRoZSBZLWF4aXMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGZvciBlZ2ctbGF5aW5nIHByb2R1Y3Rpdml0eSkuIFRoZXkgYXJlLCBob3dldmVyLCBsb3cgaW4gdGVybXMgb2YgZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUgKHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoeSB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSBsZWZ0IG9mIHRoZSBYLWF4aXMsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGdyb3d0aCByYXRlKS4gV2hpY2ggZ3JvdXAgaXMgaGlnaCBmb3IgZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUsIGJ1dCBsb3cgZm9yIGVnZyBsYXlpbmc/[Qq]

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[f]IFRlcnJpZmljISBHcm91cCBDIGlzIHRoZSBncm91cCB0byBjaG9vc2UgZnJvbSBpZiB5b3Ugd2FudCBicmVlZGluZyBzdG9jayBmb3IgY2hpY2tlbnMgd2l0aCBhIGhpZ2ggZ3Jvd3RoIHJhdGUsIGJ1dCBsb3cgZWdnLWxheWluZyBjYXBhYmlsaXR5Lg==[Qq]

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[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c84f08478238″ question_number=”7″ topic=”7.3.Artificial_Selection”] The diagram below shows the results of an experiment in artificial selection with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. During the first 25 generations, the smallest flies were selected to produce the next generation. After generation 25, the selection was reversed: from generations 25 through 35 only the largest flies were chosen to breed the next generation.

In relationship to alleles coding for body size, the experimental results suggest that

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[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gRnJvbSB0aGUgY2hvaWNlcyBnaXZlbiwgaXQgc2VlbXMgbW9zdCByZWFzb25hYmxlIHRoYXQgMjUgZ2VuZXJhdGlvbnMgb2Ygc2VsZWN0aW9uIGZvciBzbWFsbGVyIHNpemUgaGFkIGZpeGVkIHRoZSBhbGxlbGVzIGZvciBib2R5IHNpemUgaW4gdGhlIHBvcHVsYXRpb24sIG1ha2luZyBpdCBpbXBvc3NpYmxlIHRvIGVmZmVjdGl2ZWx5IHNlbGVjdCBmb3IgbGFyZ2VyIHNpemUgYWZ0ZXIgZ2VuZXJhdGlvbiAyNS4=[Qq]

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[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZHJvcCBpbiBib2R5IHNpemUgYmV0d2VlbiBnZW5lcmF0aW9ucyAwIGFuZCAyNSBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgdGhhdCB0aGVyZSA=d2FzIGdlbmV0aWMgdmFyaWF0aW9uIGFuZCB0aGF0IGl0IGNvdWxkIGJlIHNlbGVjdGVkIGZvci4gTm93IHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHdoeSB0aGUgYm9keSBzaXplIHJlbWFpbnMgY29uc3RhbnQgYWZ0ZXIgZ2VuZXJhdGlvbiAyNS4=[Qq]

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[f]IE5vLiBUYWtlIGEgZ29vZCBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSBncmFwaC4gVGhlIGxpbmUgaXMgZmxhdCBhZnRlciBnZW5lcmF0aW9uIDI1LCBpbmRpY2F0aW5nIHRoYXQgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGZvciBsYXJnZSBib2R5IHNpemUgZGlkIG5vdCBhZmZlY3Qgc2VsZWN0aW9uLiBOb3csIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IGhvdyBuYXR1cmFsIG9yIGFydGlmaWNpYWwgc2VsZWN0aW9uIHdvcmtzIHVwb24gdGhlIGFsbGVsZXMgaW4gYSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uLCBhbmQgc2VlIGlmIHlvdSBjYW4gZmlndXJlIG91dCBhIHJlYXNvbiB3aHkgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGhhZCBubyBlZmZlY3QgYWZ0ZXIgZ2VuZXJhdGlvbiAyNS4=[Qq]

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[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IHNlZW1zIHVubGlrZWx5LCBpZiBvbmx5IGJlY2F1c2Ugc2VsZWN0aW9uIGZvciBzbWFsbCBib2R5IHNpemUgc2VlbXMgdG8gaGF2ZSBsaXR0bGUgb3Igbm8gZWZmZWN0IGJldHdlZW4gZ2VuZXJhdGlvbnMgMjAgYW5kIDI1LiBUaGluayBhYm91dCBob3cgbmF0dXJhbCBvciBhcnRpZmljaWFsIHNlbGVjdGlvbiB3b3JrcyB1cG9uIHRoZSBhbGxlbGVzIGluIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiwgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgYSByZWFzb24gd2h5IHNlbGVjdGlvbiBoYWQgbm8gZWZmZWN0IGFmdGVyIGdlbmVyYXRpb24gMjUu

Cg==

Cg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c830c3acee38″ question_number=”8″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.4.Population_Genetics”] Which of the following statements about genetic drift is FALSE?

[c]IEdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQgcmVzdWx0cyBpbiB0aGUgZW xpbWluYXRpb24gb2YgaGFybWZ1bCBhbGxlbGVzLg==[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QuIEVsaW1pbmF0aW9uIG9mIGhhcm1mdWwgYWxsZWxlcyBpcyBhIGNvbnNlcXVlbmNlIG9mIG5hdHVyYWwgc2VsZWN0aW9uLCBub3QgZ2VuZXRpYyBkcmlmdC4gR2VuZXRpYyBkcmlmdCByYW5kb21seSBlbGltaW5hdGVzIGFsbGVsZXMgZnJvbSBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24mIzgyMTc7cyBnZW5lIHBvb2wsIGFuZCB0aG9zZSBhbGxlbGVzIGFyZSBqdXN0IGFzIGxpa2VseSB0byBiZSBiZW5lZmljaWFsIGFzIGhhcm1mdWwu[Qq]

[c]IEdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQgaW52b2x2ZXMgcmFuZG9tIGNoYW5nZXMgaW4gYWxsZWxlIGZyZXF1ZW5jaWVzIGluIGEgZ2VuZSBwb29sLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgcHJldHR5IG11Y2ggdGhlIGRlZmluaXRpb24gb2YgZ2VuZXRpYyBkcmlmdC4gRmluZCBzb21ldGhpbmcgaW4gdGhlIGxpc3Qgb2YgYW5zd2VycyB0aGF0IGdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQgZG9lc24mIzgyMTc7dA==IGRvLg==[Qq]

[c]IEdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQgcmVzdWx0cyBpbiBsb3NzIG9mIGdlbmV0aWMgdmFyaWF0aW9uIHdpdGhpbiBwb3B1bGF0aW9ucy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3Mgb25lIG9mIHRoZSBtYWluIGNvbnNlcXVlbmNlcyBvZiBnZW5ldGljIGRyaWZ0LiBGaW5kIHNvbWV0aGluZyBpbiB0aGUgbGlzdCBvZiBhbnN3ZXJzIHRoYXQgZ2VuZXRpYyBkcmlmdCA=ZG9lc24mIzgyMTc7dA==IGRvLg==[Qq]

[c]IEdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQgYWx0ZXJzIGFsbGVsZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgaW4gc21hbGwgcG9wdWxhdGlvbnMgb25seS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHZW5ldGljIGRyaWZ0IGlzIGEgc21hbGwgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBwaGVub21lbm9uLCBhbmQgd29uJiM4MjE3O3Qgb2NjdXIgaW4gbGFyZ2UgcG9wdWxhdGlvbnMuIEZpbmQgc29tZXRoaW5nIGluIHRoZSBsaXN0IG9mIGFuc3dlcnMgdGhhdCBnZW5ldGljIGRyaWZ0IA==ZG9lc24mIzgyMTc7dA==IGRvLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c80b82eeae38″ question_number=”9″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.4.Population_Genetics”] Which of the following statements best describes biological evolution?

[c]IENoYW5nZSBvdmVyIHRpbWU=[Qq]

[f]IFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBvbiB0aGUgcmlnaHQgdHJhY2ssIGJ1dCB3ZSYjODIxNztyZSB0YWxraW5nIGFib3V0IA==YmlvbG9naWNhbA==IGV2b2x1dGlvbiwgYW5kIHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBtb3JlIHNwZWNpZmljIGFuZCB1c2VmdWwgZGVmaW5pdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IEZhc3RlciB0aGFuIHRlY2hub2xvZ2ljYWwgZXZvbHV0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTb21ldGltZXMgdGVjaG5vbG9naWNhbCBldm9sdXRpb24gY2FuIGJlIHZlcnkgc2xvdywgd2hpbGUgYmlvbG9naWNhbCBldm9sdXRpb24gY2FuIGJlIHZlcnkgZmFzdCAodGhpbmsgb2YgdGhlIHNwcmVhZCBvZiBhbnRpYmlvdGljIHJlc2lzdGFuY2UpLiBMb29rIG92ZXIgdGhlIGNob2ljZXMgYWdhaW4u[Qq]

[c]IENoYW5nZSBpbiBhbGxlbGUgZnJlcXVlbmNpZXMgaW4g YSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uJiM4MjE3O3MgZ2VuZSBwb29sLg==[Qq]

[f]IEFic29sdXRlbHkuIFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGdyZWF0IGRlZmluaXRpb24gb2YgYmlvbG9naWNhbCBldm9sdXRpb24u[Qq]

[c]IENoYW5nZXMgaW4gdGhlIGxlYXJuZWQgYmVoYXZpb3Igb2YgaW5kaXZpZHVhbHMgaW4gYSBwb3B1bGF0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSBsZWFybmVkIGJlaGF2aW9yIGNhbiBldm9sdmUgKHRoaW5rIG9mIGN1bHR1cmFsIHRyZW5kcykgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGJldHRlciBkZWZpbml0aW9uIGZvciA=YmlvbG9naWNhbA==IGV2b2x1dGlvbiBvbiB0aGlzIGxpc3Qgb2YgY2hvaWNlcy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c7ed3e541a38″ question_number=”10″ topic=”7.5.Hardy-Weinberg_Equilibrium”] A population geneticist is studying tail feather length in a population of wrens. Within this population, 36% of the sampled individuals have a homozygous recessive phenotype. What percentage of individuals will have the dominant phenotype?

[c]IDAuMzYg[Qq][c]IDAuNzQg[Qq][c]IDAu NjQg[Qq][c]IDAuNDAg[Qq][c]IDAuNDg=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwLjM2IGlzIHRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgdGhlIGluZGl2aWR1YWxzIHdpdGggdGhlIA==cmVjZXNzaXZlIHBoZW5vdHlwZS4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIHRoZSBwZXJjZW50YWdlIG9mIGluZGl2aWR1YWxzIHdpdGggdGhlIA==ZG9taW5hbnQ=IHBoZW5vdHlwZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IDAuMzYgKDM2IHBlcmNlbnQpIG9mIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGhhcyB0aGlzIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUuIElmIDM2JSBvZiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUsIHdoYXQgcGVyY2VudGFnZSBoYXMgdGhlIGRvbWluYW50IHBoZW5vdHlwZT8=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gSWYgMzYlIG9mIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGhhcyB0aGUgcmVjZXNzaXZlIHBoZW5vdHlwZSwgdGhlbiBldmVyeWJvZHkgZWxzZSBpbiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBoYXMgdG8gaGF2ZSB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgcGhlbm90eXBlLiAxICYjODIxMTsgMC4zNiA9IDAuNjQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IDAuMzYgKDM2IHBlcmNlbnQpIG9mIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGhhcyB0aGlzIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUuIElmIDM2JSBvZiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUsIHdoYXQgcGVyY2VudGFnZSBoYXMgdGhlIGRvbWluYW50IHBoZW5vdHlwZT8=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwLjQ4IGlzIHRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3Rlcy4gWW91IGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIHRoZSBudW1iZXIgb2YgaW5kaXZpZHVhbHMgd2l0aCB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgcGhlbm90eXBlLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgdG9sZCBpbiB0aGUgcHJvYmxlbSB0aGF0IDAuMzYgKDM2IHBlcmNlbnQpIG9mIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGhhcyB0aGlzIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUuIElmIDM2JSBvZiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBoYXMgdGhlIHJlY2Vzc2l2ZSBwaGVub3R5cGUsIHdoYXQgcGVyY2VudGFnZSBoYXMgdGhlIGRvbWluYW50IHBoZW5vdHlwZT8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c7cef9b98638″ question_number=”11″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.5.Hardy-Weinberg_Equilibrium”] Along with other physical traits, dusky warblers (a species that lives in east Asia) use supercilium length to identify warblers of the same species to mate with. The supercilium is a stripe in a bird’s plumage that starts at the base of the beak, goes above the eye, and ends towards the rear of the head.


