1. Unit 3 Learning Objectives

Topics 3.1 to 3.3: Enzymes

  1. Describe the key properties and function of enzymes. Include the nature and basis of enzyme specificity.
  2. Explain how changes in an enzyme’s shape affect the enzyme’s function. Connect this explanation to the idea of denaturation, and distinguish between reversible and irreversible denaturation.
  3. Explain the effect of moderate and extreme changes in temperature on enzyme activity
  4. Explain the effect of changes in pH or ion concentration on enzyme activity.
  5. Explain the effects of enzyme and substrate concentration on enzyme activity
  6. Explain the role of competitive and non-competitive inhibitors on enzyme activity
  7. Explain how cells can regulate enzyme activity through feedback inhibition and allosteric regulation.

Topic 3.4: Cell Energy

  1. Explain how living things create and maintain their complex order.
  2. Describe the energy input/output balance required for life to be maintained.
  3. Using the terms endergonic and exergonic, describe energy coupling.
  4. Describe the structure of ATP.
  5. Describe some common coupled reactions.
  6. Describe the ATP/ADP cycle.

Topic 3.5: Photosynthesis

  1. Describe the cellular location of the reactions of photosynthesis
  2. Describe key evolutionary milestones in the evolution of photosynthesis
  3. Explain the light reactions of photosynthesis
  4. Explain the key reactions of the Calvin cycle.

Topic 3.6: Cellular Respiration

  1. Explain the overall pathway of aerobic cellular respiration
  2. Explain what happens during glycolysis
  3. Explain what happens during the link reaction
  4. Explain the key reactions of the Krebs cycle
  5. Explain the roles of  NADH and FADH2 in cellular respiration
  6. Describe what happens in chemiosmosis
  7. Explain the role of oxygen in the electron transport chain.
  8. Compare and contrast lactic acid and alcohol fermentation.
  9. Connect the structure of the mitochondrion to the key processes of aerobic respiration
  10. Explain how the pathways of cellular respiration can be used for thermoregulation

2. Unit 3 Flashcards

[qdeck style=”min-height: 450px !important; width: 550px !important;” bold_text=”false” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 3 Flashcards” dataset=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0″]

[h] Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards

[i]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e06fa5c91bb65″ question_number=”1″ topic=”3.1-3.Enzymes”] Describe the key properties shared by all enzymes.

[a] Enzymes are large molecules (usually proteins, but sometimes RNAs) that catalyze reactions in cells. They act to lower the activation energy of the reactions that they catalyze, greatly increasing the rate of these reactions. Enzymes are specific, and their specificity derives from the fact that they have an active site that has a shape and charge that complements the shape and charge of their substrate (the substance that an enzyme acts upon).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e06e0c00eef65″ question_number=”2″ topic=”3.1-3.Enzymes”] Unlike inorganic catalysts, enzymes are both highly specific, and tend to have a narrow set of conditions where they can function at or near their optimum. Explain.

[a] Enzymes are proteins. Their shape involves secondary, tertiary, and quaternary level interactions, including hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic clustering. Changes in pH, temperature, or ion concentration interfere with these bonds, changing the shape of the active site, which can keep the enzyme from binding with its substrate. As a result, most enzymes have a pH, ionic, or temperature optimum at which the shape of their active site best fits their substrate. Changing this optimum causes denaturation: a change in the shape that lowers (or completely negates) the enzyme’s function.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e06c4cf803f65″ question_number=”3″ topic=”3.1-3.Enzymes”] Describe how enzyme activity is affected by changes in the pH of its environment. Include the concept of “denaturation” in your answer, and draw a sketch of the relation between pH and enzyme activity.

[a] Most enzymes have a pH optimum where they operate at peak efficiency. As the pH moves above or below the optimum, enzyme performance drops. A graph of enzyme efficiency plotted against pH shows a peak at the optimum, and then a drop-off at either side as the enzyme becomes denatured.

 

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.1-3.Enzymes” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e06a436d9c765″ question_number=”4″] Describe how enzyme activity is affected by changes in the temperature of enzyme’s environment. Include the concept of “denaturation” in your answer, and draw a sketch showing the relationship between temperature and enzyme activity.

[a] Up to a certain point, enzyme activity increases with temperature, because more kinetic energy increases molecular motion and increases the chance that the enzyme will bind with its substrate(s). At a certain temperature (beyond 2 in the graph), the enzyme denatures, reducing the enzyme’s catalytic abilities.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e0685f23f3365″ question_number=”5″ topic=”3.1-3.Enzymes”] What’s the difference between reversible and irreversible enzyme denaturation?

[a] In reversible denaturation, restoration of optimal conditions will restore the enzyme’s function as it regains its optimal shape. In irreversible denaturation, the enzyme’s shape is permanently changed, and its catalytic ability is destroyed.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e06655998bb65″ question_number=”6″ topic=”3.1-3.Enzymes”] Explain how enzyme activity is affected by substrate concentration.

[a] At low substrate concentrations, the probability of the enzyme meeting the substrate to catalyze the reaction is low, and the product will be produced at a low rate. As substrate concentration increases, the collision and the reaction rate will increase. Eventually, the saturation point is reached, and the reaction will reach a maximum rate.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e064714fe2765″ question_number=”7″ topic=”3.1-3.Enzymes”] Compare and contrast competitive and noncompetitive inhibition.

[a] In competitive inhibition (b), a “foreign” molecule (4) that’s not the enzyme’s substrate (1) blocks the enzyme’s active site (2). This keeps the substrate from binding, inhibiting the rate of the reaction. In non-competitive inhibition, a molecule  (6) binds away from the active site at a region called the allosteric site (5). Binding at the allosteric site has a ripple effect throughout the protein, causing a change in the shape of the active site which diminishes or blocks enzyme activity.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.1-3.Enzymes” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e0628d0639365″ question_number=”8″]Explain how cells can regulate enzyme activity through allosteric regulation.

[a]

In allosteric inhibition, a regulatory molecule (“4”) binds with an enzyme at an allosteric site. This changes the shape of the enzyme so that it can no longer bind with its substrate (5), turning the enzyme’s catalytic ability off.

In allosteric activation, a regulatory molecule (“7”) binds at an allosteric site. This has the effect of changing the enzyme’s active site so that it can bind with its substrate, turning the enzyme’s catalytic ability on.

[!]3.4.Cellular Energy[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e05e79f16a365″ question_number=”9″ topic=”3.4.Cell_Energy”] Explain why energy is essential to life.

[a] Living things are complex, highly organized systems. To generate and maintain that complexity, organisms require a constant flow of energy.

[q json=”true” unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.4.Cell_Energy” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e05c00a4c7f65″ question_number=”10″] What is a metabolic pathway?

[a] A metabolic pathway is a linked series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions occurring within a cell. The reactants, products, and intermediates of an enzymatic reaction are known as metabolites.

[q json=”true” unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.4.Cell_Energy” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e05424fca6765″ question_number=”11″] What’s the difference between an exergonic reaction and an endergonic reaction.

[a] Exergonic reactions  (1) release energy and increase entropy. Examples include cellular respiration and most hydrolysis reactions. Endergonic reactions (2) require energy and decrease entropy. Examples include photosynthesis or almost any dehydration synthesis reaction.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e051f63180b65″ question_number=”12″ topic=”3.4.Cell_Energy”] Explain how energy capture and use are organized in living systems. List some examples.

[a] Living things channel flows of free energy into metabolic pathways. Within these metabolic pathways, energy is harvested or expended in many small, connected steps in which the product of one reaction becomes the reactant for the next reaction.

Specific examples of these metabolic pathways include the reactions of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, the electron transport chains of cellular respiration, the light reactions of photosynthesis, and the Calvin Cycle.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.4.Cell_Energy” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e05011e7d7765″ question_number=”13″] Describe the structure and function of ATP.

[a] ATP consists of the 5-carbon sugar ribose (1), the nitrogenous base adenine (2), and 3 phosphate groups (3). ATP is used to power work within cells. Every cell makes its own ATP, and there’s no sharing of ATP between cells.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.4.Cell_Energy” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e04e085d6ff65″ question_number=”14″] Describe how ATP can be used to store and release energy.

[a] For temporary storage of energy, cells take energy from food (during cellular respiration) or light (during photosynthesis) and use it to make ATP from ADP and Pi. To release energy to perform cellular work, cells remove a phosphate group from ATP, creating ADP and Pi.

Note that in bacteria and archaea, other energy sources are used, but that’s beyond the scope of an AP Bio course.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.4.Cell_Energy” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e04c495484f65″ question_number=”15″] What is energy coupling?

[a]Energy coupling involves linking an exergonic reaction to an endergonic one (which provides the energy to drive the endergonic reaction forward). For example, cellular respiration (which is exergonic) drives the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi (which is endergonic). The exergonic conversion of ATP and ADP and Pi is coupled to endergonic processes such as muscle contraction or dehydration synthesis reactions.

 

[!]3.5.Photosynthesis[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e04a3fca1d765″ question_number=”16″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] Connect the structure of chloroplasts to the reactions of photosynthesis.

[a]  Chloroplasts have internal membrane-bound sacs called thylakoids (4) which contain the membrane-bound photosystems and chlorophyll pigments for the light reactions of photosynthesis. The thylakoids are organized into stacks called grana. Surrounding the grana is a fluid called stroma (6) which is where the carbon-fixing reactions of the Calvin cycle occur.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e04880c132765″ question_number=”17″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] On a big picture level, what happens during photosynthesis?

[a] During photosynthesis, free energy from light is coupled to the endergonic synthesis of organic compounds. In the type of photosynthesis that happens in plants, algae, and Cyanobacteria, carbon dioxide is combined with water to create carbohydrates, with oxygen released as a byproduct. As a redox reaction, photosynthesis oxidizes water and reduces carbon dioxide.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e0469c7789365″ question_number=”18″] When did photosynthesis first evolve?

[a] Photosynthesis evolved relatively early in the history of life — as early as 3.5 billion years ago. There is fossil evidence of microscopic cells that look like modern Cyanobacteria (photosynthetic bacteria), and which have left chemical traces indicating that they were converting carbon dioxide into organic matter.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e044dd6e9e365″ question_number=”19″] What’s the chemical equation for photosynthesis? Is this reaction endergonic or exergonic?

[a] The chemical equation for photosynthesis is

6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy –> C6H12O6 + 6O2

The reaction is endergonic. It takes two low-energy inputs (CO2 and  H2O) and converts them into a high-energy product (glucose, C6H12O6). It also reduces entropy: 12 molecules on the reactant side are organized into 7 molecules on the product side.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e042f924f4f65″ question_number=”20″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] The evolution of photosynthesis had Earth-changing consequences. What were they?

[a] The first photosynthesizers (cyanobacteria) transformed the Earth by releasing free oxygen (O2) into the environment. The availability of oxygen set the stage for aerobic metabolism. Photosynthesis is also responsible for the formation of Earth’s oxygen-rich atmosphere, which led to the ozone layer that made life on land possible (starting about 400 million years ago).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e04114db4bb65″ question_number=”21″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] Where do the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur? What do these reactions produce?

[a] The light-dependent reactions convert the energy in light into the chemical energy of NADPH and ATP. These reactions occur in two photosystems that are located in the thylakoid membranes within chloroplasts (and similar structures in Cyanobacteria). Water supplies the electrons for the reduction of NADP+ into NADPH, and oxygen is a waste product.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e03f55d260b65″ question_number=”22″] Describe the energy transformations involved in photosynthesis.

[a] Photosynthesis starts with the conversion of light energy into a flow of electrons. This flow of electrons powers the creation of ATP from ADP and Pi, and the reduction of NADPH from NADP+. Then, in the Calvin Cycle, the chemical energy in ATP and NADPH is used to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates. So, light energy is transformed into electricity, which is transferred to short-term chemical energy (ATP and NADPH) within the chloroplast, which is transformed into long-term chemical energy (glucose) that can be used throughout the cell and transferred to other cells.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e03d4c47f9365″ question_number=”23″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] Describe how the light reactions of photosynthesis create ATP.

[a] Photoexcitation of chlorophyll in PS II starts a flow of electrons (b) along an electron transport chain in the thylakoid membrane. This powers proton pumping from the stroma (1) to the thylakoid space (2). This creates a chemiosmotic gradient that powers ATP synthesis as protons diffuse from the thylakoid space back to the stroma via an ATP synthase channel (i). Splitting of water by PS II (k) releases additional protons into the thylakoid space, enhancing the proton gradient for ATP creation.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e03b42bd91b65″ question_number=”24″] The Calvin cycle involves the reduction of CO2 into carbohydrate. Describe how the light reactions create reducing power that can be used in the Calvin Cycle. 