Warblers with a short supercilium (called “short warblers”) are equally fertile and aggressive as average supercilium warblers. Short warblers are more likely to mate with each other and attract fewer partners than normal warblers. Is a population of dusky warblers with both short warblers and normal warblers in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

[c]IE5vLCB3YXJibGVyIG1hdGlu ZyBpcyBub3QgcmFuZG9tLg==[Qq]

[f]IFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjb3JyZWN0LiBGb3IgYSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIHRvIGJlIGF0IEhhcmR5LVdlaW5iZXJnIGVxdWlsaWJyaXVtLCBtYXRpbmcgaGFzIHRvIGJlIHJhbmRvbSwgYW5kIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBub3QgdGhlIGNhc2UgZm9yIHNob3J0IHdhcmJsZXJzICh3aG8gbWF0ZSBhc3NvcnRhdGl2ZWx5KS4=[Qq]

[c]IE5vLCB0aGUgc2hvcnQgd2FyYmxlcnMgd2lsbCBub3QgaGF2ZSBhcyBtYW55IG9mZnNwcmluZy4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IFllcywgc2hvcnQgYW5kIGF2ZXJhZ2Ugd2FyYmxlcnMgd2lsbCBoYXZlIGFuIGVxdWFsIG51bWJlciBvZiBvZmZzcHJpbmcu[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IFllcywgbm9ybWFsIHdhcmJsZXJzIGNvdWxkIGV4cGVyaWVuY2UgYSBtdXRhdGlvbiB0aGF0IHJlc3VsdHMgaW4gc2hvcnQgc3VwZXJjaWxpdW0u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSB0aGF0IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHRydWUsIHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYW5vdGhlciB0aGluZyBoYXBwZW5pbmcgdGhhdCB2aW9sYXRlcyBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIGZpdmUgY29uZGl0aW9ucyBmb3IgYSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIHRvIGJlIGluIEhhcmR5LVdlaW5iZXJnIGVxdWlsaWJyaXVtLiBUaGVzZSBjb25kaXRpb25zIGFyZSBsYXJnZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIHNpemUsIG5vIGdlbmUgZmxvdywgcmFuZG9tIG1hdGluZywgbm8gbmV0IG11dGF0aW9uLCBhbmQgbm8gc2VsZWN0aW9uLiBJZGVudGlmeSB0aGUgY29uZGl0aW9uIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBiZWluZyB2aW9sYXRlZCwgYW5kIHlvdSYjODIxNztsbCBoYXZlIHlvdXIgYW5zd2VyLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c7ae61130e38″ question_number=”12″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.5.Hardy-Weinberg_Equilibrium”] Scientists studied a population of Southern African penguins. They took a random sample of 400 penguins and found a trait that was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The trait is controlled by the alleles A and a. Given that 36 penguins in this sample had genotype “aa,” calculate how many penguins in the sample are expected to carry at least one allele A.

[c]IDM2IA==[Qq][c]IDE2OCA=[Qq][c]IDE5NiA=[Qq][c]IDM2 NA==

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZWFzaWVzdCB3YXkgdG8gZGV0ZXJtaW5lIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgaXMgYXMgZm9sbG93cy4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHRvbGQgdGhhdCAzNiBvdXQgb2YgNDAwIHBlbmd1aW5zIGhhdmUgZ2Vub3R5cGUgYWE=LiBUaGF0IG1lYW5zIHRoYXQgOSUgb2YgdGhlIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gKDM2LzQwMCkgaGFzIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgcGhlbm90eXBlLiBUaGUgSGFyZHktV2VpbmJlcmcgZXF1aWxpYnJpdW0gbW9kZWwgc3RhdGVzIHRoYXQgcA==Mg==ICsgMnBxICsgcQ==[Qq]2 = 1. Knowing that you can figure out all the genotype and phenotype frequencies for this population by using a cross multiplication table.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2(.09)

q is going to be the square root of .09. To solve for p, use the equation p + q = 1

The completed square will look like this.

.7 .3
.7 .49 .21
.3 .21 (.09)

Add up p2 and 2pq, and you’ll have your answer as a percentage. You know from the question that there are 400 penguins…so figure out the rest!

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZWFzaWVzdCB3YXkgdG8gZGV0ZXJtaW5lIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgaXMgYXMgZm9sbG93cy4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHRvbGQgdGhhdCAzNiBvdXQgb2YgNDAwIHBlbmd1aW5zIGhhdmUgZ2Vub3R5cGUgYWE=LiBUaGF0IG1lYW5zIHRoYXQgOSUgb2YgdGhlIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gKDM2LzQwMCkgaGFzIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgcGhlbm90eXBlLiBUaGUgSGFyZHktV2VpbmJlcmcgZXF1aWxpYnJpdW0gbW9kZWwgc3RhdGVzIHRoYXQgcA==Mg==ICsgMnBxICsgcQ==[Qq]2 = 1. Knowing that you can figure out all the genotype and phenotype frequencies for this population by using a cross-multiplication table.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2(.09)

q is going to be the square root of .09. To solve for p, use the equation p + q = 1

The completed square will look like this.

.7 .3
.7 .49 .21
.3 .21 (.09)

Add up p2 and 2pq, and you’ll have your answer as a percentage. You know from the question that there are 400 penguins…so figure out the rest!

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgZWFzaWVzdCB3YXkgdG8gZGV0ZXJtaW5lIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgaXMgYXMgZm9sbG93cy4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHRvbGQgdGhhdCAzNiBvdXQgb2YgNDAwIHBlbmd1aW5zIGhhdmUgZ2Vub3R5cGUgYWE=LiBUaGF0IG1lYW5zIHRoYXQgOSUgb2YgdGhlIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gKDM2LzQwMCkgaGFzIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgcGhlbm90eXBlLiBUaGUgSGFyZHktV2VpbmJlcmcgZXF1aWxpYnJpdW0gbW9kZWwgc3RhdGVzIHRoYXQgcA==Mg==ICsgMnBxICsgcQ==[Qq]2 = 1. Knowing that you can figure out all the genotype and phenotype frequencies for this population by using a cross-multiplication table.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2(.09)

q is going to be the square root of .09. To solve for p, use the equation p + q = 1

The completed square will look like this.

.7 .3
.7 .49 .21
.3 .21 (.09)

Add up p2 and 2pq, and you’ll have your answer as a percentage. You know from the question that there are 400 penguins…so figure out the rest!

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBJIHVzZWQgYSBjcm9zcy1tdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSwgYW5kIHBsdWdnZWQgaW4gdGhlIGZvbGxvd2luZyB2YWx1ZXM6

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq] .7 .3
.7 .49 .21
.3 .21 (.09)

I added up p2 and 2pq, which came to .91. Knowing that there are 400 penguins, I took 91% of 400 to get 364.

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c7901c787a38″ question_number=”13″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.5.Hardy-Weinberg_Equilibrium”] Which of the following assumptions would not be true in a population that’s in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

[c]IEluZGl2aWR1YWxzIGluIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIG1hdGUgYXQgcmFuZG9tLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSYW5kb20gbWF0aW5nIGlzIGEga2V5IGFzc3VtcHRpb24gb2YgdGhlIEhhcmR5LVdlaW5iZXJnIGVxdWlsaWJyaXVtIG1vZGVsLiBXaGljaCBvZiB0aGUgY2hvaWNlcyBpbnZvbHZlcyBzb21ldGhpbmcgdGhhdCB3b3VsZCBtb3ZlIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBvdXQgb2YgZ2VuZXRpYyBlcXVpbGlicml1bT8=[Qq]

[c]IE5hdHVyYWwgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGlzIG5vdCB0YWtpbmcgcGxhY2Uu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIGxhY2sgb2Ygc2VsZWN0aW9uIChuYXR1cmFsIG9yIHNleHVhbCkgaXMgYSBrZXkgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgSGFyZHktV2VpbmJlcmcgZXF1aWxpYnJpdW0gbW9kZWwuIFdoaWNoIG9mIHRoZSBjaG9pY2VzIGludm9sdmVzIHNvbWV0aGluZyB0aGF0IHdvdWxkIG1vdmUgYSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIG91dCBvZiBnZW5ldGljIGVxdWlsaWJyaXVtPw==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIHNpemUgaXMgZWZmZWN0aXZlbHkgaW5maW5pdGUu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMYXJnZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIHNpemUgaXMgYSBrZXkgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgSGFyZHktV2VpbmJlcmcgZXF1aWxpYnJpdW0gbW9kZWwuIFdoaWNoIG9mIHRoZSBjaG9pY2VzIGludm9sdmVzIHNvbWV0aGluZyB0aGF0IHdvdWxkIG1vdmUgYSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIG91dCBvZiBnZW5ldGljIGVxdWlsaWJyaXVtPw==[Qq]

[c]IEFsbGVsZXMgYXJlIGV4Y2hhbmdlZCB3aX RoIG5laWdoYm9yaW5nIGdlbmUgcG9vbHMu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gT25lIG9mIHRoZSBjb25kaXRpb25zIHVuZGVybHlpbmcgdGhlIEhhcmR5LVdlaW5iZXJnIG1vZGVsIGlzIA==bm8gZ2VuZSBmbG93LA==IHdoaWNoIG1lYW5zIHRoZSBpbmZsb3cgb2YgYWxsZWxlcyBmcm9tIG5laWdoYm9yaW5nIHBvcHVsYXRpb25zLCBvciB0aGUgZXhpdGluZyBvZiBhbGxlbGVzIHRvIG5laWdoYm9yaW5nIHBvcHVsYXRpb25zLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c76f83d20238″ question_number=”14″ topic=”7.5.Hardy-Weinberg_Equilibrium”] A population geneticist is studying tail feather length in a population of wrens. Within this population, 36% of the sampled individuals have a homozygous recessive phenotype.

What is the frequency of the recessive allele for this trait?

[c]IDAuMzYg[Qq][c]IDAuNzQg[Qq][c]IDAu NiA=[Qq][c]IDAuNCA=[Qq][c]IDAuNDg=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcy1tdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). I’ll leave that step to you.

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcy1tdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). I’ll leave that step to you.

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBIYXJkeSBhbmQgV2VpbmJlcmcgKHdobyBkZXZlbG9wZWQgdGhlIG1hdGggZm9yIHRoaXMpIHdvdWxkIGJlIHByb3VkLiBJZiB0aGUgZnJlcXVlbmN5IG9mIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgcGhlbm90eXBlIGlzIDAuMzYsIHRoZW4gKGFzc3VtaW5nIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGlzIGluIEhhcmR5LVdlaW5iZXJnIGVxdWlsaWJyaXVtKSwgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgcmVjZXNzaXZlIGFsbGVsZSB3aWxsIGJlIDAuNi4=

Cg==

SSYjODIxNzttIGhvcGluZyB0aGF0IHlvdSBzb2x2ZWQgdGhpcyB1c2luZyBhIGNyb3NzLW11bHRpcGxpY2F0aW9uIHRhYmxlLCBsaWtlIHRoZSBvbmUgYmVsb3cuIEl0JiM4MjE3O3MgbXVjaCBlYXNpZXIsIGluIG15IGV4cGVyaWVuY2UgdGhhbiBzb2x2aW5nIHRoaXMgdGhyb3VnaCBhbiBlcXVhdGlvbi4=

Cg==Cg==[Qq]
p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcy1tdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). I’ll leave that step to you.

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcy1tdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). I’ll leave that step to you.

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c747ef07de38″ question_number=”15″ topic=”7.5.Hardy-Weinberg_Equilibrium”] A population geneticist is studying tail feather length in a population of wrens. Within this population, 36% of the sampled individuals have a homozygous recessive phenotype. What is the frequency of the dominant allele for this trait?

[c]IDAuMzYg[Qq][c]IDAuNzQg[Qq][c]IDAuNiA=[Qq][c]IDAu NCA=[Qq][c]IDAuNDg=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcy1tdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q. To find the frequency of p, just remember that p = q = 1. That means that 1 – q = p. What’s 1 – 0.6?

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIGlzIGEgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBnZW5ldGljcyBwcm9ibGVtLCBhbmQgdGhlIGVhc2llc3Qgd2F5IHRvIHNvbHZlIHRoaXMgcHJvYmxlbSBpcyB0byB1c2UgYSBjcm9zcy1tdWx0aXBsaWNhdGlvbiB0YWJsZSAoYSBraW5kIG9mIFB1bm5ldHQgc3F1YXJlKS4gWW91IHN0YXJ0IGZyb20gdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCA=cCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==IHA=IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLCBhbmQg[Qq]q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q. To find the frequency of p, just remember that p = q = 1. That means that 1 – q = p. What’s 1 – 0.6?

[f]IE5vLiAwLjYgaXMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgcmVjZXNzaXZlIGFsbGVsZS4gSSYjODIxNzttIG5vdCBzdXJlIHdoZXJlIHlvdSB3ZW50IHdyb25nLCBzbyBJJiM4MjE3O2xsIHdhbGsgeW91IHRocm91Z2ggdGhlIHdob2xlIHRoaW5nLg==

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MtbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36%) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q. To find the frequency of p, just remember that p = q = 1. That means that 1 – q = p. What’s 1 – 0.6?

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzISBJZiB0aGUgZnJlcXVlbmN5IG9mIHRoZSByZWNlc3NpdmUgcGhlbm90eXBlIGlzIDAuMzYsIHRoZW4gKGFzc3VtaW5nIHRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9uIGlzIGluIEhhcmR5LVdlaW5iZXJnIGVxdWlsaWJyaXVtKSwgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgcmVjZXNzaXZlIGFsbGVsZSB3aWxsIGJlIDAuNi4gU2luY2UgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB5b3Ugc2ltcGx5IHN1YnRyYWN0IDEgJiM4MjExOyAwLjYgdG8gZ2V0IHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIsIDAuNC4=

Cg==

SSYjODIxNzttIGhvcGluZyB0aGF0IHlvdSB1c2VkIGEgY3Jvc3MtbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgdG8gc29sdmUgdGhpcyBwcm9ibGVtOiBpdCYjODIxNztzIGJ5IGZhciB0aGUgZWFzaWVzdCBtZXRob2Qu

Cg==Cg==[Qq]
.4 .6
.4 p2 pq
.6 pq .36

[f]IE5vLiAwLjQ4IGlzIHRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3RlcyBpbiB0aGlzIHBvcHVsYXRpb24uIEkmIzgyMTc7bSBub3Qgc3VyZSB3aGVyZSB5b3Ugd2VudCB3cm9uZywgc28gSSYjODIxNztsbCB3YWxrIHlvdSB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSB3aG9sZSB0aGluZy4=

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MtbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele. If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q. To find the frequency of p, just remember that p = q = 1. That means that 1 – q = p. What’s 1 – 0.6?

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c71e0631d638″ question_number=”16″ topic=”7.5.Hardy-Weinberg_Equilibrium”] A population geneticist is studying tail feather length in a population of wrens. Within this population, 36% of the sampled individuals have a homozygous recessive phenotype. What is the frequency of the heterozygotes within this population?

[c]IDAuMzYg[Qq][c]IDAu NDgg[Qq][c]IDAuNzQg[Qq][c]IDAuNiA=[Qq][c]IDAuNA==

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAwLjM2IGlzIHRoZSBmcmVxdWVuY3kgb2YgaG9tb3p5Z291cyBkb21pbmFudHMgaW4gdGhpcyBwb3B1bGF0aW9uLiBJJiM4MjE3O20gbm90IHN1cmUgd2hlcmUgeW91IHdlbnQgd3JvbmcsIHNvIEkmIzgyMTc7bGwgd2FsayB5b3UgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgd2hvbGUgdGhpbmcu

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MtbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele.

If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q, which in this case is equal to 0.6. If q = 0.6, then p = 1 – 0.6, or 0.4.

There’s just one more step. The frequency of heterozygotes in a population is 2pq. So, multiply 2 times p times q and you’ll have your answer.

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlIHBlcmNlbnRhZ2Ugb2YgaGV0ZXJvenlnb3RlcyBpbiB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBpcyAwLjQ4Lg==

Cg==

SSBob3BlIHlvdSBzZXQgaXQgdXAgbGlrZSB0aGlzOg==

Cg==Cg==[Qq]
p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

and solved it like this:

.4 .6
.4 p2 .24
.6 .24 .36

[f]IE5vLiBJJiM4MjE3O20gbm90IHN1cmUgd2hlcmUgeW91IHdlbnQgd3JvbmcsIHNvIEkmIzgyMTc7bGwgd2FsayB5b3UgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgd2hvbGUgdGhpbmcu

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MtbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele.

If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q, which in this case is equal to 0.6. If q = 0.6, then p = 1 – 0.6, or 0.4.

There’s just one more step. The frequency of heterozygotes in a population is 2pq. So, multiply 2 times p times q and you’ll have your answer.

[f]IE5vLiAwLjYgaXMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgcmVjZXNzaXZlIGFsbGVsZS4gVGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGEgZ29vZCBzdGFydCwgYnV0IHNpbmNlIEkmIzgyMTc7bSBub3Qgc3VyZSB3aGVyZSB5b3Ugd2VudCB3cm9uZywgSSYjODIxNztsbCB3YWxrIHlvdSB0aHJvdWdoIHRoZSB3aG9sZSB0aGluZy4=

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MtbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele.

If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q, which in this case is equal to 0.6. If q = 0.6, then p = 1 – 0.6, or 0.4.

There’s just one more step. The frequency of heterozygotes in a population is 2pq. So, multiply 2 times p times q and you’ll have your answer.

[f]IE5vLiAwLjQgaXMgdGhlIGZyZXF1ZW5jeSBvZiB0aGUgZG9taW5hbnQgYWxsZWxlLiBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYSBnb29kIHN0YXJ0LCBidXQgc2luY2UgSSYjODIxNzttIG5vdCBzdXJlIHdoZXJlIHlvdSB3ZW50IHdyb25nLCBJJiM4MjE3O2xsIHdhbGsgeW91IHRocm91Z2ggdGhlIHdob2xlIHRoaW5nLg==

Cg==

VGhpcyBpcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gZ2VuZXRpY3MgcHJvYmxlbSwgYW5kIHRoZSBlYXNpZXN0IHdheSB0byBzb2x2ZSB0aGlzIHByb2JsZW0gaXMgdG8gdXNlIGEgY3Jvc3MtbXVsdGlwbGljYXRpb24gdGFibGUgKGEga2luZCBvZiBQdW5uZXR0IHNxdWFyZSkuIFlvdSBzdGFydCBmcm9tIHRoZSBpZGVhIHRoYXQgcCArIHEgPSAxLCB3aGVyZQ==[Qq] p represents the frequency of the dominant allele, and q represents the frequency of the recessive allele.

If you plug these values into a cross-multiplication table, you’d get:

p q
p p2 pq
q pq q2

You’re told in the problem that 0.36 (36 percent) of the population has this recessive phenotype. So plug that value into the lower right corner of the square. Note that q2 represents the frequency of individuals with the recessive phenotype.

p q
p p2 pq
q pq .36

To find the frequency of the recessive allele (q), just take the square root of q2 (in other words, take the square root of 0.36). That gives you the value of q, which in this case is equal to 0.6. If q = 0.6, then p = 1 – 0.6, or 0.4.

There’s just one more step. The frequency of heterozygotes in a population is 2pq. So, multiply 2 times p times q and you’ll have your answer.

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c6ffc1974238″ question_number=”17″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.6.Evidence_of_Evolution”] The diagrams below depict sedimentary rock strata from two different fossil sites. Which of the following conclusions about relative fossil age is best supported by these diagrams?

[c]IFRoZSBmb3NzaWxzIGluIGxheWVyIEUgYXJlIHRoZSBzYW1lIGFnZSBhcyB0aGUgZm9zc2lscyBpbiBsYXllciBJLg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBmb3NzaWxzIGluIGxheWVyIEYgYXJlIHlvdW5nZXIgdGhhbiB0aGUgZm9zc2lscyBpbiBsYXllciBELg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBmb3NzaWxzIGluIGxheWVyIEMgYXJlIHlvdW5n ZXIgdGhhbiB0aGUgZm9zc2lscyBpbiBsYXllciBGLg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gRCBhbmQgRiBhcmUgdGhlIHNhbWUgdHlwZXMgb2YgZm9zc2lscyBhbmQgdGhlcmVmb3JlIGFyZSB0aGUgc2FtZSBhZ2UuIEMgaXMgYWJvdmUgRCBhbmQgdGhlcmVmb3JlIGhhcyB0byBiZSB5b3VuZ2VyIHRoYW4gRi4=[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBmb3NzaWxzIGluIGxheWVyIEcgYXJlIHlvdW5nZXIgdGhhbiB0aGUgZm9zc2lscyBpbiBsYXllciBFLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgdHdvIHByaW5jaXBsZXMgYXQgd29yayBoZXJlLiBUaGUgZmlyc3QgaXMgdGhlIGlkZWEgb2Ygc3VwZXJwb3NpdGlvbjogaW4gdW5kZWZvcm1lZCBzZWRpbWVudGFyeSBzdHJhdGEsIHlvdW5nZXIgbGF5ZXJzIGFyZSBhYm92ZSBvbGRlciBsYXllcnMuIFRoZSBzZWNvbmQgaXMgdGhlIGlkZWEgdGhhdCBmb3NzaWxzIG9mIHRoZSBzYW1lIHR5cGUgKHdpdGggc2ltaWxhciBtb3JwaG9sb2d5KSBhcmUgYWJvdXQgdGhlIHNhbWUgYWdlLiBOb3RlIHRoYXQgRSBhbmQgRyBhcmUgdGhlIHNhbWUgZm9zc2lsIHR5cGUuIFRoYXQgbWVhbnMgdGhhdCB0aGV5JiM4MjE3O3JlIHRoZSBzYW1lIGFnZS4gTm93IHVzZSB0aGUgcHJpbmNpcGxlIG9mIHN1cGVycG9zaXRpb24gdG8gZmluZCB0aGUgY29ycmVjdCBhbnN3ZXIu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c6df28f0ca38″ question_number=”18″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.6.Evidence_of_Evolution”] Both sharks and dolphins have a similar streamlined shape.

This is an example of

[c]IEFkYXB0aXZlIHJhZGlhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBZGFwdGl2ZSByYWRpYXRpb24sIGZhbW91c2x5IGV4ZW1wbGlmaWVkIGJ5IHRoZSBHYWxhcGFnb3MgZmluY2hlcywgaW52b2x2ZXMgb25lIGFuY2VzdHJhbCBzcGVjaWVzIHNwbGl0dGluZyBpbnRvIHNldmVyYWwgZGVzY2VuZGFudCBzcGVjaWVzLCBlYWNoIHdpdGggYSB1bmlxdWUgc2V0IG9mIGFkYXB0YXRpb25zLg==

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]Adaptive radiation explains homologous traits, but not superficially similar traits that evolve independently in separate evolutionary lineages.

[c]IEhvbW9sb2dvdXMgdHJhaXRzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIb21vbG9nb3VzIHRyYWl0cyBhcmUgdHJhaXRzIHRoYXQgYXJlIGRlcml2ZWQgZnJvbSBhIGNvbW1vbiBhbmNlc3RvciwgYnV0IHdoaWNoIGhhdmUgYmVjb21lIGFkYXB0ZWQgZm9yIGRpc3RpbmN0IHB1cnBvc2VzLiBUaGUgZm9yZWFybSBvZiB0aGUgdmVydGVicmF0ZXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cgYXJlIGhvbW9sb2dvdXM6IHRoZSBzYW1lIGJvbmVzLCBidXQgc2VydmluZyBkaWZmZXJlbnQgZnVuY3Rpb25zLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IENvbnZlcmdlbn QgZXZvbHV0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIFRoZSBzdXBlcmZpY2lhbCBzaW1pbGFyaXR5IGluIGZvcm0gYmV0d2VlbiBzaGFya3MgYW5kIGRvbHBoaW5zIGlzIGFuIGV4YW1wbGUgb2YgY29udmVyZ2VudCBldm9sdXRpb246IHNpbWlsYXIgZXZvbHV0aW9uYXJ5IHByZXNzdXJlcyByZXN1bHRpbmcgaW4gc2ltaWxhciBhZGFwdGF0aW9ucyAoaW4gdGhpcyBjYXNlLCBhIHN0cmVhbWxpbmVkIGZvcm0pLg==[Qq]

[c]IEFsbG9wYXRyaWMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gb2NjdXJzIHdoZW4gYSBzaW5nbGUgc3BlY2llcyBnZXRzIHN1YmRpdmlkZWQgaW50byB0d28gZ3JvdXBzIGJ5IGEgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpYyBiYXJyaWVyLCBhbmQgdGhlbiBlYWNoIGdyb3VwLCBzdWJqZWN0IHRvIGZvcmNlcyBsaWtlIGdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQsIG11dGF0aW9uLCBhbmQgbmF0dXJhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24sIGV2b2x2ZXMgaW50byBhIGRpc3RpbmN0IHNwZWNpZXMuIEhvdyBjYW4geW91IGV4cGxhaW4gc3VwZXJmaWNpYWxseSBzaW1pbGFyIHRyYWl0cyB0aGF0IGV2b2x2ZSBpbmRlcGVuZGVudGx5IGluIHNlcGFyYXRlIGV2b2x1dGlvbmFyeSBsaW5lYWdlcz8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c6c0e4563638″ question_number=”19″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.6.Evidence_of_Evolution”] Molecular data indicate that the giant panda is a member of the Ursidae family (the family of bears) while the lesser panda is a member of the Prycyonidae family (the family of raccoons). Which of the following terms best explains the morphological similarities between red pandas (shown on the left) and the giant panda (on the right)?