[a] Photoexcitation of chlorophylls in Photosystem I, which follows Photosystem II,  creates electron flow along the electron transport chain of PS I (f). These electrons flow to the enzyme NADP+ reductase, which reduces NADP+ into NADPH (at g). During the Calvin Cycle, NADPH provides the electrons and hydrogens to reduce CO2 to carbohydrates.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e0395e73e8765″ question_number=”25″] The Z scheme is a kind of graphical shorthand of non-cyclic electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis. Create an illustrated sketch of the Z-scheme that shows the key processes in the light reactions. 

[a] a. PS II antenna complex; b. light; c. reaction center; d. splitting water; e. photoexcitation; f. ETC of PS II; g. ADP and Pi; h. ATP, i. photoexcitation; j. ETC of PS I, K. NADP+, l. NADP+ reductase; m. NADPH, o. PS I antenna complex; p. PS I reaction center.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e03754e980f65″ question_number=”26″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] Where does the Calvin cycle occur, what does it produce, and how?

[a] The Calvin  Cycle occurs in the stroma (the fluid in between the thylakoids and the chloroplasts’ inner membrane). Using the products of the light reactions (ATP and NADPH) and carbon dioxide, the cycle creates the reduced 3-carbon compound G3P, which is converted by other enzymes into carbohydrates (or anything else a plant cell needs).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e0354b5f19765″ question_number=”27″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] List the three phases of the Calvin cycle.

[a]

  1. Carbon fixation phase
  2. Energy investment and harvest
  3. Regeneration of RuBP

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e0315d8b08b65″ question_number=”28″] Describe what happens during the carbon fixation phase of the Calvin cycle.

[a] During the carbon fixation phase, carbon dioxide is combined with a five-carbon molecule called RuBP. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme RuBisCo. The six-carbon product of this reaction immediately dissociates into two 3 carbon molecules.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e02d4a7639b65″ question_number=”29″] Describe what happens during the energy investment and harvest phase of the Calvin cycle.

[a] During investment and harvest (II), the three-carbon products (b) of carbon fixation are reduced and phosphorylated into six molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate  (d: AKA G3P or PGAL). The energy comes from the ATP and NADPH from the light reactions. One of these G3Ps is then harvested (removed from the cycle).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e02bb0ae0cf65″ question_number=”30″] Describe what happens during last phase of the Calvin cycle.

[a] The last phase is the regeneration of RuBP. During this phase, the remaining five G3Ps are rearranged into three 5-carbon RuBPs, the compound that acts as one of the substrates during the carbon fixation phase (the other substrate being carbon dioxide).

[!]3.6.Respiration[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e02a16e5e0365″ question_number=”31″ topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration”] Connect the structure and function of mitochondria to cellular respiration and ATP synthesis.

[a] Mitochondria are double-membraned organelles. The highly folded inner membrane (2) increases the surface area for the membrane-embedded proteins that make up the mitochondrial electron transport chain, as well as the ATP synthase channel. The intermembrane space provides a compartment into which protons can be pumped, creating the chemiosmotic gradient that powers ATP synthesis.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e0287d1db3765″ question_number=”32″ topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration”] When oxygen is present, cellular respiration happens in four phases. List each one, and describe its location.

[a]

Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm (3). The link reaction happens as pyruvic acid diffuses into the mitochondria (4). The Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix (5). The electron transport chain occurs along the inner mitochondrial membrane (6).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e02673934bf65″ question_number=”33″] Briefly describe what happens in each phase of cellular respiration.

[a] 1) Glycolysis: Uses chemical energy in glucose to generate ATP and NADH. The end product is 3-carbon pyruvic acid. 2) Link reaction: brings pyruvic acid into the mitochondria, converting it into Acetyl CoA, generating NADH, and releasing one CO2. 3) Krebs cycle: uses energy from the oxidation of Acetyl CoA to produce 3 NADH,  1 ATP, and 1 FADH2 while releasing two molecules of CO2. 4) Electron transport chain (ETC): oxidizes NADH and FADH2, using the resulting electron flow to power the creation of ATP.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e0248f49a2b65″ question_number=”34″ topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration”] Explain how the mitochondrial electron transport chain generates ATP.

[a]

The ETC  starts by oxidizing electrons from NADH and FADH2 (1 and 4). The liberated electrons flow through a series of membrane-embedded proteins on the mitochondrial inner membrane. Some of these (3) pump protons from the matrix (E) to the intermembrane space (C), creating an electrochemical gradient. Facilitated diffusion through the ATP synthase channel back to the the matrix powers formation of ATP from ADP and Pi.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e022d040b7b65″ question_number=”35″ topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration”] Cellular respiration can be used to generate heat instead of ATP. Explain.

[a] During non-shivering thermogenesis, the flow of electrons along the ETC generates heat: just imagine electricity flowing through the high resistance wires in a toaster, and you’ll have the idea.

Newborn and hibernating mammals have brown fat, the cells of which are dense with mitochondria (which is why it’s brown). When the animal needs to generate body heat, hormonal signals induce a proton channel called thermogenin to form in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This channel lets protons diffuse back to the matrix from the intermembrane space without passing through ATP synthase.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e0211137ccb65″ question_number=”36″ topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration”] What happens during glycolysis? Include cellular locations, inputs, and outputs in your answer.

[a] The starting substrate is glucose. In a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, glucose is phosphorylated (investment phase), then split into two molecules of G3P (cleavage phase). Then G3P is oxidized, which provides the electrons needed to reduce NAD+ to NADH. Other enzymes use the chemical energy in G3P to power substrate-level phosphorylation of two ATPs from ADP and Pi. The net yield of glycolysis is 2 ATPs and 2 NADH. The process ends with two molecules of the 3-carbon molecule pyruvate (also known as pyruvic acid).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e01f522ee1b65″ question_number=”37″] Glycolysis occurs in 3 phases. What are they?

[a] Investment, cleavage, and energy harvest.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e01db866b4f65″ question_number=”38″ topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration”] What happens after glycolysis if oxygen is not present?

[a] If oxygen is not present, pyruvic acid generated during glycolysis is fermented. This involves chemically reducing pyruvate by oxidizing NADH (a key product of glycolysis) back to NAD+. Why? Because the two ATPs generated by glycolysis are better than none. NAD+ is a required substrate for glycolysis, and its regeneration enables glycolysis to continue to create ATP (even in the absence of oxygen).

In lactic acid fermentation, lactic acid (a 3-carbon molecule) is produced. In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is decarboxylated (loses a carboxyl group) and reduced, producing ethanol (the two-carbon alcohol in wine, beer, and spirits) and carbon dioxide.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e01c1e9e88365″ question_number=”39″ topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration”] What happens between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?

[a] During the link reaction, pyruvic acid (from glycolysis, at A) is transported across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes (B) into the mitochondrial matrix. In the matrix, an enzyme removes a carbon dioxide. Other enzymes oxidize the resulting two-carbon molecule, powering the reduction of NAD+ to NADH (2). The two-carbon acetyl group that results is attached to coenzyme A, generating Acetyl-CoA (at “D”), the starting point for the Krebs cycle.

 

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e01a3a54def65″ question_number=”40″ topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration”] What comes into the Krebs Cycle? What comes out? What are these products used for?

[a] During the Krebs cycle, energy from food, brought into the cycle in the form of acetyl-CoA, is used to generate ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate, and to chemically reduce the electron carriers NAD+ and FADH to NADH and FADH2. These electron carriers will later power the electron transport chain’s conversion of ADP and inorganic phosphate to ATP through chemiosmosis.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e018a08cb2365″ question_number=”41″ topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration”] Describe the Krebs cycle.

[a] The cycle starts as enzymes (at 1) transfer the two-carbon acetyl group from Acetyl-CoA to oxalic acid, a four-carbon molecule. This creates six-carbon citric acid. In subsequent reactions, citric acid is oxidized, and its electrons are used to reduce the electron carriers NAD+ and FADH to NADH and FADH2. Other reactions power the substrate-level phosphorylation of ADP and Pi into ATP.

For each acetyl-CoA that enters the cycle, one ATP, one FADH2, and three NADHs are generated. As this occurs, carbon dioxide is released as a waste product (accounting for 2/3 of the CO2 produced during cellular respiration).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular_Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1e01697024ab65″ question_number=”42″ topic=”3.6.Cellular_Respiration”] How is ATP generation in mitochondria and chloroplasts similar.

[a] Both mitochondria and chloroplasts generate ATP through chemiosmosis. Both use electron energy to pump protons into an enclosed compartment. Both use facilitated diffusion of protons through ATP synthase to power the formation of ATP.
[/qdeck]

3. Unit 3 Multiple Choice Questions

[qwiz style=”min-height: 450px !important; width: 550px !important;” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 3 Summative Quiz” dataset=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0″]

[h] Unit 3 Multiple Choice Questions

[i]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1e001ed18c3365″ question_number=”1″] In a marine food chain that ends with a humpback whale, phytoplankton are the first link. Which of the following statements apply to both the mitochondria of humpback whales and the chloroplasts of phytoplankton?

I. Contains its own DNA
II. Makes ATP by chemiosmosis
III. Temporarily stores energy in reduced electron acceptors

[c]IEkgb25seQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSByaWdodCB0cmFjay4gQm90aCBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMgYW5kIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYSBoYXZlIHRoZWlyIG93biBETkEuIEJ1dCB0aGV5IGFsc28gaGF2ZSBvdGhlciBzaW1pbGFyaXRpZXMu[Qq]

[c]IElJIG9ubHk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCdXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSByaWdodCB0cmFjay4gQm90aCBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMgYW5kIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYSBtYWtlIEFUUCBieSBjaGVtaW9zbW9zaXMuIEJ1dCB0aGV5IGFsc28gaGF2ZSBvdGhlciBzaW1pbGFyaXRpZXMu[Qq]

[c]IElJSSBvbmx5[Qq]

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[c]IEkgYW5kIElJIG9ubHk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSByaWdodCB0cmFjay4gQm90aCBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMgYW5kIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYSBoYXZlIHRoZWlyIG93biBETkEgYW5kIG1ha2UgQVRQIGJ5IGNoZW1pb3Ntb3Npcy4gQnV0IHRoZXkgYWxzbyBoYXZlIG9uZSBvdGhlciBzaW1pbGFyaXR5Lg==[Qq]

[c]IEksIElJLC BhbmQgSUlJ[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQm90aCBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMgYW5kIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYSBoYXZlIHRoZWlyIG93biBETkEsIG1ha2UgQVRQIGJ5IGNoZW1pb3Ntb3NpcywgYW5kIHN0b3JlIGVuZXJneSBpbiByZWR1Y2VkIGVsZWN0cm9uIGNhcnJpZXJzIChOQURQSCBhbmQgTkFESCwgcmVzcGVjdGl2ZWx5KS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dffb85f810365″ question_number=”2″ topic=”3.1.Enzyme_Structure”] Almost all enzymes are

[c]IGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgbW9ub21lcnMgbWFraW5nIHVwIG1vc3QgZW56eW1lcyBhcmUgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHMu[Qq]

[c]IGxpcGlkcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgbW9ub21lcnMgbWFraW5nIHVwIG1vc3QgZW56eW1lcyBhcmUgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHMu[Qq]

[c]IHByb3 RlaW5z[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQWxtb3N0IGFsbCBlbnp5bWVzIGFyZSBwcm90ZWlucy4gVGhlIGV4Y2VwdGlvbnMgYXJlIGEgZmV3IChleHRyZW1lbHkgaW1wb3J0YW50KSBSTkEgZW56eW1lcyAobGlrZSB0aGUgUk5BIGluIGEgcmlib3NvbWUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoYXQgY2F0YWx5emVzIHRoZSByZWFjdGlvbnMgb2YgcHJvdGVpbiBzeW50aGVzaXMp[Qq]

[c]IG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91IG1hZGUgdGhlIHNlY29uZCBiZXN0IGNob2ljZS4gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0cnVlIHRoYXQgYSBmZXcsIGV4dHJlbWVseSBpbXBvcnRhbnQgZW56eW1lcyBhcmUgY29tcG9zZWQgb2YgbnVjbGVpYyBhY2lkcyAobGlrZSB0aGUgUk5BIGluIGEgcmlib3NvbWUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoYXQgY2F0YWx5emVzIHRoZSByZWFjdGlvbnMgb2YgcHJvdGVpbiBzeW50aGVzaXMpLiBCdXQgbW9zdCBlbnp5bWVzIGFyZSBtYWRlIG9mIHNvbWV0aGluZyBlbHNlLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgbW9ub21lcnMgbWFraW5nIHVwIG1vc3QgZW56eW1lcyBhcmUgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHMu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dff89ce933365″ question_number=”3″ topic=”3.1.Enzyme_Structure”] People with chronic high blood pressure have elevated blood levels of ACE (Angiotensin-converting enzyme). ACE acts on the polypeptide Angiotensin I to produce Angiotensin II, which as the effect of raising blood-pressure.