[c]IFNleHVhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTZXh1YWwgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGV4cGxhaW5zIHNvbWUgYXNwZWN0cyBvZiBzZXh1YWwgZGltb3JwaGlzbSAoZGlmZmVyZW5jZXMgYmV0d2VlbiBtYWxlcyBhbmQgZmVtYWxlcyBvZiB0aGUgc2FtZSBzcGVjaWVzKS4gSG93IGNhbiB5b3UgZXhwbGFpbiBzaW1pbGFyIGZlYXR1cmVzIGluIHR3byAob3IgbW9yZSkgc3BlY2llcyB0aGF0IGFyZSBkaXN0YW50bHkgcmVsYXRlZCAoYW5kIHdoaWNoIGRpZCBub3QgaW5oZXJpdCB0aGVzZSBmZWF0dXJlcyBmcm9tIGEgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdG9yKT8=[Qq]

[c]IENvbnZlcmdlbn QgZXZvbHV0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IFRlcnJpZmljLiBXaGVuIGRpc3RhbnRseSByZWxhdGVkIHNwZWNpZXMgZXZvbHZlIHNpbWlsYXIgYWRhcHRhdGlvbnMgaW4gcmVzcG9uc2UgdG8gc2ltaWxhciBzZWxlY3RpdmUgcHJlc3N1cmVzLCB3ZSBjYWxsIHRoaXMgY29udmVyZ2VudCBldm9sdXRpb24u[Qq]

[c]IG5hdHVyYWwgc2VsZWN0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSByaWdodCB0cmFjaywgaW4gc28gZmFyIGFzIG5hdHVyYWwgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGlzIGEgbWFqb3IgZm9yY2UgaW4gYnJpbmdpbmcgYWJvdXQgdGhlIHJlc3VsdC4gQnV0IHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBiZXR0ZXIgdGVybSB0aGF0IGRlc2NyaWJlcyB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgd2hlbiBkaXN0YW50bHkgcmVsYXRlZCBzcGVjaWVzIGV2b2x2ZSBzaW1pbGFyIGFkYXB0YXRpb25zIGluIHJlc3BvbnNlIHRvIHNpbWlsYXIgc2VsZWN0aXZlIHByZXNzdXJlcy4=[Qq]

[c]IEdlbmV0aWMgZHJpZnQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHZW5ldGljIGRyaWZ0IGlzIHRoZSByYW5kb20gY2hhbmdlIGluIGFsbGVsZSBmcmVxdWVuY2llcyB0aGF0IGNhbiBvY2N1ciBpbiBzbWFsbCwgaXNvbGF0ZWQgcG9wdWxhdGlvbnMuIEhlcmUsIHdlJiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgYXQgc29tZXRoaW5nIGRpZmZlcmVudC4gSG93IGNhbiB5b3UgZXhwbGFpbiBzaW1pbGFyIGZlYXR1cmVzIGluIHR3byAob3IgbW9yZSkgc3BlY2llcyB0aGF0IGFyZSBkaXN0YW50bHkgcmVsYXRlZCAoYW5kIHdoaWNoIGRpZCBub3QgaW5oZXJpdCB0aGVzZSBmZWF0dXJlcyBmcm9tIGEgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdG9yKT8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c6a04bafbe38″ question_number=”20″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.6.Evidence_of_Evolution”] Basalt is formed over days or weeks when lava cools and solidifies on the Earth’s surface after a volcanic eruption. Sometimes well-preserved fossils have been found in volcanic ash, from the same eruption, deposited near the basalt. Which of the following statements explains why basalt near a fossil site can be used to date the fossils?

[c]IEFuIGluZGV4IGZvc3NpbCBtYXkgYmUgY29udGFpbmVkIGluIHRoZSBiYXNhbHQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCYXNhbHQgaXMgYSB2b2xjYW5pYyByb2NrLCBmb3JtZWQgZnJvbSBsYXZhLCB3aGljaCB3b3VsZCBkZXN0cm95IGFueSBmb3NzaWxzLiBBcyBzdGF0ZWQgaW4gdGhlIHF1ZXN0aW9uLCB0aGUgZm9zc2lscyBtaWdodCBiZSBmb3VuZCBpbiB2b2xjYW5pYyBhc2gsIGRlcG9zaXRlZCBuZWFyIHRoZSBiYXNhbHQuIFRha2UgYW5vdGhlciBsb29rIGF0IHRoZXNlIGNob2ljZXMsIGFuZCBzZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBpZGVudGlmeSBvbmUgdGhhdCB3b3VsZCBoZWxwIHlvdSBkZXRlcm1pbmUgaG93IG9sZCB0aGUgZm9zc2lscyBhcmUu[Qq]

[c]IE9yZ2FuaWMgcmVtYWlucyBhcmUgYmFrZWQgYW5kIHByZXNlcnZlZCBpbiBiYXNhbHQu[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IEhpc3RvcmljYWwgZGF0YSBjb250YWlucyB0aGUgZGF0ZXMgb2Ygdm9sY2FuaWMgZXJ1cHRpb25zLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIaXN0b3JpY2FsIHJlY29yZHMgZGF0ZSBiYWNrIG9ubHkgYSBmZXcgdGhvdXNhbmQgeWVhcnMgYXQgbW9zdC4gU2VlIGlmIHlvdSBjYW4gdGhpbmsgb2YgYW5vdGhlciB3YXkgaW4gd2hpY2ggYmFzYWx0IGNhbiBiZSB1c2VkIHRvIGRhdGUgdGhlIGZvc3NpbHMu[Qq]

[c]IFJhZGlvYWN0aXZlIGVsZW1lbnRzIGluIHRoZSBi YXNhbHQgY2FuIGJlIGRhdGVkIGFjY3VyYXRlbHku[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gQnkgdXNpbmcgcmFkaW9hY3RpdmUgZGF0aW5nLCB0aGUgYWdlIG9mIHRoZSB2b2xjYW5pYyBiYXNhbHQgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIG5lYXIgdGhlIGZvc3NpbHMgY2FuIGJlIGRldGVybWluZWQuIFRoYXQsIGluIHR1cm4sIGFsbG93cyB5b3UgdG8gZGV0ZXJtaW5lIHRoZSBhZ2Ugb2YgdGhlIGZvc3NpbHMu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c67d5efd6238″ question_number=”21″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.6.Evidence_of_Evolution”] The concept of descent with modification is best represented by which of the following examples?

[c]IEFiaWxpdHkgb2YgZmlzaGVzIGFuZCBkb2xwaGlucyB0byBzd2lt[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMZXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGluayBhYm91dCB0aGlzIHRlcm0sIA==ZGVzY2VudCB3aXRoIG1vZGlmaWNhdGlvbg==LCB3aGljaCB3YXMgb25lIG9mIERhcndpbiYjODIxNztzIGZhdm9yaXRlIHRlcm1zIGZvciBkZXNjcmliaW5nIGV2b2x1dGlvbi4gRGVzY2VudA==IGlzIGFib3V0IGFuY2VzdHJ5LiBJJiM4MjE3O20gYSBkZXNjZW5kYW50IG9mIG15IGdyYW5kcGFyZW50cy4g[Qq]Modification means change. So, the ability of both dolphins and fish to swim might have come about through descent with modification, but there’s a clearer example of descent with modification in this list of choices.

[c]IENvbG9yIHZhcmlhdGlvbiBpbiBhIHNpbmdsZSBzcGVjaWVzIG9mIGZsb3dlcg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMZXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGluayBhYm91dCB0aGlzIHRlcm0sIA==ZGVzY2VudCB3aXRoIG1vZGlmaWNhdGlvbg==LCB3aGljaCB3YXMgb25lIG9mIERhcndpbiYjODIxNztzIGZhdm9yaXRlIHRlcm1zIGZvciBkZXNjcmliaW5nIGV2b2x1dGlvbi4gRGVzY2VudA==IGlzIGFib3V0IGFuY2VzdHJ5LiBJJiM4MjE3O20gYSBkZXNjZW5kYW50IG9mIG15IGdyYW5kcGFyZW50cy4g[Qq]Modification means change. Color variation in a single species of flower might be a result of genetic differences in different individuals within this population, and these differences might or might not be traceable to some evolutionary change. Look over the list of choices for this question, and see if there’s a clearer example of descent with modification that you can choose next time you see this question.

[c]IEVhcmx5IGVtYnJ5b25pYyBmb3JtcyBvZiBiaXJkcyBhbm QgbWFtbWFscyBhcmUgc3RydWN0dXJhbGx5IHNpbWlsYXI=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgQm90aCBiaXJkcyBhbmQgbWFtbWFscyBldm9sdmVkIGZyb20gYSBjb21tb24gdmVydGVicmF0ZSBhbmNlc3Rvci4gVGhlIGVtYnJ5b25pYyBmb3JtcyBzaGFyZWQgYnkgYmlyZHMgYW5kIG1hbW1hbHMgc2hvdyB0aGUgZGVlcCBob21vbG9naWVzIGluIG91ciBzdHJ1Y3R1cmUsIHdoaWNoIGxhdGVyIGdldCBlbGFib3JhdGVkIGludG8gbWFtbWFsaWFuIGFuZCBhdmlhbiAoYmlyZC1saWtlKSBmb3Jtcy4gQ29uc2VxdWVudGx5LCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGEgZ3JlYXQgZXhhbXBsZSBvZiBkZXNjZW50IHdpdGggbW9kaWZpY2F0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c65a724b0638″ question_number=”22″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.6.Evidence_of_Evolution”] The figure below represents the fossils found in different rock layers at a specific site. Which of the following conclusions is supported by the information in the figure?

[c]IEZvc3NpbCBBIGlzIGFib3V0IDUgbWlsbGlvbiB5ZWFycyBvbGQu[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IEZvc3NpbHMgQSBhbmQgQyBhcmUgY2xvc2VseSByZWxhdGVkLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBGb3NzaWxzIEEgYW5kIEMgYXJlIGluIHRoZSBzYW1lIGxheWVyLCBidXQgYWxsIHRoYXQgdGVsbHMgeW91IGlzIHRoYXQgdGhleSBsaXZlZCBhdCB0aGUgc2FtZSB0aW1lLg==[Qq]

[c]IEZvc3NpbCBCIGlzIGV4dGluY3Qu[Qq]

[f]IE5vdCBuZWNlc3NhcmlseS4gVGhlIG9yZ2FuaXNtIHRoYXQgd2FzIGZvc3NpbGl6ZWQgdG8gY3JlYXRlIGZvc3NpbCBCIG1heSBiZSBwYXJ0IG9mIGEgc3BlY2llcyB0aGF0IGlzIHN0aWxsIGFsaXZlLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgc3BlY2llcywgbGlrZSB0aGUgZmFtb3VzIENvZWxhY2FudGggKHNob3duIGJlbG93KSwgdGhhdCBhcmUgYm90aCBsaXZpbmcgdG9kYXkgYW5kIHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIGZvc3NpbCByZWNvcmQgZnJvbSAzNjAgbWlsbGlvbiB5ZWFycyBhZ28u

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEZvc3NpbCBEIGlzIHRoZSB5b3 VuZ2VzdCBmb3NzaWwgc2hvd24u[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIGtleSBwcmluY2lwbGUgaGVyZSBpcyB0aGUgaWRlYSBvZiA=c3VwZXJwb3NpdGlvbg==LiBGb3NzaWxzIGluIGhpZ2hlciBsYXllcnMgYXJlIGxhaWQgZG93biBhYm92ZSB0aGUgZm9zc2lscyBpbiBsb3dlciBsYXllcnMgYW5kIGFyZSB0aGVyZWZvcmUgeW91bmdlci4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c635318cc638″ question_number=”23″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.6.Evidence_of_Evolution”] The figure below represents the fossils found in different rock layers at a specific site.