The diagram below represents the active site of ACE. The “+” sign represents positively charged regions in the active site.

A pharmaceutical company is trying to develop a drug to lower blood pressure. As part of this effort, a range of drugs was designed and manufactured. A sample of the molecular shape of each is shown below. Notice the “+” and “-” signs, which represent positively and negatively charged regions in the molecules making up the candidate drugs.

Which drug is likely to be the most effective in preventing excessive high blood pressure?

[c]IEEg[Qq][c]IE Ig[Qq][c]IEMg[Qq][c]IEQ=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBhIGRydWcgd2l0aCBhIHNoYXBlIHRoYXQgd2lsbCBlbmFibGUgaXQgdG8gYWN0IGFzIGEgY29tcGV0aXRpdmUgaW5oaWJpdG9yIG9mIEFDRS4gVG8gZG8gdGhhdCwgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIG5lZWQgYSBkcnVnIGNhbmRpZGF0ZSB3aXRoIGEgc2hhcGUgYW5kIGNoYXJnZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgbW9zdCBjb21wbGVtZW50YXJ5IHRvIEFDRS4gVGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGZvdXIgZHJ1ZyBjYW5kaWRhdGVzLCBhbmQgZmluZCB0aGUgb25lIHRoYXQgYmVzdCBmaXRzIHRoYXQgZGVzY3JpcHRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudDogRHJ1ZyBCIGhhcyB0aGUgY2hhcmdlcyBhbmQgc2hhcGUgdGhhdCBiZXN0IGNvbXBsZW1lbnRzIEFDRS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBhIGRydWcgd2l0aCBhIHNoYXBlIHRoYXQgd2lsbCBlbmFibGUgaXQgdG8gYWN0IGFzIGEgY29tcGV0aXRpdmUgaW5oaWJpdG9yIG9mIEFDRS4gVG8gZG8gdGhhdCwgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIG5lZWQgYSBkcnVnIGNhbmRpZGF0ZSB3aXRoIGEgc2hhcGUgYW5kIGNoYXJnZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgbW9zdCBjb21wbGVtZW50YXJ5IHRvIEFDRS4gVGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGZvdXIgZHJ1ZyBjYW5kaWRhdGVzLCBhbmQgZmluZCB0aGUgb25lIHRoYXQgYmVzdCBmaXRzIHRoYXQgZGVzY3JpcHRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGNsb3NlLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBhIGRydWcgd2l0aCBhIHNoYXBlIHRoYXQgd2lsbCBlbmFibGUgaXQgdG8gYWN0IGFzIGEgY29tcGV0aXRpdmUgaW5oaWJpdG9yIG9mIEFDRS4gVG8gZG8gdGhhdCwgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIG5lZWQgYSBkcnVnIGNhbmRpZGF0ZSB3aXRoIGEgc2hhcGUgYW5kIGNoYXJnZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgbW9zdCBjb21wbGVtZW50YXJ5IHRvIEFDRS4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIGNob3NlbiBhIGdvb2Qgc2hhcGUsIGJ1dCB5b3UgbmVlZCB0byBiZSBtb3JlIGNhcmVmdWwgYWJvdXQgdGhlIGNoYXJnZS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dff5fe5bd2b65″ question_number=”4″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.3.Environmental_Impacts_on_Enzyme_Function”] In Yellowstone National Park, researchers discovered microorganisms that live in the nearly boiling water of Yellowstone’s hot springs. Most of these microorganisms were prokaryotic. The researchers measured the enzyme activity of these microorganisms over various temperatures. The results are displayed in the graph below.

What temperature is most likely represented by point X in the graph?

[c]IDI3wrAgQyA=[Qq][c]IDM3wrAgQyA=[Qq][c]IDkwwr AgQyA=[Qq][c]IDIxMsKwIEM=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyN8KwIEMgaXMgYWJvdXQgODDCsCBGLiBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgcGVyZmVjdCBmb3IgYSBzd2ltLCBidXQgd2F5IHRvbyBjb2xkIHRvIGJlIHRoZSBvcHRpbXVtIGZvciB0aGVzZSBoZWF0LWxvdmluZyBwcm9rYXJ5b3Rlcy4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIHRlbXBlcmF0dXJlIGluIHdoaWNoIHRoZXNlIHByb2thcnlvdGljIG1pY3Jvb3JnYW5pc21zIGxpdmUgaXMgZGVzY3JpYmVkIGluIHRoZSBxdWVzdGlvbiBhcyA=Ym9pbGluZw==Lg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzN8KwIEMgaXMgaHVtYW4gYm9keSB0ZW1wZXJhdHVyZS4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIHRlbXBlcmF0dXJlIGluIHdoaWNoIHRoZXNlIHByb2thcnlvdGljIG1pY3Jvb3JnYW5pc21zIGxpdmUgaXMgZGVzY3JpYmVkIGluIHRoZSBxdWVzdGlvbiBhcyA=Ym9pbGluZw==Lg==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlc2UgcHJva2FyeW90aWMgbWljcm9vcmdhbmlzbXMgY2FuIHN1cnZpdmUgaW4gYm9pbGluZyB0ZW1wZXJhdHVyZXMsIGFuZCBpdCYjODIxNztzIGxpa2VseSB0aGF0IHRoZWlyIHRlbXBlcmF0dXJlIG9wdGltdW0gd291bGQgYmUgY2xvc2UgdG8gMTAwwrAgQy4gVGhlcmVmb3JlIDkwwrAgQyBpcyB0aGUgYmVzdCBwb3NzaWJsZSBjaG9pY2Uu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyMTLCsCBDIGlzIHdheSBhYm92ZSB0aGUgYm9pbGluZyB0ZW1wZXJhdHVyZSBvZiB3YXRlciAoaXQmIzgyMTc7cyA0MTMuNsKwIEYsIGEgdGVtcGVyYXR1cmUgeW91JiM4MjE3O2Qgc2V0IGFuIG92ZW4gdG8gZm9yIGJha2luZykuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IGluIMKwIEMsIHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgYm9pbGluZyB0ZW1wZXJhdHVyZSBvZiB3YXRlcj8gRmluZCBhIHRlbXBlcmF0dXJlIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjbG9zZSB0byB0aGF0Lg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dff3850f30765″ question_number=”5″ topic=”3.3.Environmental_Impacts_on_Enzyme_Function”] As applied to enzymes, which of the following best describes “denaturation?”

[c]IGNsZWF2aW5nIHRoZSBlbnp5bWUmIzgyMTc7cyBwZXB0aWRlIGJvbmRz[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDbGVhdmluZyBwZXB0aWRlIGJvbmRzIGlzIGJlc3QgZGVzY3JpYmVkIGFzIHByb3RlaW4gZGlnZXN0aW9uIG9yIGRlZ3JhZGF0aW9uLiBEZW5hdHVyYXRpb24gaXMgbXVjaCBsZXNzIHNldmVyZSBhbmQgcGVybWFuZW50Lg==[Qq]

[c]IGNvdmFsZW50bHkgbW9kaWZ5aW5nIHRoZSBwcm90ZWluIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgdGhlIGVuenltZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDb3ZhbGVudCBtb2RpZmljYXRpb24gd291bGQgY29uc3RpdHV0ZSBhIGNoZW1pY2FsIGNoYW5nZSB0byB0aGUgcHJvdGVpbiwgYW5kIGlzIG11Y2ggbW9yZSBkcmFzdGljIHRoYW4gd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGR1cmluZyBkZW5hdHVyYXRpb24u[Qq]

[c]IGEgY2hhbmdpbmcgdGhlIGVuenltZSYjOD IxNztzIHRlcnRpYXJ5IHN0cnVjdHVyZQ==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gRGVuYXR1cmF0aW9uIGlzIGEgY2hhbmdlIGluIHByb3RlaW4gc2hhcGUgYnJvdWdodCBhYm91dCBieSBhIGNoYW5nZSBpbiBhIHByb3RlaW4mIzgyMTc7cyBlbnZpcm9ubWVudC4gT2Z0ZW4sIHRoZXNlIGNoYW5nZXMgaW52b2x2ZSBkaXNydXB0aW9uIG9mIHRlcnRpYXJ5IGxldmVsIGludGVyYWN0aW9ucyBiZXR3ZWVuIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzLg==[Qq]

[c]IGEgY2hhbmdpbmcgb2YgdGhlIGVuenltZSYjODIxNztzIHByaW1hcnkgc3RydWN0dXJl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIGNoYW5nZSBpbiBhIHByb3RlaW4mIzgyMTc7cyBwcmltYXJ5IHN0cnVjdHVyZSBpcyBhIGZ1bmRhbWVudGFsIHNoaWZ0IGluIGEgcHJvdGVpbiYjODIxNztzIGlkZW50aWZ5LCBjaGVtaXN0cnksIGFuZCBzdHJ1Y3R1cmUuIERlbmF0dXJhdGlvbiBpcyBvZnRlbiB0ZW1wb3JhcnksIGFuZCBpbnZvbHZlcyBhIG11Y2ggbGVzcyBkcmFzdGljIGxldmVsIG9mIGNoYW5nZS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dff10bc28e365″ question_number=”6″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] H2O18 is water with a radioactive isotope of oxygen. In a demonstration of plant metabolism, plants are watered with H2O18 and then placed in the light for four hours. Afterwards, the chemicals in and around the plants are analyzed for traces of radioactivity.

Which of the following would contain the radioactive oxygen atoms after four hours?

[c]IHByb3RlaW4=[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IGdsdWNvc2U=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGFib3V0IHlvdXIgdW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBvZiB0aGUgbGlnaHQgcmVhY3Rpb25zIG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLiBGaW5kIHRoZSB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZSBpbiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBiZWxvdyAoaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBvbiB0aGUgYm90dG9tIGxlZnQpLiBGb2xsb3cgdGhlIGFycm93IHRvIHNlZSB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgdG8gdGhlIHdhdGVyLiBJZiB0aGUgb3h5Z2VuIGluIHRoZSB3YXRlciBoYWQgYmVlbiByYWRpb2FjdGl2ZWx5IGxhYmVsZWQsIHdoZXJlIHdvdWxkIHlvdSBzZWUgcmFkaW9hY3Rpdml0eT8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IG94eWdl biBnYXM=[Qq]

[f]IEdyZWF0IGpvYiEgSW4gdGhlIGxpZ2h0IHJlYWN0aW9ucyBvZiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcywgd2F0ZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzIGFyZSBzcGxpdCBhcGFydCwgVGhlIHJlc3VsdGluZyBwcm90b25zIHBvd2VyIEFUUCBwcm9kdWN0aW9uLCBhbmQgdGhlIG94eWdlbiBiZWNvbWVzIE8=Mg==IChtb2xlY3VsYXIgb3h5Z2VuKSwgdGhlIHNvdXJjZSBvZiB0aGUgb3h5Z2VuIGluIG91ciBhdG1vc3BoZXJlLiBJZiB3YXRlciYjODIxNztzIG94eWdlbiBhdG9tcyB3ZXJlIHJhZGlvYWN0aXZlbHkgbGFiZWxlZCwgdGhlc2Ugc2FtZSByYWRpb2FjdGl2ZSBhdG9tcyB3b3VsZCBlbWVyZ2UgbGF0ZXIgYXMgcmFkaW9hY3RpdmUgb3h5Z2VuIGdhcyA=KA==MTg=[Qq]O2).

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGdhcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGFib3V0IHlvdXIgdW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBvZiB0aGUgbGlnaHQgcmVhY3Rpb25zIG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLiBGaW5kIHRoZSB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZSBpbiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBiZWxvdyAoaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBvbiB0aGUgYm90dG9tIGxlZnQpLiBGb2xsb3cgdGhlIGFycm93IHRvIHNlZSB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgdG8gdGhlIHdhdGVyLiBJZiB0aGUgb3h5Z2VuIGluIHRoZSB3YXRlciBoYWQgYmVlbiByYWRpb2FjdGl2ZWx5IGxhYmVsZWQsIHdoZXJlIHdvdWxkIHlvdSBzZWUgcmFkaW9hY3Rpdml0eT8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfee47f46f765″ question_number=”7″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] The diagram below represents some key cells that are found in plant leaves (A), roots (E), and the stem that connects them (C). The dots in cell “A” are most likely

[c]IFN1Y3Jvc2Ug[Qq][c]IFN0YXJjaCA=[Qq][c]IEdseWNvZ2VuIA==[Qq][c]IEdsdW Nvc2Ug[Qq][c]IGNlbGx1bG9zZQ==

Cg==[Qq]

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[f]IE5vLiBTdGFyY2ggaXMgYSBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZSwgYW5kIGl0JiM4MjE3O3MgdXNlZCBmb3IgbG9uZyB0ZXJtIGVuZXJneSBzdG9yYWdlLiBUaGUgY2VsbCBhdCBBIGlzIGZpbGxlZCB3aXRoIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cywgd2hpY2ggYXJlIHBlcmZvcm1pbmcgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMuIFdoYXQgc3VnYXIgaXMgdGhlIGRpcmVjdCBwcm9kdWN0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzPw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbWFpbiBwcm9ibGVtIHdpdGggdGhpcyBjaG9pY2UgaXMgdGhhdCBnbHljb2dlbiBpcyBhIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBmb3VuZCBpbiBhbmltYWxzLiBGb3IgZXhhbXBsZSwgd2Ugc3RvcmUgZ2x5Y29nZW4gaW4gb3VyIGxpdmVycyB3aGVuIHdlIHRha2UgaW4gdG9vIG11Y2ggZ2x1Y29zZSBhbmQgbmVlZCB0byBzdG9yZSBpdCBhd2F5LiBUaGUgY2VsbCBhdCBBIGlzIGEgcGxhbnQgY2VsbCB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgZmlsbGVkIHdpdGggY2hsb3JvcGxhc3RzLCB3aGljaCBhcmUgcGVyZm9ybWluZyBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcy4gV2hhdCBzdWdhciBpcyB0aGUgcHJvZHVjdCBvZiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcz8=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIGNlbGwgYXQgQSBpcyBhIHBsYW50IGNlbGwgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGZpbGxlZCB3aXRoIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cywgd2hpY2ggYXJlIHBlcmZvcm1pbmcgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIGFuZCBjb252ZXJ0aW5nIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGFuZCB3YXRlciBpbnRvIGdsdWNvc2UgYW5kIG94eWdlbi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDZWxsdWxvc2UgaXMgdGhlIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgcGxhbnQgY2VsbCB3YWxscy4gVGhlIGNlbGwgYXQgQSBpcyBhIHBsYW50IGNlbGwgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGZpbGxlZCB3aXRoIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cywgd2hpY2ggYXJlIHBlcmZvcm1pbmcgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMuIFdoYXQgc3VnYXIgaXMgdGhlIGRpcmVjdCBwcm9kdWN0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzPw==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfea7f611cf65″ question_number=”8″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] The diagram below represents some key cells that are found in plant leaves and roots, and the stem that connects them. Which letter indicates a cell performing photosynthesis?

[c]IE E=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gWW91IHByb2JhYmx5IG5vdGljZWQgdGhlIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cywgYSBkZWFkIGdpdmVhd2F5IHRoYXQgdGhlIGNlbGwgaXMgcGVyZm9ybWluZyBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcy4gTm90ZSBhbHNvLCB0aGF0IGFsbCB0aGUgYXJyb3dzIGFyZSBmbG93aW5nIGF3YXkgZnJvbSBjZWxsIEEsIHdoaWNoIGlzIGEgZm9vZC1wcm9kdWNpbmcgY2VsbCAocHJvYmFibHkgaW4gdGhlIGxlYWYgb2YgdGhpcyBwbGFudCk=[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIFRoZSBjZWxsIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBwZXJmb3JtaW5nIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIHdpbGwgY29udGFpbiBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMsIGFuZCB3aWxsIGJlIHByb3ZpZGluZyBlbmVyZ3kgdG8gdGhlIHJlc3Qgb2YgdGhlIHBsYW50LiBXaGljaCBjZWxsIHNlZW1zIHRvIGJlIHRoZSBwcm9kdWNlciBpbiB0aGlzIHN5c3RlbT8=[Qq]

[c]IEM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIFRoZSBjZWxsIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBwZXJmb3JtaW5nIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIHdpbGwgY29udGFpbiBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMsIGFuZCB3aWxsIGJlIHByb3ZpZGluZyBlbmVyZ3kgdG8gdGhlIHJlc3Qgb2YgdGhlIHBsYW50LiBXaGljaCBjZWxsIHNlZW1zIHRvIGJlIHRoZSBwcm9kdWNlciBpbiB0aGlzIHN5c3RlbT8=[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIFRoZSBjZWxsIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBwZXJmb3JtaW5nIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIHdpbGwgY29udGFpbiBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMsIGFuZCB3aWxsIGJlIHByb3ZpZGluZyBlbmVyZ3kgdG8gdGhlIHJlc3Qgb2YgdGhlIHBsYW50LiBXaGljaCBjZWxsIHNlZW1zIHRvIGJlIHRoZSBwcm9kdWNlciBpbiB0aGlzIHN5c3RlbT8=[Qq]

[c]IEU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgaG93IHRvIHRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24uIFRoZSBjZWxsIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBwZXJmb3JtaW5nIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIHdpbGwgY29udGFpbiBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMsIGFuZCB3aWxsIGJlIHByb3ZpZGluZyBlbmVyZ3kgdG8gdGhlIHJlc3Qgb2YgdGhlIHBsYW50LiBXaGljaCBjZWxsIHNlZW1zIHRvIGJlIHRoZSBwcm9kdWNlciBpbiB0aGlzIHN5c3RlbT8=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfe5b20896b65″ question_number=”9″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] In an experiment on the rate of photosynthesis in a plant, scientists measured a leaf’s net uptake of carbon dioxide from the external environment over a range of absorbed light intensity. The results are shown in the graph below.


Based on the graph, which of the following statements best describes when the rate of photosynthesis exceeds the rate of respiration?

[c]IFdoZW4gYWJzb3JiZWQgbGlnaHQgaXMgZ3JlYXRlciB0aGFuIDAgYXJiaXRyYXJ5IHVuaXRzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUYWtlIGEgZ29vZCBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSBncmFwaC4gQWJzb3JiZWQgbGlnaHQgaXMgdGhlIFggYXhpcy4gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyBkaWZmaWN1bHQgdG8gZG8gdGhpcyBiZWNhdXNlIG9mIHRoZSBncmFwaCYjODIxNztzIHNjYWxpbmcsIGJ1dCBmaW5kIDEwIHVuaXRzIG9mIGFic29yYmVkIGxpZ2h0IG9uIHRoZSBYIGF4aXMuIEZvbGxvdyB0aGF0IHVwIHRvIHRoZSBZIGF4aXMuIElzIHRoZSB2YWx1ZSBmb3IgdXB0YWtlIG9mIENPMg==IGZyb20gdGhlIGVudmlyb25tZW50IHBvc2l0aXZlIG9yIG5lZ2F0aXZlPyBJZiBpdCYjODIxNztzIG5lZ2F0aXZlLCB0aGFuIHRoZSByYXRlIG9mIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIGlzIGV4Y2VlZGluZyB0aGUgcmF0ZSBvZiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcy4gQXQgd2hhdCBYIGF4aXMgdmFsdWUgZG9lcyB0aGUgcmF0ZSBvZiBDTw==Mg==IHVwdGFrZSAoYSBZIGF4aXMgdmFsdWUpIHR1cm4gcG9zaXRpdmU/[Qq]

[c]IFdoZW4gYWJzb3JiZWQgbGlnaHQgaXMgZ3JlYXRlciB0aGFuIDIwMCBhcmJpdHJhcnkgdW5pdHMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgWSBheGlzIG9mIHRoaXMgZ3JhcGggaW5kaWNhdGVzIG5ldCB1cHRha2Ugb2YgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUuIElmIHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBwb3NpdGl2ZSBuZXQgdXB0YWtlIG9mIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlLCB0aGVuIHlvdSBjYW4gYXNzdW1lIHRoYXQgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgKHdoaWNoIGFic29yYnMgQ08=Mg==KSBpcyBvY2N1cnJpbmcgYXQgYSBncmVhdGVyIHJhdGUgdGhhbiByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiAod2hpY2ggcmVsZWFzZXMgQ08=Mg==KS4gQnV0IGRvZXMgYWJzb3JiZWQgbGlnaHQgbmVlZCB0byBncmVhdGVyIHRoYW4gMjAwIHVuaXRzIGZvciB0aGF0IHRvIG9jY3VyPyBUYWtlIGEgZ29vZCBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSBncmFwaCwgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgYmV0dGVyIGFuc3dlci4=[Qq]

[c]IFdoZW4gYWJzb3JiZWQgbGlnaHQgaX MgZ3JlYXRlciB0aGFuIHBvaW50IE0u[Qq]

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIERyb3AgTSBkb3duIHRvIHRoZSBYIGF4aXMuIEF0IGFueSBwb2ludCBhYm92ZSBNIHVuaXRzLCB0aGUgcGxhbnQgaGFzIGEgbmV0IHBvc2l0aXZlIHVwdGFrZSBvZiBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZS4gUG9zaXRpdmUgbmV0IHVwdGFrZSBvZiBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBtZWFucyB0aGF0IHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLCB3aGljaCBhYnNvcmJzIENPMg==LCBpcyBvY2N1cnJpbmcgYXQgYSBncmVhdGVyIHJhdGUgdGhhbiByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiwgd2hpY2ggcmVsZWFzZXMgaXQu[Qq]

[c]IFdoZW4gbmV0IHVwdGFrZSBvZiBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBpcyBncmVhdGVyIHRoYW4gLTUgYXJiaXRyYXJ5IHVuaXRzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIHByb2R1Y2VzIENPMg==LCB3aGlsZSBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBhYnNvcmJzIENPMg==LiBBdCBhbnkgdmFsdWUgb2YgQ08=[Qq]2 uptake between -5 and 0, you can assume that the rate of respiration is greater than or equal to the rate of photosynthesis.

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfe3137b36365″ question_number=”10″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] In an experiment about the rate of photosynthesis in a plant, scientists measured a leaf’s net uptake of carbon dioxide from the external environment over a range of absorbed light intensities. The results are shown in the graph below.


Which of the following statements about the rate of photosynthesis at point M in the graph is most correct?

[c]IEF0IHBvaW50IE0sIG5vIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGlzIG9jY3VycmluZw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIHJlbGVhc2VzIENPMg==LCB3aGlsZSBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBhYnNvcmJzIGl0LiBBdCBwb2ludCBNLCBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBpcyBvY2N1cnJpbmcuIEhvd2V2ZXIsIG5vIENPMg==IGlzIGJlaW5nIGFic29yYmVkIGZyb20gdGhlIGVudmlyb25tZW50LiBXaHkgd291bGQgdGhhdCBiZT8=[Qq]

[c]IEF0IHBvaW50IE0sIHRoZSByYXRlIG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGlz IGVxdWFsIHRvIHRoZSBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbiByYXRlLg==[Qq]

[f]IEV4YWN0bHkuIEF0IHBvaW50IE0sIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgQ08=Mg==IGFic29yYmVkIGJ5IHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGlzIGVxdWFsIHRvIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgQ08=Mg==IHJlbGVhc2VkIGJ5IHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]IEF0IHBvaW50IE0sIHRoZSByYXRlIG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGlzIHNsb3cgYmVjYXVzZSB0aGUgdGVtcGVyYXR1cmUgb2YgdGhlIGVudmlyb25tZW50IGlzIGxvdw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBpcyBjb250cm9sbGVkIGJ5IGVuenltZXMsIGFuZCB0aGUgYWN0aXZpdHkgb2YgdGhlc2UgZW56eW1lcyBpcyByZWxhdGVkIHRvIHRlbXBlcmF0dXJlLiBIb3dldmVyLCB0aGVyZSYjODIxNztzIG5vIGluZm9ybWF0aW9uIGFib3V0IHRoYXQgaW4gdGhlIGdyYXBoIGFib3ZlLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBSZW1lbWJlciB0aGF0IHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uIHJlbGVhc2VzIENPMg==LCB3aGlsZSBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBhYnNvcmJzIGl0Lg==[Qq]

[c]IEF0IHBvaW50IE0sIHRoZSByYXRlIG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIGlzIGxpbWl0ZWQgYnkgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgYXZhaWxhYmlsaXR5IGluIHRoZSBlbnZpcm9ubWVudA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGlsZSB0aGUgcmF0ZSBvZiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBpcyByZWxhdGVkIHRvIHRoZSBhdmFpbGFiaWxpdHkgb2YgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUsIHRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3Mgbm8gaW5mb3JtYXRpb24gYWJvdXQgdGhhdCBpbiB0aGUgZ3JhcGggYWJvdmUuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuIFJlbWVtYmVyIHRoYXQgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24gcmVsZWFzZXMgQ08=Mg==LCB3aGlsZSBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBhYnNvcmJzIGl0Lg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfdf4ae7e3b65″ question_number=”11″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] In an experiment on the rate of photosynthesis in a plant, scientists measured a leaf’s net uptake of carbon dioxide from the external environment over a range of absorbed light intensities. The results are shown in the graph below.