Scientists observed that fossils C and D both have similar, limb-like appendages. If later work shows these structures are analogous, rather than homologous, then one could expect that the living organisms that formed these fossils would have had similar

[c]IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQgc2VxdWVuY2VzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IHRoaW5nIHRvIGZvY3VzIG9uIGhlcmUgaXMgdGhhdCB0aGVzZSBsaW1iLWxpa2UgYXBwZW5kYWdlcyBhcmUgYW5hbG9nb3VzLiBUaGF0IG1lYW5zIHRoYXQgdGhleSBkb24mIzgyMTc7dCByZXByZXNlbnQgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdHJ5ICh3aGljaCB3b3VsZCBiZSBzaG93biBieSBzaGFyZWQgYW1pbm8gYWNpZCBzZXF1ZW5jZXMpLCBidXQgcmF0aGVyIGNvbnZlcmdlbnQgZXZvbHV0aW9uIChzdWNoIGFzIHRoZSBzaW1pbGFyLCBzdHJlYW1saW5lZCBmb3JtcyBvZiBzaGFya3MgYW5kIGRvbHBoaW5zKS4=

Cg==Cg==[Qq]

Look at the choices, and see if there’s one that’s more related to the idea of convergent evolution.

[c]IEROQSBzZXF1ZW5jZXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IHRoaW5nIHRvIGZvY3VzIG9uIGhlcmUgaXMgdGhhdCB0aGVzZSBsaW1iLWxpa2UgYXBwZW5kYWdlcyBhcmUgYW5hbG9nb3VzLiBUaGF0IG1lYW5zIHRoYXQgdGhleSBkb24mIzgyMTc7dCByZXByZXNlbnQgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdHJ5ICh3aGljaCB3b3VsZCBiZSBzaG93biBieSBzaGFyZWQgRE5BIHNlcXVlbmNlcyksIGJ1dCByYXRoZXIgY29udmVyZ2VudCBldm9sdXRpb24gKHN1Y2ggYXMgdGhlIHNpbWlsYXIsIHN0cmVhbWxpbmVkIGZvcm1zIG9mIHNoYXJrcyBhbmQgZG9scGhpbnMpLg==

Cg==Cg==[Qq]

Look at the choices, and see if there’s one that’s more related to the idea of convergent evolution.

[c]IFJOQSBzZXF1ZW5jZXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUga2V5IHRoaW5nIHRvIGZvY3VzIG9uIGhlcmUgaXMgdGhhdCB0aGVzZSBsaW1iLWxpa2UgYXBwZW5kYWdlcyBhcmUgYW5hbG9nb3VzLiBUaGF0IG1lYW5zIHRoYXQgdGhleSBkb24mIzgyMTc7dCByZXByZXNlbnQgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdHJ5ICh3aGljaCB3b3VsZCBiZSBzaG93biBieSBzaGFyZWQgUk5BIHNlcXVlbmNlcyksIGJ1dCByYXRoZXIgY29udmVyZ2VudCBldm9sdXRpb24gKHN1Y2ggYXMgdGhlIHNpbWlsYXIsIHN0cmVhbWxpbmVkIGZvcm1zIG9mIHNoYXJrcyBhbmQgZG9scGhpbnMpLg==

Cg==Cg==[Qq]

Look at the choices, and see if there’s one that’s more related to the idea of convergent evolution.

[c]IHNlbGVjdGlvbi BwcmVzc3VyZXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBJZiB0aGVzZSBsaW1iLWxpa2UgYXBwZW5kYWdlcyBhcmUgYW5hbG9nb3VzLCB0aGVuIHRoZXkgY291bGQgaGF2ZSBhcmlzZW4gZnJvbSB1bnJlbGF0ZWQgc3BlY2llcyBleHBlcmllbmNpbmcgc2ltaWxhciBzZWxlY3Rpb24gcHJlc3N1cmVzLiBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHdlIGV4cGxhaW4gdGhlIHNpbWlsYXIgc3RyZWFtbGluZWQgZm9ybSBvZiBzaGFya3MgYW5kIGRvbHBoaW5zLCBhcyBzaG93biBiZWxvdywgYW5kIGl0IHdvdWxkIGFwcGx5IGluIHRoaXMgY2FzZSBhcyB3ZWxsLg==

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq]

 

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c60ff0ce8638″ question_number=”24″ topic=”7.8.Continuing_Evolution”] A farmer is applying a pesticide to suppress an insect called a “stem borer.” The farmer has learned that there is an allele that enables stem borers to tolerate the pesticide, and she is concerned that the stem borers will become pesticide-resistant. Which of the following situations would most likely lead to the appearance of pesticide-resistant stem borers?

[c]IElmIG5vbmUgb2YgdGhlIHN0ZW0gYm9yZXJzIGluIHRoaXMgYXJlYSBoYXZlIHRoZSByZXNpc3RhbmNlIGFsbGVsZS4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IElmIG5laWdoYm9yaW5nIGZhcm1zIGhhdmUgdXNlZCB0aGlzIHBlc3RpY2lkZSBmb3IgeWVhcnMsIG FuZCBpZiB0aGUgYWR1bHQgc3RlbSBib3JlcnMgY2FuIGVhc2lseSBmbHkgbG9uZyBkaXN0YW5jZXMu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhpcyBjaG9pY2UgZGVzY3JpYmVzIGEgc2l0dWF0aW9uIHdoZXJlIGlmIHRoZSBwZXN0aWNpZGUgcmVzaXN0YW5jZSBhbGxlbGUgYXJvc2UgaW4gYSBuZWlnaGJvcmluZyBwb3B1bGF0aW9uLCBpdCBjb3VsZCBpbmNyZWFzZSBpbiBmcmVxdWVuY3kgd2l0aGluIHRoYXQgcG9wdWxhdGlvbiBhbmQgc3ByZWFkIHRvIG5laWdoYm9yaW5nIGZhcm1zLg==[Qq]

[c]IElmIHN0ZW0gYm9yZXJzIHRoYXQgaGF2ZSB0aGUgcmVzaXN0YW5jZSBhbGxlbGUgYWxzbyBwcm9kdWNlZCBkaWZmZXJlbnQgcGhlcm9tb25lcywgbWFraW5nIGl0IGRpZmZpY3VsdCBmb3IgdGhlbSB0byBhdHRyYWN0IG1hdGVzLg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IElmIHRoZSByZXNpc3RhbmNlIGFsbGVsZSBtYWtlcyB0aGUgc3RlbSBib3JlciBhZHVsdHMgc2xvd2VyIGFuZCBlYXNpZXIgcHJleSBmb3IgYmlyZHMu[Qq]

[f]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

Cg==

Cg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c5ed041c2a38″ question_number=”25″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny”] Which of the following statements is consistent with the phylogenetic tree below?

[c]IExhbXByZXlzIGFuZCBtYW1tYWxzIGFyZSBub3QgcmVsYXRlZC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBKdXN0IGZvbGxvdyB0aGUgdHJlZSBiYWNrIGluIHRpbWUgKHRvIHRoZSBsZWZ0KSBhbmQgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIHNlZSB0aGF0IGxhbXByZXlzIGFuZCBtYW1tYWxzIGFyZSByZWxhdGVkLCBib3RoIGRlc2NlbmRlZCBmcm9tIGEgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdG9yLg==[Qq]

[c]IENhcnRpbGFnaW5vdXMgZmlzaCBhcmUgdGhlIGFuY2VzdG9ycyBvZiBhbXBoaWJpYW5zLg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IEJpcmRzIGFyZSBtb3JlIGNsb3NlbHkgcmVsYXRlZCB0byByZXB0aWxlcyB0aGFuIHRvIG1hbW1hbHMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHBoeWxvZ2VueSBzdWdnZXN0cyB0aGF0IGJpcmRzIGFuZCBtYW1tYWxzIHNoYXJlIGEgbW9yZSByZWNlbnQgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdG9yIHRoYW4gZG8gYmlyZHMgYW5kIHJlcHRpbGVzLg==[Qq]

[c]IEFtcGhpYmlhbnMsIHJlcHRpbGVzLCBiaXJkcywgYW5k IG1hbW1hbHMgc2hhcmUgYSBjb21tb24gYW5jZXN0b3Iu[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBUaGlzIHBoeWxvZ2VueSBzdWdnZXN0cyB0aGF0IGFtcGhpYmlhbnMsIHJlcHRpbGVzLCBiaXJkcywgYW5kIG1hbW1hbHMgc2hhcmUgYSBjb21tb24gYW5jZXN0b3Iu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c5cebf819638″ question_number=”26″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny”] Cytochrome c is a protein that’s part of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. By comparing amino acid similarities and differences in cytochrome c among various organisms, one can make inferences about these species’ genetic relatedness.

The table below shows differences in cytochrome c amino acid sequences for nine species:

Based on the data above, what species should be in position 7 in the phylogenetic tree below?

[c]IHdoZWF0[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFydCBieSBub3RpbmcgdGhhdCBob3JzZXMgYW5kIGRvbmtleXMgaGF2ZSBvbmx5IG9uZSBkaWZmZXJlbmNlLCBzdWdnZXN0aW5nIHRoYXQgdGhleSBoYXZlIHRoZSBtb3N0IHJlY2VudCBjb21tb24gYW5jZXN0b3IuIFRoYXQgcHV0cyB0aGVtIGludG8gcG9zaXRpb25zIDkgKGhvcnNlKSBhbmQgOChkb25rZXkpLiBCYXNlZCBvbiB0aGUgY2hhcnQgKGFuZCwgb2YgY291cnNlLCB3aGF0IHlvdSBrbm93IGFib3V0IGFuaW1hbHMpLCB3aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdGhlIG5leHQgY2xvc2VzdCByZWxhdGl2ZSBvZiB0aGUgaG9yc2UgYW5kIHRoZSBkb25rZXk/[Qq]

[c]IG1vdGg=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFydCBieSBub3RpbmcgdGhhdCBob3JzZXMgYW5kIGRvbmtleXMgaGF2ZSBvbmx5IG9uZSBkaWZmZXJlbmNlLCBzdWdnZXN0aW5nIHRoYXQgdGhleSBoYXZlIHRoZSBtb3N0IHJlY2VudCBjb21tb24gYW5jZXN0b3IuIFRoYXQgcHV0cyB0aGVtIGludG8gcG9zaXRpb25zIDkgKGhvcnNlKSBhbmQgOCAoZG9ua2V5KS4gQmFzZWQgb24gdGhlIGNoYXJ0IChhbmQsIG9mIGNvdXJzZSwgd2hhdCB5b3Uga25vdyBhYm91dCBhbmltYWxzKSwgd2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHRoZSBuZXh0IGNsb3Nlc3QgcmVsYXRpdmUgb2YgdGhlIGhvcnNlIGFuZCB0aGUgZG9ua2V5Pw==[Qq]

[c]IHdo YWxl[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlIGRvbmtleSBhbmQgaG9yc2UsIGJhc2VkIG9uIGN5dG9jaHJvbWUgYyAoYW5kLCBvZiBjb3Vyc2UsIHlvdXIgcHJpb3Iga25vd2xlZGdlKSBhcmUgdGhlIG1vc3QgY2xvc2VseSByZWxhdGVkIHNwZWNpZXMuIFRoZSBuZXh0IGlzIHRoZSB3aGFsZSAod2l0aCA1IGRpZmZlcmVuY2VzIGZyb20gdGhlIGhvcnNlLCBhbmQgNCBmcm9tIHRoZSBkb25rZXkpLg==[Qq]

[c]IHBlbmd1aW4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFydCBieSBub3RpbmcgdGhhdCBob3JzZXMgYW5kIGRvbmtleXMgaGF2ZSBvbmx5IG9uZSBkaWZmZXJlbmNlLCBzdWdnZXN0aW5nIHRoYXQgdGhleSBoYXZlIHRoZSBtb3N0IHJlY2VudCBjb21tb24gYW5jZXN0b3IuIFRoYXQgcHV0cyB0aGVtIGludG8gcG9zaXRpb25zIDkgKGhvcnNlKSBhbmQgOCAoZG9ua2V5KS4gQmFzZWQgb24gdGhlIGNoYXJ0IChhbmQsIG9mIGNvdXJzZSwgd2hhdCB5b3Uga25vdyBhYm91dCBhbmltYWxzKSwgd2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHRoZSBuZXh0IGNsb3Nlc3QgcmVsYXRpdmUgb2YgdGhlIGhvcnNlIGFuZCB0aGUgZG9ua2V5Pw==[Qq]

[c]IHNuYWtl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFydCBieSBub3RpbmcgdGhhdCBob3JzZXMgYW5kIGRvbmtleXMgaGF2ZSBvbmx5IG9uZSBkaWZmZXJlbmNlLCBzdWdnZXN0aW5nIHRoYXQgdGhleSBoYXZlIHRoZSBtb3N0IHJlY2VudCBjb21tb24gYW5jZXN0b3IuIFRoYXQgcHV0cyB0aGVtIGludG8gcG9zaXRpb25zIDkgKGhvcnNlKSBhbmQgOCAoZG9ua2V5KS4gQmFzZWQgb24gdGhlIGNoYXJ0IChhbmQsIG9mIGNvdXJzZSwgd2hhdCB5b3Uga25vdyBhYm91dCBhbmltYWxzKSwgd2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHRoZSBuZXh0IGNsb3Nlc3QgcmVsYXRpdmUgb2YgdGhlIGhvcnNlIGFuZCB0aGUgZG9ua2V5Pw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c5abd2cf3a38″ question_number=”27″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny”] The human phylogenetic tree below represents the relationship between different groups.
According to the tree, unique Neanderthal DNA is least likely to be found in which group?