If all the other variables were kept constant during the experiment, which of the following statements best explains why at higher levels of absorbed light, the net CO2 uptake curve flattens out?

[c]IEFic29yYmVkIGxpZ2h0IGlzIGxpbWl0ZWQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMb29rIGF0IHRoZSBncmFwaCBhZ2FpbiwgZm9jdXNpbmcgb24gdGhlIHJlbGF0aW9uc2hpcCBiZXR3ZWVuIHRoZSBYIGFuZCBZIGF4aXMgdmFsdWVzLiBBZnRlciBhIGNlcnRhaW4gcG9pbnQsIGFic29yYmVkIGxpZ2h0IGlzIGluY3JlYXNpbmcsIGJ1dCB0aGUgbmV0IHJhdGUgb2YgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUgaXMgc3RheWluZyB0aGUgc2FtZS4=[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyByYX RlIHJlYWNoZXMgaXRzIG1heGltdW0u[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gQmFzZWQgb24gdGhlIGdyYXBoLCBpdCBsb29rcyBsaWtlIGJleW9uZCBhIGNlcnRhaW4gbGV2ZWwgb2YgYWJzb3JiZWQgbGlnaHQgaW50ZW5zaXR5IChhYm91dCAzMDAgdW5pdHMpIHRoZSByYXRlIG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIHJlYWNoZXMgaXRzIG1heGltdW0u[Qq]

[c]IENhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGNvbmNlbnRyYXRpb24gZnJvbSB0aGUgZXh0ZXJuYWwgZW52aXJvbm1lbnQgaW5jcmVhc2VzLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcXVlc3Rpb24gc3RhdGVzIHRoYXQgb3RoZXIgdmFyaWFibGVzIChiZXNpZGVzIGFic29yYmVkIGxpZ2h0KSB3aWxsIGJlIGtlcHQgY29uc3RhbnQsIGFuZCB5b3UgY2FuIGFzc3VtZSB0aGF0IGluY2x1ZGVzIHRoZSBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBjb25jZW50cmF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyByYXRlIGlzIGluaGliaXRlZCBieSB0aGUgb3h5Z2VuIGNvbmNlbnRyYXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcXVlc3Rpb24gc3RhdGVzIHRoYXQgb3RoZXIgdmFyaWFibGVzIChiZXNpZGVzIGFic29yYmVkIGxpZ2h0KSB3aWxsIGJlIGtlcHQgY29uc3RhbnQsIGFuZCB5b3UgY2FuIGFzc3VtZSB0aGF0IGluY2x1ZGVzIHRoZSBveHlnZW4gY29uY2VudHJhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfdcd19b41765″ question_number=”12″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] Graph 1 below shows the amount of sunlight received by various levels of a forest on a sunny summer’s day. For example, at noon, the tallest trees receive 100% of full sunlight. By contrast, the bushes receive between about 12% and 50% of full sunlight (depending on their height and position). Note that the light curve experienced by all layers is a triangle, but the triangle is flatter for the lower layers.

Graph 2 shows the plants’ response to light, as shown by their rate of photosynthesis.

Using the average light intensity for their level between about 10 am and 2 pm, what percent of maximum photosynthesis would the tallest trees have? What percent would the bushes have?

[c]IDc1JSBhbmQgOSU=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDUwJSBhbmQgOSU=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDUwJSBhbmQgNSU=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IDEwMCUgYW 5kIDYwJQ==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgQmV0d2VlbiAxMCBhbmQgMiBwbSwgdGhlIHRhbGxlc3QgdHJlZXMgd2lsbCBiZSBwZXJmb3JtaW5nIDEwMCUgb2YgdGhlIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzIHRoYXQgdGhleSBjYW4gcGVyZm9ybSwgYW5kIHRoZSBidXNoZXMgd2lsbCBiZSBhdCBhYm91dCA2MCUu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfda0dcd22b65″ question_number=”13″ topic=”3.5.Photosynthesis”] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.


The process most directly responsible for creating molecule A (glucose) is

[c]IGdseWNvbHlzaXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHljb2x5c2lzIGlzIHRoZSBmaXJzdCBzdGVwIGluIGNlbGx1bGFyIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uLCBhbmQgdGhlcmVmb3JlIGludm9sdmVkIGluIGJyZWFraW5nIGdsdWNvc2UgYXBhcnQgKGFzIG9wcG9zZWQgdG8gY3JlYXRpbmcgaXQpLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGUgcHJvY2VzcyBoYXBwZW5zIGluIHBsYW50cywgYnV0IG5vdCBpbiBhbmltYWxzLg==[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBLcmVicyBjeWNsZQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgS3JlYnMgY3ljbGUgaXMgb25lIG9mIHRoZSBtYWpvciByZWFjdGlvbnMgaW52b2x2ZWQgaW4gY2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24uIFRoYXQgbWFrZXMgaXQgbW9yZSBpbnZvbHZlZCBpbiBicmVha2luZyBnbHVjb3NlIGFwYXJ0IHRoYW4gYnVpbGRpbmcgaXQuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzIGhhcHBlbnMgaW4gcGxhbnRzLCBidXQgbm90IGluIGFuaW1hbHMu[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBsaWdodCByZWFjdGlvbnMgb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHZlcnkgY2xvc2UuIFRoZSBsaWdodCByZWFjdGlvbnMgY3JlYXRlIHRoZSBOQURQSCBhbmQgQVRQIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyByZXF1aXJlZCBmb3IgdGhlIG5leHQgcGhhc2Ugb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMgdG8gdGFrZSBpbiBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBhbmQgcmVkdWNlIGl0IHRvIGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXMgc3VjaCBhcyBnbHVjb3NlLiBXaGF0IGlzIHRoYXQgbmV4dCBwaGFzZSBjYWxsZWQ/[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBDYWx2 aW4gQ3ljbGU=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBUaGUgQ2FsdmluIGN5Y2xlLCBhbHNvIGNhbGxlZCB0aGUgbGlnaHQgaW5kZXBlbmRlbnQgcGhhc2Ugb2YgcGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMsIGlzIHRoZSBwcm9jZXNzIGRpcmVjdGx5IHJlc3BvbnNpYmxlIGZvciBjcmVhdGluZyBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGVzIHN1Y2ggYSBnbHVjb3NlLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfd724be45b65″ question_number=”14″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] In the food web below, which organism(s) is(are) performing oxidative phosphorylation?

[c]IEhlZGdlaG9nIGFuZCBIYXdr[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91ciBhbnN3ZXIgaXMgcGFydGx5IGNvcnJlY3QuIE94aWRhdGl2ZSBwaG9zcGhvcnlsYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgbWFraW5nIEFUUCAoc3RlcCA2LCBiZWxvdykgYXMgdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluICgyKSBwb3dlcnMgY2hlbWlvc21vc2lzICgzKSwgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4gYXMgdGhlIEVUQyYjODIxNztzIGZpbmFsIGVsZWN0cm9uIGFjY2VwdG9yICg1KS4gQXJlIHRoZXJlIGFueSBvcmdhbmlzbXMgaW4gdGhlIGZvb2Qgd2ViIGFib3ZlIHdobyBkb24mIzgyMTc7dCBwZXJmb3JtIHRoaXMgcHJvY2Vzcz8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEdyYXNzIG9ubHk=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91ciBhbnN3ZXIgaXMgcGFydGx5IGNvcnJlY3QuIE94aWRhdGl2ZSBwaG9zcGhvcnlsYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgbWFraW5nIEFUUCAoc3RlcCA2LCBiZWxvdykgYXMgdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluICgyKSBwb3dlcnMgY2hlbWlvc21vc2lzICgzKSwgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4gYXMgdGhlIEVUQyYjODIxNztzIGZpbmFsIGVsZWN0cm9uIGFjY2VwdG9yICg1KS4gQXJlIHRoZXJlIGFueSBvcmdhbmlzbXMgaW4gdGhlIGZvb2Qgd2ViIGFib3ZlIHdobyBkb24mIzgyMTc7dCBwZXJmb3JtIHRoaXMgcHJvY2Vzcz8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEZveCBhbmQgaGF3aw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91ciBhbnN3ZXIgaXMgcGFydGx5IGNvcnJlY3QuIE94aWRhdGl2ZSBwaG9zcGhvcnlsYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgbWFraW5nIEFUUCAoc3RlcCA2LCBiZWxvdykgYXMgdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluICgyKSBwb3dlcnMgY2hlbWlvc21vc2lzICgzKSwgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4gYXMgdGhlIEVUQyYjODIxNztzIGZpbmFsIGVsZWN0cm9uIGFjY2VwdG9yICg1KS4gQXJlIHRoZXJlIGFueSBvcmdhbmlzbXMgaW4gdGhlIGZvb2Qgd2ViIGFib3ZlIHdobyBkb24mIzgyMTc7dCBwZXJmb3JtIHRoaXMgcHJvY2Vzcz8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEJlZXRsZXMsIFNsdWdzLCBhbmQgTWljZQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91ciBhbnN3ZXIgaXMgcGFydGx5IGNvcnJlY3QuIE94aWRhdGl2ZSBwaG9zcGhvcnlsYXRpb24gaW52b2x2ZXMgbWFraW5nIEFUUCAoc3RlcCA2LCBiZWxvdykgYXMgdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluICgyKSBwb3dlcnMgY2hlbWlvc21vc2lzICgzKSwgd2l0aCBveHlnZW4gYXMgdGhlIEVUQyYjODIxNztzIGZpbmFsIGVsZWN0cm9uIGFjY2VwdG9yICg1KS4gQXJlIHRoZXJlIGFueSBvcmdhbmlzbXMgaW4gdGhlIGZvb2Qgd2ViIGFib3ZlIHdobyBkb24mIzgyMTc7dCBwZXJmb3JtIHRoaXMgcHJvY2Vzcz8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEFsbCBvZiB0 aGUgYWJvdmU=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgQWxsIHRoZSBvcmdhbmlzbXMgYWJvdmUgcGVyZm9ybSBveGlkYXRpdmUgcGhvc3Bob3J5bGF0aW9uLiBVc2UgdGhpcyBhcyBhbiBvcHBvcnR1bml0eSB0byByZXZpZXcgdGhlIGRldGFpbHMgb2YgdGhpcyBwcm9jZXNzLCBhcyBzaG93biBpbiB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBiZWxvdy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfd460f026f65″ question_number=”15″ topic=”3.6.Respiration”] During cellular respiration, this compound is generated by glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and chemiosmosis.

[c]IENhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyB0aGUgbW9tZW50LXRvLW1vbWVudCBlbmVyZ3kgc291cmNlIG9mIHRoZSB0aGUgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[c]IExpcGlk[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyB0aGUgbW9tZW50LXRvLW1vbWVudCBlbmVyZ3kgc291cmNlIG9mIHRoZSB0aGUgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[c]IEFU UA==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQVRQIChhZGVub3NpbmUgdHJpcGhvc3BoYXRlKSBpcyB0aGUgY2VsbCYjODIxNztzIG1vbWVudC10by1tb21lbnQgZW5lcmd5IHNvdXJjZSwgYW5kIGl0JiM4MjE3O3MgY3JlYXRlZCBkdXJpbmcgZ2x5Y29seXNpcywgdGhlIEtyZWJzIGN5Y2xlLCBhbmQgdGhyb3VnaCB0aGUgb3hpZGF0aXZlIHBob3NwaG9yeWxhdGlvbiByZWFjdGlvbnMgcG93ZXJlZCBieSBjaGVtaW9zbW9zaXMu[Qq]

[c]IFByb3RlaW4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyB0aGUgbW9tZW50LXRvLW1vbWVudCBlbmVyZ3kgc291cmNlIG9mIHRoZSB0aGUgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[c]IE51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXaGF0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyB0aGUgbW9tZW50LXRvLW1vbWVudCBlbmVyZ3kgc291cmNlIG9mIHRoZSB0aGUgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfd19d2208365″ question_number=”16″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] Researchers conducted an experiment to test the efficiency of ATP production in white-tailed hornets’ wing muscles. They measured ATP production at various flight speeds in a wind tunnel. At the highest speeds, the hornets were exhausted quickly. The results of the experiment are displayed in the diagram below.