[c]IEhhbg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOb3RlIHRoZSB2ZXJ0aWNhbCBsaW5lLCB3aGljaCBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgaW50ZXJicmVlZGluZyBiZXR3ZWVuIGdyb3Vwcy4gVGhlIE5lYW5kZXJ0aGFscyBpbnRlcmJyZWQgd2l0aCB0aGUgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdG9ycyBvZiB0aGUgSGFuLCBNZWxhbmVzaWFuLCBhbmQgRnJlbmNoLCBhbmQgdGhhdCB3b3VsZCBoYXZlIHByb3ZpZGVkIGEgd2F5IGZvciBOZWFuZGVydGhhbCBnZW5lcyB0byBmbG93IGludG8gdGhlIEhhbiBwb3B1bGF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]IEFmcm ljYW4=[Qq]

[f]IFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyByaWdodC4gVGhlIE5lYW5kZXJ0aGFscyBldm9sdmVkIGFmdGVyIHRoZWlyIHNwbGl0IGZyb20gdGhlIGxhc3QgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdG9yIHdpdGggdGhlIGdyb3VwIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkZXNpZ25hdGVkIGFzICYjODIyMDtBZnJpY2FuLiYjODIyMTsgRnVydGhlcm1vcmUsIHRoZXJlIHdhcyBubyBpbnRlcmJyZWVkaW5nIGJldHdlZW4gdGhlc2UgdHdvIGdyb3Vwcy4gQXMgYSByZXN1bHQsIGFueSB1bmlxdWUgTmVhbmRlcnRoYWwgRE5BIHNob3VsZCBub3QgYmUgcHJlc2VudCBpbiBBZnJpY2Fucy4=[Qq]

[c]IE1lbGFuZXNpYW4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOb3RlIHRoZSB2ZXJ0aWNhbCBsaW5lLCB3aGljaCBpbmRpY2F0ZXMgaW50ZXJicmVlZGluZyBiZXR3ZWVuIGdyb3Vwcy4gVGhlIE5lYW5kZXJ0aGFscyBpbnRlcmJyZWQgd2l0aCB0aGUgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdG9ycyBvZiB0aGUgSGFuLCBNZWxhbmVzaWFuLCBhbmQgRnJlbmNoLCBhbmQgdGhhdCB3b3VsZCBoYXZlIHByb3ZpZGVkIGEgd2F5IGZvciBOZWFuZGVydGhhbCBnZW5lcyB0byBmbG93IGludG8gdGhlIE1lbGFuZXNpYW4gcG9wdWxhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IERlbmlzb3Zh[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c588e61cde38″ question_number=”28″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny”] Cytochrome c is a protein found in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The amino acid sequence of this protein varies between species and can be used to determine evolutionary relationships. Scientists studied the number of differences in the amino acid sequences in cytochrome c between three species of chordate (A, B, and C). The results of the study are shown in the table below.

Species B Species C
Species A 11 3
Species B 0 10

Which of the following phylogenetic trees is most consistent with the results of the study?

[c]IG E=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIGN5dG9jaHJvbWUgYw==IGRhdGEgdGVsbHMgeW91IHRoYXQgc3BlY2llcyBhIGFuZCBjIGFyZSB0aGUgbW9zdCBjbG9zZWx5IHJlbGF0ZWQgKHNob3duIGJ5IHRoZSBmYWN0IHRoYXQgdGhlaXIgY3l0b2Nocm9tZSBjIHNlcXVlbmNlcyBkaWZmZXIgYnkgb25seSB0aHJlZSBhbWlubyBhY2lkcykuIEZyb20gdGhpcywgeW91IGNhbiBjb25jbHVkZSB0aGF0IHRoZXkgc2hhcmUgYSByZWNlbnQgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdG9yIGFuZCB0aGF0IGJvdGggYXJlIG1vcmUgZGlzdGFudGx5IHJlbGF0ZWQgdG8gc3BlY2llcyBiLg==[Qq]

[c]IGI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMb29rIGF0IHRoZSBkYXRhIHNldC4gV2hpY2ggb2YgdGhlIHR3byBzcGVjaWVzIGFyZSBtb3N0IGNsb3NlbHkgcmVsYXRlZD8gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgdHdvIHdpdGggdGhlIGxlYXN0IG51bWJlciBvZiBkaWZmZXJlbmNlcyBpbiB0aGVpciBjeXRvY2hyb21lIGMgc2VxdWVuY2UuIFVzZSB5b3VyIGFuc3dlciB0byB0aGF0IHF1ZXN0aW9uIGFzIGEgd2F5IHRvIGNob29zZSB0aGUgY29ycmVjdCBwaHlsb2dlbnku[Qq]

[c]IGM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMb29rIGF0IHRoZSBkYXRhIHNldC4gV2hpY2ggb2YgdGhlIHR3byBzcGVjaWVzIGFyZSBtb3N0IGNsb3NlbHkgcmVsYXRlZD8gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgdHdvIHdpdGggdGhlIGxlYXN0IG51bWJlciBvZiBkaWZmZXJlbmNlcyBpbiB0aGVpciBjeXRvY2hyb21lIGMgc2VxdWVuY2UuIFVzZSB5b3VyIGFuc3dlciB0byB0aGF0IHF1ZXN0aW9uIGFzIGEgd2F5IHRvIGNob29zZSB0aGUgY29ycmVjdCBwaHlsb2dlbnku[Qq]

[c]IGQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdHJlZSB5b3UmIzgyMTc7dmUgY2hvc2VuIHN1Z2dlc3RzIHRoYXQgc3BlY2llcyBhIGFuZCBiIGFyZSB0aGUgbW9zdCBjbG9zZWx5IHJlbGF0ZWQuIE5vdyBsb29rIGFnYWluIGF0IHRoZSBkYXRhIHNldC4gVGhlIHR3byBtb3N0IGNsb3NlbHkgcmVsYXRlZCBhcmUgdGhlIG9uZXMgd2l0aCB0aGUgbGVhc3QgbnVtYmVyIG9mIGRpZmZlcmVuY2VzIGluIHRoZWlyIGN5dG9jaHJvbWUgYyBzZXF1ZW5jZS4gVXNlIHRoYXQgdG8gY2hvb3NlIHRoZSBjb3JyZWN0IHBoeWxvZ2VueSB0aGUgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=[Qq]

 

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c563a55e9e38″ question_number=”29″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.9.Phylogeny”] The diagram below shows a simplified tree of life with three domains. The third domain is further subdivided into three kingdoms, one of which is the animal kingdom.

Label the numbered boxes in order from 1 to 4.

[c]IEFyY2hhZWEsIEJhY3RlcmlhLCBFdWthcnlvdGEsIEZ1bmdp[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcHJvYmxlbSB3aXRoIHlvdXIgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGlzIHRoYXQgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBzb21lIGV2aWRlbmNlIHRoYXQgRXVrYXJ5b3RlcyBhcmUgbW9yZSBjbG9zZWx5IHJlbGF0ZWQgdG8gdGhlIEFyY2hhZWEgdGhhbiB0byBCYWN0ZXJpYS4gRml0IHRoYXQgaW50byB5b3VyIHBoeWxvZ2VueSB0aGUgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IEFyY2hhZWEsIEJhY3RlcmlhLCBFdWthcnlvdGEsIFBsYW50YWU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgdHdvIHByb2JsZW1zIHdpdGggeW91ciBzZWxlY3Rpb24uIEZpcnN0LCB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGV2aWRlbmNlIHRoYXQgRXVrYXJ5b3RlcyBhcmUgbW9yZSBjbG9zZWx5IHJlbGF0ZWQgdG8gYXJjaGFlYSB0aGFuIGJhY3RlcmlhLiBTZWNvbmQsIHBsYW50cyBhcmUgbm90IHRoZSBldWthcnlvdGljIGtpbmdkb20gdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIG1vc3QgY2xvc2VseSByZWxhdGVkIHRvIGFuaW1hbHMuIFJhdGhlciwgd2UgYW5pbWFscyBhcmUgY2xvc2VyIGNvdXNpbnMgdG8gZnVuZ2kuIEZpdCB0aGF0IGludG8geW91ciBwaHlsb2dlbnkgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[c]IEJhY3RlcmlhLCBBcmNoYWVh LCBFdWthcnlvdGEsIEZ1bmdp[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gWW91ciBjaG9pY2UgYWNjb3JkcyB3aXRoIG91ciB1bmRlcnN0YW5kaW5nIHRoYXQgb2YgdGhlIHRocmVlIGRvbWFpbnMsIHRoZSBFdWthcnlvdGVzIGFyZSBtb3JlIGNsb3NlbHkgcmVsYXRlZCB0byB0aGUgYXJjaGFlYSB0aGFuIHRvIHRoZSBiYWN0ZXJpYTsgYW5kIHRoYXQgYW1vbmcgdGhlIGV1a2FyeW90aWMga2luZ2RvbXMsIHRoZSBvbmUgbW9zdCBjbG9zZWx5IHJlbGF0ZWQgdG8gYW5pbWFscyBpcyBmdW5naS4=[Qq]

[c]IEV1a2FyeW90YSwgQmFjdGVyaWEsIEFyY2hhZWEsIFBsYW50YWU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgYXQgbGVhc3QgdHdvIHByb2JsZW1zIHdpdGggeW91ciBzZWxlY3Rpb24uIEZpcnN0LCBpdCYjODIxNztzIHRob3VnaHQgdGhhdCBFdWthcnlvdGVzIGFyZSBtb3JlIGNsb3NlbHkgcmVsYXRlZCB0byBBcmNoYWVhbnMgdGhhbiB0byBiYWN0ZXJpYS4gU2Vjb25kLCB0aGUgYW5pbWFsIGtpbmdkb20gaXMgbW9yZSBjbG9zZWx5IHJlbGF0ZWQgdG8gZnVuZ2kgdGhhbiB0byBwbGFudHMuIEZpdCB0aGF0IGludG8geW91ciBwaHlsb2dlbnkgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c53e64a05e38″ question_number=”30″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.10.Speciation”] Great white sharks were once thought to be territorial, spending their entire lives near where they were born. Recent tagging studies, however, have shown that great whites are migratory. Sharks from Baja California (Mexico) migrate over 2000 kilometers to the seas between Hawaii and the California coast. Other tagged California sharks have been identified in Australian waters.

Which of the following is the most likely result of these migrations?