Which of the following statements best describes the pattern in the diagram?

[c]IEdsdWNvc2UgaXMgcmVkdWNlZCBhdCBsb3cgZmxpZ2h0IHNwZWVkcyBhbmQgb3hpZGl6ZWQgYXQgaGlnaCBmbGlnaHQgc3BlZWRzLg==[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IEdsdWNvc2UgaXMgdGhlIG1haW4gZW5lcmd5IHNvdXJjZSBhdCBsb3cgZmxpZ2h0IHNwZWVkcywgYnV0IG1vcmUgZW5lcmdldGljIG1vbGVjdWxlcyBhcmUgdXNlZCBhdCBoaWdoIGZsaWdodCBzcGVlZHMu[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IE94eWdlbiBpcyB0aGUgZmluYWwgZWxlY3Ryb24gYWNjZXB0b3IgYXQgbG93IGZsaWdodCBz cGVlZHMgYW5kIGZlcm1lbnRhdGlvbiBpcyB1c2VkIGF0IGhpZ2ggZmxpZ2h0IHNwZWVkcy4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[c]IEVsZWN0cm9uIHRyYW5zcG9ydCBpcyB1c2VkIGF0IGxvdyBmbGlnaHQgc3BlZWRzLCBidXQgc2xvd3MgZG93biBtZXRhYm9saXNtIGF0IGhpZ2ggZmxpZ2h0IHNwZWVkcy4=[Qq]

[f]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[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfc76d6e02b65″ question_number=”17″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] The figure below represents a biochemical pathway in a cell. In the figure, the four compounds labelled I-IV are:

[c]IGZhdCwgQVRQLCB3YXRlciwgYW5kIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIHJlc3BlY3RpdmVseS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBhdCBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4gVGhlIGZpcnN0IGFycm93IG9uIHRoZSBmYXIgbGVmdCByZXByZXNlbnRzIGdseWNvbHlzaXMuIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgaW5wdXQgZm9yIGdseWNvbHlzaXM/[Qq]

[c]IGdsdWNvc2UsIGNpdHJhdGUsIGFjZXR5bCBDb0EsIGFuZCBsYWN0YXRlIHJlc3BlY3RpdmVseS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBhdCBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIGNvcnJlY3RseSBmaWd1cmVkIG91dCB0aGF0IHRoZSBmaXJzdCBhcnJvdyBvbiB0aGUgZmFyIGxlZnQgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBnbHljb2x5c2lzLCBhbmQgdGhhdCB0aGUgc3RhcnRpbmcgY29tcG91bmQgaXMgZ2x1Y29zZS4gQXQgdGhlIGVuZCBvZiBnbHljb2x5c2lzLCB5b3UgZ2V0IHR3bywgdGhyZWUtY2FyYm9uIG1vbGVjdWxlcy4gV2hhdCBpcyB0aGF0IG1vbGVjdWxlIGNhbGxlZD8=[Qq]

[c]IGdsdWNvc2UsIHB5cnV2YXRlLCBsYWN0YXRlLC BhbmQgYWNldHlsIENvQSByZXNwZWN0aXZlbHku[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gR2x1Y29zZSBpcyBJLCBweXJ1dmF0ZSBpcyBJSSwgbGFjdGF0ZSBpcyBJSUksIGFuZCBhY2V0eWwgQ29BIGlzIElWLg==[Qq]

[c]IHN0YXJjaCwgcHlydXZhdGUsIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlLCBhbmQgYWNldHlsIENvQSByZXNwZWN0aXZlbHku[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBhdCBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4gVGhlIGZpcnN0IGFycm93IG9uIHRoZSBmYXIgbGVmdCByZXByZXNlbnRzIGdseWNvbHlzaXMuIFdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgaW5wdXQgZm9yIGdseWNvbHlzaXM/[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfc3351875765″ question_number=”18″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] In a human cell, where does ATP synthase directly get energy to make ATP?

[c]IFN1bmxpZ2h0[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGF0IHdvdWxkIGJlIHRydWUgb2YgdGhlIGxpZ2h0IHJlYWN0aW9ucyBvZiBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcywgYnV0IG5vdCBmb3IgY2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24uIFRha2UgYSBsb29rIGF0IHRoZSBjaG9ydXMgdG8gb25lIG9mIG15IHNvbmdzLCBhbmQgc2VlIGlmIHlvdSBjYW4gZmlndXJlIGl0IG91dC4=

Cg==

VGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluLA==
[Qq] Uses ‘lectron energy for pumping protons,
From the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.
Increasing proton concentration in that place.
The only way the protons can escape.
Is through a channel and an enzyme ATP synthase.
Which uses diffusing protons’ kinetic energy
To make ATP from ADP and P!

[c]IE94aWRhdGlvbiBvZiBnbHVjb3Nl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcXVlc3Rpb24gaXMgYXNraW5nIGFib3V0IHRoZSA=ZGlyZWN0IHNvdXJjZSBvZiBlbmVyZ3kgZm9yIG1ha2luZyBBVFAuIEdsdWNvc2UsIHdoaWNoIHByb3ZpZGVzIHRoZSBjaGVtaWNhbCBlbmVyZ3kgdG8gcG93ZXIgY2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24sIGlzIHRoZSA=aW5kaXJlY3Q=IHNvdXJjZSBvZiB0aGlzIGVuZXJneS4gVGFrZSBhIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIGNob3J1cyB0byBvbmUgb2YgbXkgc29uZ3MsIGFuZCBzZWUgaWYgeW91IGNhbiBmaWd1cmUgaXQgb3V0Lg==

[Qq]

The mitochondrial electron transport chain,
Uses ‘lectron energy for pumping protons,
From the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.
Increasing proton concentration in that place.
The only way the protons can escape.
Is through a channel and an enzyme ATP synthase.
Which uses diffusing protons’ kinetic energy
To make ATP from ADP and P!

[c]IFJlZHVjdGlvbiBvZiBveHlnZW4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBSZWR1Y3Rpb24gb2Ygb3h5Z2VuIGhhcHBlbnMgd2hlbiBveHlnZW4gYWNjZXB0cyBlbGVjdHJvbnMgYXQgdGhlIGVuZCBvZiB0aGUgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhbCBlbGVjdHJvbiB0cmFuc3BvcnQgY2hhaW4sIGFuZCB0aGF0IGlzIG5lY2Vzc2FyeSBmb3IgQVRQIGNyZWF0aW9uLCBidXQgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBub3QgdGhlIGRpcmVjdCBlbmVyZ3kgc291cmNlIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBwb3dlcmluZyBBVFAgc3ludGhlc2lzLiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgY2hvcnVzIHRvIG9uZSBvZiBteSBzb25ncywgYW5kIHNlZSBpZiB5b3UgY2FuIGZpZ3VyZSBpdCBvdXQu

Cg==

VGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluLA==
[Qq] Uses ‘lectron energy for pumping protons,
From the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.
Increasing proton concentration in that place.
The only way the protons can escape.
Is through a channel and an enzyme ATP synthase.
Which uses diffusing protons’ kinetic energy
To make ATP from ADP and P!

[c]IEZsb3cg b2YgSA==Kw==IGFjcm9zcyB0aGUgaW5uZXIgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhbCBtZW1icmFuZQ==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gSSB0cmllZCB0byBjYXB0dXJlIHRoaXMgaW4gdGhlIGNob3J1cyB0byBteSA=RWxlY3Ryb24gVHJhbnNwb3J0IENoYWluIHNvbmcu
Cg==VGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluLA==[Qq]
Uses ‘lectron energy for pumping protons,
From the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.
Increasing proton concentration in that place.
The only way the protons can escape.
Is through a channel and an enzyme ATP synthase.
Which uses diffusing protons’ kinetic energy
To make ATP from ADP and P!

[c]IE1vdmVtZW50IG9mIGVsZWN0cm9ucyBhY3Jvc3MgdGhlIGVsZWN0cm9uIHRyYW5zcG9ydCBjaGFpbg==[Qq]

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Cg==

VGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluLA==
[Qq] Uses ‘lectron energy for pumping protons,
From the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.
Increasing proton concentration in that place.
The only way the protons can escape.
Is through a channel and an enzyme ATP synthase.
Which uses diffusing protons’ kinetic energy
To make ATP from ADP and P!

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfbdad7c37f65″ question_number=”19″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] During cellular respiration, what is the function of the mitochondrion?

[c]IEh5ZHJvbHl6aW5nIEFUUA==[Qq]

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[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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[Qq]

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[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfb9bfa827365″ question_number=”20″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] Tigers hunt by concealing themselves, then running and pouncing on their prey. Tigers become exhausted quickly after running short distances. Which of the following statements best explains why tigers tire quickly when running?

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[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfb4f24fa0f65″ question_number=”21″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.4.Cellular_Energy”] What statement best explains the function of ATP in cellular metabolism?

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[Qq]

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Cg==

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Cg==

[Qq]

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[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfb253c240765″ question_number=”22″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] Researchers measured oxygen consumption in harbor porpoises that were swimming at three different speeds for one minute and then stopped.

The results are shown in the diagram below. At the slow and medium speeds the oxygen consumption rates immediately fell when the porpoises stopped swimming. In contrast, the the oxygen consumption rate at fast speeds remained at a high level for a short time even after the porpoises stopped swimming.


Which of the following statements best describes what occurred while swimming at fast speeds that explains this difference?

[c]IEFuIG94eWdlbiBkZWJ0 IHdhcyBjcmVhdGVkLg==[Qq]

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[c]IFRoZSBlbGVjdHJvbiB0cmFuc3BvcnQgc3lzdGVtIGFjY2VsZXJhdGVkLg==[Qq]

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[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfaeb06fac365″ question_number=”23″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] The model below represents the link reaction and the Krebs cycle.

In the model, the letters W, X, Y and Z represent which molecules?

[c]IGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlLCBhY2V0eWwgQ29BLCBBRFAsIHB5cnV2YXRl[Qq]

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[c]IEFjZXR5bCBDb0EsIHB5cnV2YXRlLCBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSwgQURQ[Qq]

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[c]IFB5cnV2YXRlLCBhY2V0eWwgQ29B LCBjYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSwgQURQ[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3ZlIGdvdCBhIGdvb2QgdW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBvZiB0aGUgbGluayByZWFjdGlvbiBhbmQgdGhlIEtyZWJzIGN5Y2xlIQ==[Qq]

[c]IEFEUCwgY2FyYm9uIGRpb3hpZGUsIGFjZXR5bCBDb0EsIHB5cnV2YXRl[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMb29rIGNsb3NlbHkgYXQgdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYW5kIGZvbGxvdyB0aGUgYXJyb3dzIGFzIHlvdSBjb25zaWRlciB0aGVzZSBoaW50cy4xKSBQeXJ1dmF0ZSBpcyB0aGUga2V5IGlucHV0IGZvciB0aGUgbGluayByZWFjdGlvbiwgd2hpY2ggcHJlY2VkZXMgdGhlIEtyZWJzIGN5Y2xlLiAyKSBBY2V0eWwgQ29BIGlzIHRoZSBrZXkgaW5wdXQgZm9yIHRoZSBLcmVicyBjeWNsZS4gTm93IHlvdSBmaWd1cmUgb3V0IHRoZSByZXN0Lg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1dfabeca18d765″ question_number=”24″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] The oxygen used in cellular respiration is directly involved in

[c]IGdseWNvbHlzaXM=[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IHRoZSBLcmVicyBjeWNsZQ==[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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[Qq]

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[Qq]

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Cg==

VGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluLA==
[Qq] Uses ‘lectron energy for pumping protons,
From the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.
Increasing proton concentration in that place.
The only way the protons can escape.
Is through a channel and an enzyme ATP synthase.
Which uses diffusing protons’ kinetic energy
To make ATP from ADP and P!

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1df9fd8a3deb65″ question_number=”25″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] Inhibitor A affects chloroplast function. Scientists conducted an experiment on the effects of inhibitor A on O2 production and ATP synthesis in illuminated chloroplasts. The results are displayed in the graphs below.

Which of the following conclusions about inhibitor A is most consistent with the results of the experiment?

[c]IEl0IGluaGliaXRzIHRoZS Bwcm90b24gZ3JhZGllbnQu[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gSWYgaW5oaWJpdG9yIEEmIzgyMTc7cyBlZmZlY3Qgd2FzIHRvIGFsbG93IHRoZSBsaWdodCByZWFjdGlvbnMgdG8gcG93ZXIgZWxlY3Ryb24gZmxvdyAoc2hvd24gYmVsb3cgYXQgbCwgYiwgZSwgYW5kIGYpLCBidXQgaW5oaWJpdCB0aGUgY3JlYXRpb24gb2YgYSBwcm90b24gZ3JhZGllbnQgKEopLCB0aGVuIHdlIHdvdWxkIG9ic2VydmUgdGhlIGNvbnRpbnVlZCByZWxlYXNlIG9mIG94eWdlbiBidXQgdGhlIGNlc3NhdGlvbiBvZiBBVFAgc3ludGhlc2lzIChhbmQgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGV4YWN0bHkgd2hhdCB3ZSBzZWUpLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEl0IGluaGliaXRzIHRoZSByZWR1Y3Rpb24gb2YgTkFEUA==Kw==Lg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgYWRkaXRpb24gb2YgQSBhbGxvd3MgTw==Mg==IHRvIGJlIHByb2R1Y2VkLCBidXQgbm90IEFUUC4gSWYgTw==Mg==IGlzIGJlaW5nIHByb2R1Y2VkIChhdCBLLCBiZWxvdyksIHRoZW4gd2UgY2FuIGhhdmUgZWxlY3Ryb24gZmxvdyAoc2hvd24gYmVsb3cgYXQgbCwgYiwgZSwgYW5kIGYpLCBhbmQgaWYgd2UgaGF2ZSBlbGVjdHJvbiBmbG93LCB0aGVuIE5BRFA=[Qq]+ will be reduced to NADPH. If ATP synthesis is going to be inhibited, what needs to be prevented?

[c]IEl0IGluaGliaXRzIHRoZSBwcm90b24gZ3JhZGllbnQgYW5kIHRoZSByZWR1Y3Rpb24gb2YgTkFEUA==Kw==Lg==[Qq]

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Cg==

[Qq]

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Cg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1df99bc04a8365″ question_number=”26″ unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” topic=”3.6.Respiration”] A portion of a cell is displayed in the electromicrograph below.

Which of the following processes is occurring at the organelle indicated by the letter “X”?

[c]IFB5cnV2YXRlIGlzIHN5bnRoZXNpemVkLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQeXJ1dmF0ZSBpcyBzeW50aGVzaXplZCBpbiB0aGUgY3l0b3BsYXNtLCB0aHJvdWdoIGdseWNvbHlzaXMu[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBjeWNsaW5nIG9m IE5BREggb2NjdXJzLg==[Qq]

[f]IFllcyAodGhvdWdoIHRoYXQgbWlnaHQgbm90IGJlIHRoZSB3YXkgeW91IGhhdmUgdHlwaWNhbGx5IHRob3VnaHQgYWJvdXQgd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGluIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWEhKS4gSW4gdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYSwgTkFESCBpcyBveGlkaXplZCB0byBOQUQ=Kw==LiBUaGlzIGxvc3Mgb2YgZWxlY3Ryb25zIHBvd2VycyB0aGUgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluLCB3aGljaCBwb3dlcnMgQVRQIHN5bnRoZXNpcy4gVGhlIGxpbmsgcmVhY3Rpb24gYW5kIHRoZSBLcmVicyBjeWNsZSBhcmUgdXNlZCB0byByZWR1Y2UgTkFEKw==IGJhY2sgdG8gTkFESC4=[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBlbGVjdHJvbiB0cmFuc3BvcnQgY2hhaW4gcHJvZHVjZXMgdHdvIEFUUCBmb3IgZWFjaCBtb2xlY3VsZSBvZiBnbHVjb3NlIGZlZCBpbnRvIFg=[Qq]

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[c]IENhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlIGlzIGpvaW5lZCB0byBhbiBvcmdhbmljIG1vbGVjdWxlLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJdCBsb29rcyBsaWtlIHlvdSYjODIxNzt2ZSBtaXN0YWtlbiB0aGVzZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWEgZm9yIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0cy4gTm93IHRoYXQgeW91IGtub3cgdGhhdCBYIGlzIGEgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlvbiwgY2hvb3NlIGEgZGlmZmVyZW50IGFuc3dlciB0aGUgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”3.Cellular Energetics” dataset_id=”Unit 3 Cumulative Multiple Choice Dataset, v2.0|1df8044c29a765″ question_number=”27″ topic=”3.6.Respiration”] Cristae are folds in the inner mitochondrial membrane (shown at number 2 below). Electron micrographs show that mitochondria in heart muscle have a much higher density of cristae than mitochondria in skin cells. That is because

[c]IG11dGF0aW9ucyB0aGF0IG9jY3VyIGluIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWFsIGdlbm9tZSBkdXJpbmcgZGV2ZWxvcG1lbnQgbGVhZCB0byBkaXN0aW5jdCBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWFsIHBoZW5vdHlwZXMgaW4gZGlmZmVyZW50IHBhcnRzIG9mIHRoZSBib2R5Lg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcGhlbm9tZW5vbiBkZXNjcmliZWQgYWJvdmUgb2NjdXJzIHJlZ3VsYXJseSB0aHJvdWdob3V0IG91ciBzcGVjaWVzIChhbmQgcHJvYmFibHkgdGhyb3VnaG91dCBhbG1vc3QgYWxsIHZlcnRlYnJhdGUgbWFtbWFscykuIEEgbXV0YXRpb24gZHVyaW5nIGRldmVsb3BtZW50IHdvdWxkbiYjODIxNzt0IGxlYWQgdG8gc3VjaCBhIHJlZ3VsYXIgcmVzdWx0LiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGluayBhYm91dCB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbnMgaW4gdGhlIGNyaXN0YWUgKHRoZSBpbm5lciBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWFsIG1lbWJyYW5lKS4gSXMgdGhlcmUgYW55IHdheSB0aGF0IGhhdmluZyBtb3JlIGNyaXN0YWUgY291bGQgYmUgYWRhcHRpdmU/[Qq]

[c]IGNyaXN0YWUgY29udGFpbiByZWNlcHRvciBwcm90ZWlucyB0aGF0IHRyYW5zZHVjZSBzaWduYWxzIGZyb20gdGhlIHNrZWxldGFsIG11c2NsZXMsIGNhdXNpbmcgaGVhcnQgdGlzc3VlIHRvIGluY3JlYXNlIEFUUCBwcm9kdWN0aW9uIHdoZW4gb3h5Z2VuIGlzIG5lZWRlZC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNdXNjbGUgdGlzc3VlIGNlbGxzIGNvbnN1bWUgQVRQIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBtYWRlIGluIHRoZSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaWEuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQuIFRoaW5rIGFib3V0IHdoYXQgaGFwcGVucyBpbiB0aGUgY3Jpc3RhZSAodGhlIGlubmVyIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpYWwgbWVtYnJhbmUpLiBJcyB0aGVyZSBhbnkgd2F5IHRoYXQgaGF2aW5nIG1vcmUgY3Jpc3RhZSBjb3VsZCBiZSBhZGFwdGl2ZT8=[Qq]

[c]IGNyaXN0YWUgaW5jcmVhc2UgdGhlIHN1cmZhY2UgYXJlYSBvZiB0aGUgaW5uZXIgbWl0b2 Nob25kcmlhbCBtZW1icmFuZSwgYWxsb3dpbmcgbW9yZSBBVFAgdG8gYmUgcHJvZHVjZWQu[Qq]

[f]IEJpbmdvISBUaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgZXhhY3RseSB3aHkgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIGluIGhlYXJ0IGNlbGxzIHdvdWxkIGhhdmUgbW9yZSBjcmlzdGFlIHRoYW4gdGhvc2UgaW4gc2tpbiBjZWxscyAod2hpY2ggZG9uJiM4MjE3O3QgbmVlZCB2ZXJ5IG11Y2ggQVRQKS4=[Qq]

[c]IGNyaXN0YWUgZGVjcmVhc2UgaW5uZXIgbWVtYnJhbmUgc3VyZmFjZSBhcmVhLCB3aGljaCBwcm92aWRlcyBmb3IgaW5jcmVhc2VkIGVmZmljaWVuY3kgaW4gaGVhcnQgbXVzY2xlIHRpc3N1ZSwgZW5hYmxpbmcgaGVhcnQgY2VsbHMgdG8gcHJvZHVjZSBBVFAgYXQgYSBoaWdoZXIgcmF0ZS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgb24gdGhlIHJpZ2h0IHRyYWNrLiBLZWVwIHRoaW5raW5nIGFib3V0IHN1cmZhY2UgYXJlYSwgYW5kIGFsc28gdGhpbmsgYWJvdXQgd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5zIGluIHRoZSBjcmlzdGFlICh0aGUgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhbCBpbm5lciBtZW1icmFuZSkuIElmIHlvdSBjYW4gZmlndXJlIG91dCB3aHkgaGF2aW5nIG1vcmUgY3Jpc3RhZSB3b3VsZCBiZSBhZGFwdGl2ZSwgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIGhhdmUgeW91ciBhbnN3ZXIu[Qq]

[/qwiz]

 

4. Quiz: Connecting Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Note that to make a point, the diagram that this quiz is based upon takes one liberty: what goes into a mitochondrion (“g”) is pyruvic acid, not glucose (or another simple sugar, indicated by “e”).

[qwiz random=”true” quiz_timer=”true” style=”min-height: 450px !important; width: 550px !important;” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Comparing Respiration and PSN (2.0)”]

[h] Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration

[i] If it suits your learning style, use the timer on the top right as a way to improve your accuracy and speed in the questions that follow.

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1716a276dfbb56″ question_number=”1″] In the diagram below, carbon dioxide is indicated by

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG w=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGzigJ0gaW5kaWNhdGVzIGNhcmJvbiBkaW94aWRlLg==[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBDYXJib24gZGlveGlkZSBpcyBhIGdhcyB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgcmVsZWFzZWQgYnkgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhIGFzIGEgd2FzdGUgcHJvZHVjdCBhbmQgdGFrZW4gaW50byBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdHMgYXMgYW4gaW5wdXQu

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|171665edaa9356″ question_number=”2″] In the diagram below, oxygen is indicated by letter

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG Y=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGbigJ0gaW5kaWNhdGVzIG94eWdlbiwgYSB3YXN0ZSBwcm9kdWN0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLCBhbmQgaW5wdXQgZm9yIGNlbGx1bGFyIHJlc3BpcmF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBGaW5kIGEgZ2FzIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBjb21pbmcgb3V0IG9mIGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QgKCYjODIyMDthJiM4MjIxOyksIGFuZCBnb2luZyBpbnRvIGEgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlvbiAoJiM4MjIwO2cmIzgyMjE7KQ==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17162bb8814f56″ question_number=”3″] In the diagram below, protons are pumped to which region of a chloroplast?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG Q=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGTigJ0gaW5kaWNhdGVzIHRoZSB0aHlsYWtvaWQgc3BhY2UsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoZXJlIHByb3RvbnMgYXJlIHB1bXBlZCB0byBpbiBhIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0Lg==[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBGb3IgQVRQIHN5bnRoZXNpcyB0byBvY2N1ciwgcHJvdG9ucyBoYXZlIHRvIGJlIHB1bXBlZCBpbnRvIGEgc21hbGwgZW5jbG9zZWQgc3BhY2UuIEZpbmQgYSBzcGFjZSBsaWtlIHRoYXQgaW4gdGhlIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0ICgmIzgyMjA7YSYjODIyMTspLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1715f3d763ef56″ question_number=”4″] In the diagram below, protons are pumped to which region of a mitochondrion?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG g=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGjigJ0gaW5kaWNhdGVzIHRoZSBpbnRlcm1lbWJyYW5lIHNwYWNlLCB3aGljaCBpcyB3aGVyZSBwcm90b25zIGFyZSBwdW1wZWQgdG8gaW4gYSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBGb3IgQVRQIHN5bnRoZXNpcyB0byBvY2N1ciwgcHJvdG9ucyBoYXZlIHRvIGJlIHB1bXBlZCBpbnRvIGEgc21hbGwgZW5jbG9zZWQgc3BhY2UuIEZpbmQgYSBzcGFjZSBsaWtlIHRoYXQgaW4gdGhlIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24gKCYjODIyMDtnJiM4MjIxOyku