[c]IE1pZ3JhdGlvbiB3aWxsIG1haW50YWluIHRoZSBzcGVjaWVzIGFzIGEgc2luZ2xlIGdlbmUgcG9vbCwgYnV0IG9ubHkgaWYgdGhlcmUgaXMgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGZvciBzaGFya3Mgd2l0aCBhZGFwdGF0aW9ucyB0byB0aGUgbG9jYWwgZW52aXJvbm1lbnQgdG8gd2hpY2ggdGhleSBtaWdyYXRlLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSByaWdodCB0cmFjay4gVGhlIHNoYXJrcyYjODIxNzsgd29ybGR3aWRlIG1pZ3JhdGlvbiB3aWxsIHRlbmQgdG8ga2VlcCB0aGVtIGEgc2luZ2xlIHNwZWNpZXMuIEJ1dCB0aGUgc2Vjb25kIHN0YXRlbWVudCBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IG1lc2ggd2l0aCB0aGUgZmlyc3QsIGJlY2F1c2Ugc2VsZWN0aW9uIGZvciBzaGFya3Mgd2l0aCBhZGFwdGF0aW9ucyB0byBsb2NhbCBlbnZpcm9ubWVudHMgd291bGQgbW92ZSB0aGUgc2hhcmsgZ2VuZSBwb29sIGluIHRoZSBvcHBvc2l0ZSBkaXJlY3Rpb24sIHRvd2FyZCBsb2NhbCBkaWZmZXJlbnRpYXRpb24uIFNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpbmQgYSBjaG9pY2Ugd2hlcmUgdGhlIHR3byBldm9sdXRpb25hcnkgZm9yY2VzIHdvdWxkIGJlIGNvbnNpc3RlbnQgd2l0aCBvbmUgYW5vdGhlci4=[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBsb25nIG1pZ3JhdGlvbnMgd2lsbCBzdWJkaXZpZGUgdGhlIHNoYXJrJiM4MjE3O3MgZ2VuZSBwb29sLCBsZWFkaW5nIHRoZSBncmVhdCB3aGl0ZSB0byBicmVhayB1cCBpbnRvIGdlbmV0aWNhbGx5IGRpc3RpbmN0IHN1YnNwZWNpZXMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbG9uZyBtaWdyYXRpb24gd2lsbCB0ZW5kIHRvIHByZXZlbnQgdGhlIGdlbmUgcG9vbCBvZiB0aGUgc2hhcmtzIGZyb20gc3ViZGl2aWRpbmcuIEJ1dCB3aHkgd291bGQgdGhhdCBiZT8=[Qq]

[c]IE1pZ3JhdGlvbiB3aWxsIHRlbmQgdG8ga2VlcCB0aGUgd2hpdGUgc2hhcmtzIGEgc2luZ2xlIHdvcmxkd2lkZSBzcGVjaW VzLCBidXQgb25seSBpZiB0aGUgbWlncmF0aW5nIHNoYXJrcyBtYXRlIGF0IHRoZXNlIGRpc3RhbnQgbG9jYXRpb25zLg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIElmIHRoZSB3b3JsZHdpZGUgbWlncmF0aW9uIG9mIHRoZSBzaGFya3MgaXMgYWNjb21wYW5pZWQgYnkgaW50ZXJicmVlZGluZyB0aHJvdWdob3V0IHRoZWlyIHJhbmdlLCBhIHNpbmdsZSBnZW5lIHBvb2wgd2lsbCBiZSBtYWludGFpbmVkLg==[Qq]

[c]IExvbmcgbWlncmF0aW9ucywgYWNjb21wYW5pZWQgYnkgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGZvciBncmVhdGVyIGFiaWxpdHkgdG8gc3dpbSBsb25nIGRpc3RhbmNlcywgd2lsbCBsZWFkIHRvIGdlbmV0aWMgZnJhZ21lbnRhdGlvbiBhbmQgdGhlIHByb2JhYmxlIGZvcm1hdGlvbiBvZiBzZXZlcmFsIGRhdWdodGVyIHNwZWNpZXMgd2l0aGluIHRoZSBuZXh0IGZldyB0aG91c2FuZCB5ZWFycy4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbG9uZyBtaWdyYXRpb24gd2lsbCB0ZW5kIHRvIGtlZXAgdGhlIGdlbmUgcG9vbCBvZiB0aGUgc2hhcmtzIGZyb20gc3ViZGl2aWRpbmcuIEJ1dCB3aHkgd291bGQgdGhhdCBiZT8=

Cg==

Cg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c5068382fe38″ question_number=”31″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.10.Speciation”] Entomologists thought that two populations of insects were different species. Recent studies suggest that these populations are the same species. Which of the following observations best indicates that the two populations of insects are the same species?

[c]IFRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9ucyBhcmUgcGh5c2ljYWxseSBzaW1pbGFyLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQaHlzaWNhbCBzaW1pbGFyaXR5LCBvbiBpdHMgb3duLCBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IGVuc3VyZSB0aGF0IGRpZmZlcmVudCBwb3B1bGF0aW9ucyBhcmUgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgc2FtZSBzcGVjaWVzLiBUaGluayBhYm91dCB3aGF0IGRlZmluZXMgYSBzcGVjaWVzLCBhbmQgbWFrZSBhIGRpZmZlcmVudCBjaG9pY2UgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9ucyBvY2N1cHkgdGhlIHNhbWUgaGFiaXRhdC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCZWluZyBpbiB0aGUgc2FtZSBoYWJpdGF0IGRvZXNuJiM4MjE3O3QgZW5zdXJlIHRoYXQgZGlmZmVyZW50IHBvcHVsYXRpb25zIGFyZSBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBzYW1lIHNwZWNpZXMuIFRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHdoYXQgZGVmaW5lcyBhIHNwZWNpZXMsIGFuZCBtYWtlIGEgZGlmZmVyZW50IGNob2ljZSB0aGUgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9ucyBjYW4gaW 50ZXJicmVlZCBpbiB0aGUgd2lsZC4=[Qq]

[f]IEFic29sdXRlbHkuIFRoZSBiaW9sb2dpY2FsIHNwZWNpZXMgY29uY2VwdCBkZWZpbmVzIGEgc3BlY2llcyBhcyBhIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gb2Ygb3JnYW5pc21zIHRoYXQgY2FuIGludGVyYnJlZWQgaW4gdGhlIHdpbGQsIGFuZCB3aGljaCBpcyByZXByb2R1Y3RpdmVseSBpc29sYXRlZCBmcm9tIG90aGVyIHN1Y2ggZ3JvdXBzLg==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBwb3B1bGF0aW9ucyBhcmUgc2VwYXJhdGVkIGJ5IGEgZ2VvbG9naWNhbCBiYXJyaWVy[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHZW9ncmFwaGljIGJhcnJpZXJzIGNhbiBiZSBhbiBpbXBvcnRhbnQgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiBwcm9jZXNzLCBidXQgc2VwYXJhdGlvbiBieSBhIGdlb2dyYXBoaWMgYmFycmllciB3b3VsZG4mIzgyMTc7dCBlbnN1cmUgdGhhdCBkaWZmZXJlbnQgcG9wdWxhdGlvbnMgYXJlIHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIHNhbWUgc3BlY2llcy4gVGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgd2hhdCBkZWZpbmVzIGEgc3BlY2llcywgYW5kIG1ha2UgYSBkaWZmZXJlbnQgY2hvaWNlIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c4c9fa4dd638″ question_number=”32″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.10.Speciation”] The diagram below represents a type of evolution. Which of the following conclusions is most consistent with the diagram?

[c]IFNwZWNpZXMgUSBhbmQgUiBhcmUgYW4gZXhhbXBsZSBvZiBwYXJhbGxlbCBldm9sdXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbiBleGFtcGxlIG9mIHBhcmFsbGVsIGV2b2x1dGlvbiB3b3VsZCBiZSB0aGUgZW1lcmdlbmNlIGFtb25nIEF1c3RyYWxpYW4gbWFyc3VwaWFsIG1hbW1hbHMgYW5kIE5vcnRoIEFtZXJpY2FuIHBsYWNlbnRhbCBtYW1tYWxzIG9mIGEgdmFyaWV0eSBvZiBzcGVjaWVzIG9jY3VweWluZyBzaW1pbGFyIGVjb2xvZ2ljYWwgbmljaGVzIGFuZCBwb3NzZXNzaW5nIGNvcnJlc3BvbmRpbmdseSBzaW1pbGFyIGFkYXB0YXRpb25zLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBwaWN0dXJlIHRvIGlsbHVzdHJhdGUu

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]In what’s shown above you see one ancestral species (P) branching into two descendants (Q and R). How would that occur?

[c]IFNwZWNpZXMgUSBhbmQgUiBhcmUgYW4gZXhhbXBsZSBvZiBjb252ZXJnZW50IGV2b2x1dGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDb252ZXJnZW50IGV2b2x1dGlvbiBpcyB3aGVuIHR3byB1bnJlbGF0ZWQgbGluZWFnZXMgaW5kZXBlbmRlbnRseSBjb252ZXJnZSBvbiBhIHNpbWlsYXIgYWRhcHRhdGlvbiwgc3VjaCBhcyB0aGUgc3RyZWFtbGluZWQgc2hhcGUgc2hhcmVkIGJ5IHNoYXJrcyBhbmQgZG9scGhpbnMu

Cg==Cg==Cg==Cg==
[Qq]

In what’s shown above you see one ancestral species (P) branching into two descendants (Q and R). How would that occur?

[c]IFNwZWNpZXMgUSBhbmQgUiBhcmUgYW4gZXhhbX BsZSBvZiBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gV2hpbGUgdGhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBubyBldmlkZW5jZSBhcyB0byA=aG93IFEgYW5kIFIgZW1lcmdlZCBmcm9tIFAsIGl0JiM4MjE3O3MgY2xlYXIgZnJvbSB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSB0aGF0IHNwZWNpZXMgUCBzcGxpdCBpbnRvIHR3byBkZXNjZW5kYW50IHNwZWNpZXMsIGFuZCBhbGxvcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gY291bGQgaGF2ZSBiZWVuIHRoZSBtZWNoYW5pc20gYmVoaW5kIHRoYXQu[Qq]

[c]IFNwZWNpZXMgUiBhcHBlYXJzIGVhcmxpZXIgaW4gdGhlIGZvc3NpbCByZWNvcmQgdGhhbiBzcGVjaWVzIFAu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgdXB3YXJkIGFycm93IGluZGljYXRlcyB0aW1lLCBhbmQgUCBleGlzdGVkIGJlZm9yZSBlaXRoZXIgb2YgaXRzIGRhdWdodGVyIHNwZWNpZXMsIFEgb3IgUi4gQXMgYSByZXN1bHQsIGZvc3NpbHMgb2Ygc3BlY2llcyBQIHdvdWxkIGhhdmUgdG8gYmUgZWFybGllciBpbiB0aGUgZm9zc2lsIHJlY29yZCB0aGFuIGZvc3NpbHMgb2Ygc3BlY2llcyBSLg==

Cg==

SGVyZSYjODIxNztzIHRoZSB0aGluZyB0byBmb2N1cyBvbi4gSW4gd2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHNob3duIGFib3ZlIHlvdSBzZWUgb25lIGFuY2VzdHJhbCBzcGVjaWVzIChQKSBicmFuY2hpbmcgaW50byB0d28gZGVzY2VuZGFudHMgKFEgYW5kIFIpLiBIb3cgd291bGQgdGhhdCBvY2N1cj8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c4a70d9b7a38″ question_number=”33″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.10.Speciation”] The climate in Australia has become more arid in the last million years. This change in climate is causing decreased forest and woodland areas. Scientists collected data on the mitochondrial DNA in distinct species of spiders from various Australian forests. The data suggest that all of these species of spiders evolved from a common ancestor that lived approximately one million years ago. Which of the following evolutionary mechanisms best explains the Australian spider study results?

[c]IGdlbmUgZmxvdw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHZW5lIGZsb3cgbWVhbnMgYW4gaW5mbHV4IG9mIGdlbmVzIGZyb20gb25lIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gaW50byBhIG5laWdoYm9yaW5nIHBvcHVsYXRpb24uIEl0JiM4MjE3O3Mgbm90IGEgbWVjaGFuaXNtIHRoYXQgd291bGQgbGVhZCB0byB0aGUgZW1lcmdlbmNlIG9mIHNldmVyYWwgZGlzdGluY3Qgc3BlY2llcyBmcm9tIGEgY29tbW9uIGFuY2VzdG9yLg==[Qq]

[c]IFNleHVhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTZXh1YWwgc2VsZWN0aW9uIGNhbiBsZWFkIHRvIGRpZmZlcmVuY2VzIGJldHdlZW4gbWFsZXMgYW5kIGZlbWFsZXMgd2l0aGluIGEgc3BlY2llcywgYnV0IGl0IHdvdWxkbiYjODIxNzt0IGFjY291bnQgZm9yIHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkZXNjcmliZWQgYWJvdmUu[Qq]

[c]IGNvbnZlcmdlbnQgZXZvbHV0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDb252ZXJnZW50IGV2b2x1dGlvbiB3b3VsZCBleHBsYWluIHdoeSBzcGlkZXJzIGluIGRpZmZlcmVudCBwYXJ0cyBvZiBBdXN0cmFsaWEsIG9jY3VweWluZyBzaW1pbGFyIGhhYml0YXRzIGFuZCBuaWNoZXMsIG1pZ2h0IGV2b2x2ZSBzaW1pbGFyIGFwcGVhcmFuY2VzIG9yIGJlaGF2aW9ycy4gQnV0IGl0IHdvdWxkbiYjODIxNzt0IGFjY291bnQgZm9yIHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkZXNjcmliZWQgYWJvdmUu[Qq]

[c]IGFsbG9wYXRyaWMg c3BlY2lhdGlvbg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c40666670638″ question_number=”34″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.10.Speciation”] Which of the following examples best represents sympatric speciation?