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1715b74e2ec756″ question_number=”5″] In the diagram below, the electron transport chain in a mitochondrion would be found on

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG k=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIGxldHRlciDigJxp4oCdIGluZGljYXRlcyB0aGUgaW5uZXIgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhbCBtZW1icmFuZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgd2hlcmUgdGhlIGVsZWN0cm9uIHRyYW5zcG9ydCBjaGFpbiBpcyBsb2NhdGVkLg==[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluIGhhcyB0byBiZSBsb2NhdGVkIG9uIGEgbWVtYnJhbmUsIGFuZCBpdCBoYXMgdG8gYmUgbG9jYXRlZCBuZXh0IHRvIGFuIGVuY2xvc2VkIHNwYWNlICh3aGVyZSBwcm90b25zIGNhbiBiZSBwdW1wZWQgdG8pLiBJbiBhIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24sIHdoYXQgbGV0dGVyIGNvdWxkIGluZGljYXRlIGEgcGFydCB0aGF0IGZpdHMgdGhvc2UgcmVxdWlyZW1lbnRzPw==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17157f6d116756″ question_number=”6″] In the diagram below, the electron transport chain in a chloroplast would be found on

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG M=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGPigJ0gaW5kaWNhdGVzIHRoZSB0aHlsYWtvaWQgbWVtYnJhbmUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoZXJlIHRoZSBlbGVjdHJvbiB0cmFuc3BvcnQgY2hhaW4gaXMgbG9jYXRlZCBpbiBhIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0Lg==[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgZWxlY3Ryb24gdHJhbnNwb3J0IGNoYWluIGhhcyB0byBiZSBsb2NhdGVkIG9uIGEgbWVtYnJhbmUsIGFuZCBpdCBoYXMgdG8gYmUgbG9jYXRlZCBuZXh0IHRvIGFuIGVuY2xvc2VkIHNwYWNlICh3aGVyZSBwcm90b25zIGNhbiBiZSBwdW1wZWQgdG8pLiBJbiBhIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0LCB3aGF0IGxldHRlciB3b3VsZCBpbmRpY2F0ZSBhIHBhcnQgdGhhdCBmaXRzIHRob3NlIHJlcXVpcmVtZW50cz8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17152b9b655756″ question_number=”7″] In the diagram below, the Calvin cycle would occur at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG I=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGLigJ0gaW5kaWNhdGVzIHRoZSBzdHJvbWEsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoZXJlIHRoZSBDYWx2aW4gY3ljbGUgb2NjdXJzLg==[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgQ2FsdmluIGN5Y2xlIG9jY3VycyBpbiBhIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0LCBvdXRzaWRlIG9mIHRoZSB0aHlsYWtvaWRzLg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1714e5c2009f56″ question_number=”8″] In the diagram below, the Krebs cycle would occur at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG o=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGrigJ0gaW5kaWNhdGVzIHRoZSBtYXRyaXgsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoZXJlIHRoZSBLcmVicyBjeWNsZSBvY2N1cnMu[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBUaGUgS3JlYnMgY3ljbGUgb2NjdXJzIGluIGEgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlvbiwgaW4gdGhlIGZsdWlkIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyBib3VuZGVkIGJ5IHRoZSBpbm5lciBtZW1icmFuZS4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17149d94900356″ question_number=”9″] In the diagram below, ATP synthase in a chloroplast would be found at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG M=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGPigJ0gaW5kaWNhdGVzIHRoZSB0aHlsYWtvaWQgbWVtYnJhbmUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHdoZXJlIHRoZSBBVFAgc3ludGhhc2UgY2hhbm5lbC9lbnp5bWUgaXMgZm91bmQgaW4gYSBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdC4=[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBBVFAgc3ludGhhc2UgaXMgYSBjaGFubmVsIGFuZCBlbnp5bWUgdGhhdCB1c2VzIHRoZSBraW5ldGljIGVuZXJneSBvZiBkaWZmdXNpbmcgcHJvdG9ucyB0byBjYXRhbHl6ZSB0aGUgZm9ybWF0aW9uIG9mIEFUUCBmcm9tIEFEUCBhbmQgcGhvc3BoYXRlLiBUbyBmdW5jdGlvbiwgaXQgaGFzIHRvIGJlIGxvY2F0ZWQgb24gYSBtZW1icmFuZSB0aGF0IGVuY2xvc2VzIGEgY29uZmluZWQgc3BhY2UgdGhhdCBwcm90b25zIGNhbiBiZSBwdW1wZWQgaW50by4gV2hpY2ggbWVtYnJhbmUgaW4gYSBjaGxvcm9wbGFzdCBjb3VsZCBmaXQgdGhhdCBkZXNjcmlwdGlvbj8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|171455671f6756″ question_number=”10″] In the diagram below, ATP synthase in a mitochondrion would be found at

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG k=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIGxldHRlciDigJxp4oCdIGluZGljYXRlcyB0aGUgaW5uZXIgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlhbCBtZW1icmFuZSwgd2hpY2ggaXMgd2hlcmUgdGhlIEFUUCBzeW50aGFzZSBjaGFubmVsL2VuenltZSBpcyBmb3VuZCBpbiBhIG1pdG9jaG9uZHJpb24u[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBBVFAgc3ludGhhc2UgaXMgYSBjaGFubmVsIGFuZCBlbnp5bWUgdGhhdCB1c2VzIHRoZSBraW5ldGljIGVuZXJneSBvZiBkaWZmdXNpbmcgcHJvdG9ucyB0byBjYXRhbHl6ZSB0aGUgZm9ybWF0aW9uIG9mIEFUUCBmcm9tIEFEUCBhbmQgcGhvc3BoYXRlLiBUbyBmdW5jdGlvbiwgaXQgaGFzIHRvIGJlIGxvY2F0ZWQgb24gYSBtZW1icmFuZSB0aGF0IGVuY2xvc2VzIGEgY29uZmluZWQgc3BhY2UgdGhhdCBwcm90b25zIGNhbiBiZSBwdW1wZWQgaW50by4gV2hpY2ggbWVtYnJhbmUgaW4gYSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uIGNvdWxkIGZpdCB0aGF0IGRlc2NyaXB0aW9uPw==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17140ae5a2e756″ question_number=”11″] Pretend that a chloroplast could have a goal (besides reproducing itself). If a chloroplast had a goal, what letter below could best represent it?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG U=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGXigJ0gcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhIHNpbXBsZSBzdWdhci4gVGhhdCYjODIxNztzIHRoZSBrZXkgb3V0cHV0IG9mIHBob3Rvc3ludGhlc2lzLiBJZiBhIGNobG9yb3BsYXN0IGhhZCBhIGdvYWwsIG1ha2luZyBzdWdhciB3b3VsZCBiZSBpdC4=[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGluayBvZiB0aGUgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QgYXMgYW4gb3JnYW5lbGxlLCB3aXRoIGEgZnVuY3Rpb24uIEl0cyBmdW5jdGlvbiBpcyB0byBtYWtlIHNvbWV0aGluZy4gV2hhdCBpcyBpdD8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1713b96802bb56″ question_number=”12″] Pretend that a mitochondrion could have a goal (besides reproducing itself). If a mitochondrion had a goal, what letter below could best represent it?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG s=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGvigJ0gcmVwcmVzZW50cyBBVFAuIFRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUga2V5IG91dHB1dCBvZiBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4gSWYgYSBtaXRvY2hvbmRyaW9uIGhhZCBhIGdvYWwsIG1ha2luZyBBVFAgd291bGQgYmUgaXQu[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGluayBvZiB0aGUgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlvbiBhcyBhbiBvcmdhbmVsbGUsIHdpdGggYSBmdW5jdGlvbi4gSXRzIGZ1bmN0aW9uIGlzIHRvIG1ha2Ugc29tZXRoaW5nLiBXaGF0IGlzIGl0Pw==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1713713a921f56″ question_number=”13″] What letter represents the energy that drives photosynthesis?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG 4=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnG7igJ0gcmVwcmVzZW50cyBsaWdodCwgdGhlIGVuZXJneSB0aGF0IGRyaXZlcyBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcy4=[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGluayBvZiB0aGUgd29yZCAmIzgyMjA7cGhvdG9zeW50aGVzaXMuJiM4MjIxOyBUaGUgJiM4MjIwO3Bob3RvJiM4MjIxOyBwYXJ0IHJlZmVycyB0byB3aGF0Pw==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17132b612d6756″ question_number=”14″] What letter represents the energy that drives cellular respiration?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG U=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnGXigJ0gcmVwcmVzZW50cyBhIHNpbXBsZSBzdWdhci4gVGhlIGVuZXJneSBmcm9tIHRoYXQgc3VnYXIgaXMgd2hhdCBkcml2ZXMgY2VsbHVsYXIgcmVzcGlyYXRpb24u[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSwgYW5kIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIHR3byBpbnB1dHMgZm9yIGEgbWl0b2Nob25kcmlvbi4gT25lIG9mIHRoZW0gcHJvdmlkZXMgdGhlIGVuZXJneSB0aGF0IGRyaXZlcyBjZWxsdWxhciByZXNwaXJhdGlvbi4=[Qq]

 

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1712e587c8af56″ question_number=”15″] In the diagram below, the inputs provided to the Calvin cycle at letter “b” would include ATP and [hangman]

[c]IE5BRFBI[Qq]

[f]IEdvb2Qh[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1712a2026fdb56″ question_number=”16″] In the diagram below, the inputs provided to the Calvin cycle at letter “b” would include NADPH and [hangman]

[c]IEFUUA==[Qq]

[f]IEdvb2Qh[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|17125c290b2356″ question_number=”17″] In the diagram below, which letter indicates the source of the electrons that flow in non-cyclic electron flow?

[textentry single_char=”true”]

[c]IG 0=[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gTGV0dGVyIOKAnG3igJ0gcmVwcmVzZW50cyB3YXRlciwgd2hpY2ggaXMgdGhlIHNvdXJjZSBvZiB0aGUgZWxlY3Ryb25zIGluIG5vbi1jeWNsaWMgZWxlY3Ryb24gZmxvdy4=[Qq]

[c]ICo=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUYWtlIGEgbG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSwgYW5kIGxvb2sgYXQgdGhlIHR3byBpbnB1dHMgZm9yIGEgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3QuIE9uZSBvZiB0aGVtIHByb3ZpZGVzIHRoZXNlIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4=[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|171218a3b24f56″ question_number=”18″] The structure at “c” is a [hangman] membrane.

[c]IHRoeWxha29pZA==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE=[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1711d07641b356″ question_number=”19″] The enzyme found in both “c” and “i” that uses the flow of protons to generate ATP is called ATP [hangman]

[c]IHN5bnRoYXNl[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3Qh[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|171185f4c53356″ question_number=”20″] The particles that are pumped into “d” and “h” are [hangman]

[c]IHByb3RvbnM=[Qq]

[f]IEdyZWF0IQ==[Qq]

[q dataset_id=”SMV_PSN_Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration|1710fc9607a756″ question_number=”21″] The membrane transport process that brings protons from “d” to “b” and from “h” to “j” is [hangman] diffusion

[c]IGZhY2lsaXRhdGVk[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCE=[Qq]

[x]

[restart]

[/qwiz]

 

5. Cellular Respiration Click-On Challenge

[qwiz style=” width: 600px !important; min-height: 400px !important;” quiz_timer=”true” random=”true” spaced_repetition=”false” dataset_intro=”false” use_dataset=”cellular-respiration-click-on-challenge” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Cellular Respiration Click-on Challenge (2.0)”]

[h] Cellular Respiration Click-On Challenge

[i] Note the timer in the top right corner. In the quiz that follows, aim for accuracy and speed.

[/qwiz]

6. Photosynthesis Click-On Challenge

[qwiz style=” width: 600px !important; min-height: 400px !important;”quiz_timer=”true” use_dataset=”Photosynthesis Click-On Dataset” dataset_intro=”false” spaced_repetition=”false” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Photosynthesis Click On Challenge (U3, 2.0)”]

[h] Quiz 1: Photosynthesis Click-On Challenge

[i] Note the timer in the top right. The goal is speed and accuracy. A good strategy is to take your time the first time through, carefully looking at the feedback statements. Then work at increasing your speed.

[/qwiz]