[c]IFdpbmcgZXZvbHV0aW9uIGluIGJhdHMgYW5kIGJpcmRz[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYW4gZXhhbXBsZSBvZiBjb252ZXJnZW50IGV2b2x1dGlvbiBsZWFkaW5nIHRvIGFuYWxvZ291cyBmZWF0dXJlcy4gRm9yIHN5bXBhdHJpYyBzcGVjaWF0aW9uLCB0cnkgdG8gZmluZCBhbiBleGFtcGxlIG9mIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gdGhhdCBkb2VzbiYjODIxNzt0IGludm9sdmUgZ2VvZ3JhcGhpY2FsIHNlcGFyYXRpb24u[Qq]

[c]IE9yaWdpbiBvZiBhIG5ldyBzcGVjaWVzIGFtb2 5nIHdhc3BzIHRoYXQgcG9sbGluYXRlIGZpZ3Mu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gU3ltcGF0cmljIHNwZWNpYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgc3BlY2lhdGlvbiB0aGF0IG9jY3VycyB3aXRob3V0IGdlb2dyYXBoaWMgc2VwYXJhdGlvbi4gSGVyZSwgc29tZSBmYWN0b3IgaXMgY2F1c2luZyBncm91cHMgb2Ygd2FzcHMgdG8gc2VwYXJhdGVseSBldm9sdmUsIGJ1dCB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIG5vIHJpdmVyLCBtb3VudGFpbiByYW5nZSwgb3Igb2NlYW4gc2VwYXJhdGluZyB0aGUgcG9wdWxhdGlvbnMu[Qq]

[c]IE9yaWdpbiBvZiBhIG5ldyBzcGVjaWVzIGFtb25nIHNxdWlycmVscyB0aGF0IGFyZSBzZXBhcmF0ZWQgYnkgYSB3aWRlIHJpdmVyLg==[Qq]

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[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative MC Dataset|4c373b779ea38″ question_number=”35″ unit=”7.Evolution” topic=”7.13.Origin_of_Life”] Earth’s atmosphere today is significantly different than the atmosphere on the early Earth, four billion years ago. Which of the following gases is present in today’s atmosphere but was not present in early Earth’s atmosphere?

[c]IEg=Mg==IA==[Qq][c]IE 8=Mg==IA==[Qq][c]IENINA==IA==[Qq][c]IEg=Mg==TyA=[Qq][c]IE5IMw==

Cg==[Qq]

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[x]
[restart]

[/qwiz]

4. Unit 7 Practice FRQs

[qwiz style=”width: 650px !important; min-height: 450px !important;” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 7 Practice FRQs” dataset=”Unit 7 Cumulative FRQ Dataset”]

[h] Unit 7 Practice FRQs

[i]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”false” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative FRQ Dataset|4c0f5c2bfe238″ question_number=”1″ topic=”7.1-7.3_Natural_Selection”] In selective breeding, humans look for variation between members of the same species and use this variation to bring about a desired trait.

PART 1: Describe two different causes of variation.

PART 2: Describe two negative consequences of selective breeding.

PART 3: The wild ancestor of the domestic chicken is the red jungle fowl found in the rainforests of Southeast Asia. Explain why it is important to preserve the population of the red jungle fowl.

[c]IFNob3cgdGhl IGFuc3dlcg==[Qq]

[f]IFBBUlQgMTo=IFZhcmlhdGlvbiBjYW4gYmUgZ2VuZXRpYywgcmVzdWx0aW5nIGZyb20gbXV0YXRpb24gb3IgcmVjb21iaW5hdGlvbiBkdXJpbmcgbWVpb3NpcyBhbmQgZmVydGlsaXphdGlvbi4gVmFyaWF0aW9uIGNhbiBhbHNvIGJlIGNhdXNlZCBieSBmYWN0b3JzIGluIHRoZSBlbnZpcm9ubWVudC4=

Cg==

UEFSVCAyOg==[Qq] Selective breeding can lead to increased susceptibility to genetic disorders by increasing the frequency of harmful alleles within a population’s gene pool. Also, by decreasing diversity, selective breeding can increase susceptibility to infectious disease by creating a single, uniform target for parasites.

PART 3: Preserving the ancestral population is a way of maintaining a source of biodiversity from a population that has not been subjected to artificial selection.

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”false” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative FRQ Dataset|4c0e32260c238″ question_number=”2″ topic=”7.1-7.3_Natural_Selection”] In 1959, Russian scientist Dmitri K. Belyaev began a long-term experiment to investigate the genetic basis of the tame behavior that can be observed in dogs and other domesticated animals. Belyaev’s experimental subject was the silver fox. Over the course of the experiment, which ran for decades, foxes were bred together and the resulting pups were assessed each month between the ages of 1 and 8 months to see how tame they were.

The following system was used to categorize the foxes based on their tameness

  • Class 3: Not tame – These foxes flee from or bite their handlers.
  • Class 2: Neutral – These foxes allow handling, but show no friendly response.
  • Class 1: Tame – These foxes are friendly toward humans. They whine for attention and wag their tails.
  • Elite/Very tame – These foxes are eager for human contact. Their behavior includes everything listed above for tame foxes, plus sniffing and licking their handlers’ hands, and whimpering to attract attention

To breed the next generation, Belyaev selected the tamest 5% of the male foxes and the tamest 20% of the female foxes. His institute repeated this process for over forty generations. The results are shown in the table below.

Number of generations Foxes in the elite class (%)
10 18
20 35
35 75

PART 1: List the name of the process used by Belyaev, and discuss the biological basis for the changes he was able to produce.

PART 2: Explain why only 5% of the male foxes were allowed to breed, while 20% of the female foxes were chosen.

[c]IFNob3cgdGhl IGFuc3dlcg==[Qq]
[f]IFBBUlQgMTo=IFRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzIGlzIA==YXJ0aWZpY2lhbCBzZWxlY3Rpb24=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

Cg==

[Qq]Note from Mr. W: Give yourself extra credit if you mentioned the possible role of dopamine receptors (with lower levels of dopamine reception correlated with lowered anxiety).

PART 2: Fewer males were used because males can father many offspring, while females produce relatively few offspring. Using a small number of males allows for increased selection pressure. At the same time, there could be genetic problems if the breeding population is too small, so using more females than males allows for the maintenance of adequate genetic diversity.

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”false” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative FRQ Dataset|4c0c4ddc62e38″ question_number=”3″ topic=”7.1-7.3_Natural_Selection”] The following facts can be used in interpreting the graph shown below.

* Concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) can be used as a general indicator of air pollution.
* Air pollution can cause tree trunks in forests to darken through two mechanisms: by depositing dark soot on tree trunks, and by killing lichens (light-colored growths) on tree trunks.
* In certain moth species, a single allele controls color, which can range from light (peppered) to melanistic (dark).
* Certain moth species are most active at night and spend their days resting on tree trunks.
* Birds prey on moths.

The graph above shows sulfur dioxide concentrations in New England between about 1960 and 1980, after which they remained at 1980 levels. The graph also shows the percentage of dark-colored (melanistic) moths found in New England forests from 1960 to 2010.

Explain the relationship (if any) between the SO2 levels shown in the graph and the changing percentage of melanistic moths.

[c]IFNob3cgdGhl IGFuc3dlcg==[Qq]

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Cg==

V2hlbiBlbnZpcm9ubWVudGFsIHJlZ3VsYXRpb25zIGluc3RpdHV0ZWQgaW4gdGhlIDE5NzBzIGNhdXNlZCBhaXIgcG9sbHV0aW9uIGxldmVscyB0byBkcm9wLCB0aGUgdHJlZSB0cnVua3MgYmVjYW1lIGxpZ2h0ZXIgaW4gY29sb3IgKGJlY2F1c2Ugb2YgbGVzcyBzb290IGFuZCBtb3JlIGxpY2hlbiBncm93dGgpLiBJbiB0aGlzIGNvbnRleHQsIHRoZSBsaWdodC1jb2xvcmVkIG1vdGhzIHN0YXJ0ZWQgdG8gaGF2ZSBhIHN1cnZpdmFsIGFkdmFudGFnZSBhbmQgcGFzc2VkIG9uIHRoZWlyIGFsbGVsZSBmb3IgbGlnaHQgY29sb3JhdGlvbiAod2hpbGUgdGhlIGJpcmRzIHNlbGVjdGVkIGFnYWluc3QgdGhlIGRhcmstY29sb3JlZCBwaGVub3R5cGUpLiBUaGlzIGNhdXNlZCB0aGUgbWVsYW5pc3RpYyBtb3RoIHBvcHVsYXRpb24gdG8gZHJvcCB0byBpdHMgY3VycmVudCBsZXZlbC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”false” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative FRQ Dataset|4c0ab41436238″ question_number=”4″ topic=”7.1-7.3_Natural_Selection”] The graph below displays the results of an experiment in artificial selection that used fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. During the first 25 generations, the smallest flies were selected to produce the next generation. The process was reversed for generations 25 through 35, the largest flies were selected to produce the next generation.

Explain why no further increase in body size was observed after generation 25, despite selection for larger size.

[c]IFNob3cgdGhl IGFuc3dlcg==[Qq]

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Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”false” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative FRQ Dataset|4c06567deaa38″ question_number=”5″ topic=”7.10.Speciation”] For the past 40 years, the London Zoo has been working to prevent British insects from extinction through a program that involves captive breeding, followed by re-release into the environment. An example of this program involves the field cricket (Gryllus campestris). The males of this species dig burrows in the ground, making distinctive platforms at the entrance where they stand and “sing” to attract females for mating. Their song has a distinctive pitch and rhythm. By 1991, this cricket population was reduced to only 30 individuals.

In 1992, biologists captured twelve field crickets, six male and six female. Their population was increased to over 4000 through captive breeding under controlled laboratory conditions. The 4000 crickets were released at carefully chosen spots in southern England. Each spot was within the cricket’s original range. As of 2010, there were six self-sustaining colonies, shown in the map below. Note that although field crickets have long wings, they can only use these wings to assist their hopping, and can’t fly long distances.

PART 1: The biologists made an effort to keep conditions constant in the laboratories where the crickets were being bred. Explain how this decision might have affected diversity within the population of the field crickets.

PART 2: The biologists predicted that the newly established colonies will be geographically isolated from one another. Define “geographic isolation” and give two reasons to support the prediction.

PART 3: Carry out this thought experiment. Suppose that the newly established colonies are left to breed for hundreds of years. After that time period, six males from colony 1 and six females from colony 2 are collected. They’re placed together in a laboratory environment that is conducive to cricket mating. However, the biologists observe that no mating takes place. Propose an explanation for the lack of mating between these crickets.

PART 4: Predict how the genetic diversity in the re-established populations of this species could affect its long-term survival.

[c]IFNob3cgdGhl IGFuc3dlcg==[Qq]

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Cg==

UEFSVCAyOg==[Qq] Geographic isolation occurs when sub-populations of a species become physically isolated from one another, preventing alleles from flowing between these sub-populations through interbreeding. The cricket colonies are 10 – 15 km apart and they do not fly. Second, the habitat in between is not the acidic grassland that these crickets require, so there would be no chance of them moving across the land.

PART 3: The two populations have diverged and have become reproductively isolated from one another. That is, they’ve become separate species. It’s impossible to tell from the description whether this isolation is pre or post-zygotic.

PART 4: Genetic diversity in the populations is low because the breeding program had so few animals to work with. This is not desirable as any change in the environment could leave the crickets without the necessary genetic diversity and phenotypic variation to adapt to the change.

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”false” unit=”7.Evolution” dataset_id=”Unit 7 Cumulative FRQ Dataset|4bfd064e5aa38″ question_number=”6″ topic=”7.13_Origin_of_Life”] The “RNA World Hypothesis” posits that RNA is the most likely candidate for the being the first molecule with some of the essential properties of living things. Explain why this is thought to be so.

[c]IFNob3cgdGhl IGFuc3dlcg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]
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[restart]
[/qwiz]

5. Evolution Click-On Challenge

[qwiz style=”width: 650px !important; min-height: 450px !important;” use_dataset=”Evolution Click-On Challenge Dataset” quiz_timer=”true” random=”false” dataset_intro=”false” spaced_repetition=”false” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 7 Evolution Click-on Challenge”]

[h] Evolution Click-On Challenge

[i] Note the timer in the top right. Your goal is accuracy and speed. A good strategy: once through slowly, then additional trials for improvement.

 

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]

6. Origin of LIfe Click-On Challenge

[qwiz style=”width: 650px !important; min-height: 450px !important;” use_dataset=”Origin of Life Click-On Challenge” quiz_timer=”true” random=”true” dataset_intro=”false” spaced_repetition=”false” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 7 Origin of Life Cumulative Challenge”]

[h] Origin of Life Click-on Challenge

[i]Same advice as above. Once through slowly, then improve your speed.

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]