1. Self Assessment: Unit 1 Learning Objectives

These objectives are a modified version of what you’ll find in the College Board’s AP Bio Course and Exam Description. Start by seeing if you can respond to each objective below.

Topic 1.1. Structure of Water and Hydrogen Bonding

  1. Describe water’s molecular structure.
  2. Explain the key physical and chemical properties that result from water’s molecular structure.
  3. Describe cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension, and explain how these key properties of water result from hydrogen bonding.
  4. List examples of ways in which living things depend on water’s physical and chemical properties

Topic 1.2 – 1.4. Life’s Key Elements; Monomers and Polymers; Carbohydrates and Lipids

  1. Describe the key roles of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the molecules found in living things.
  2. Compare and contrast dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions.
  3. Describe the structure and function of three types of carbohydrates.
  4. Describe the structure and function of four types of lipids.

Topics 1.4, 1.5, 1.6: Proteins and Nucleic Acids

  1. Describe the role and structure of amino acids.
  2. List the types of R groups/side-chains
  3. Explain how proteins are directional.
  4. Explain how the four levels of protein structure give rise to a protein’s 3D shape and function
  5. Compare and contrast the structure of DNA and RNA (including both their monomers and overall structure).
  6. Explain the directionality of DNA, and connect directionality to DNA replication

2. Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards

[qdeck bold_text=”false” style=”width: 550px !important; min-height: 400px !important;” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards” dataset=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0″ dataset_intro=”false”]

[h] Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c1335ec43e240″ question_number=”1″ topic=”1.1.Structure_of_Water_and_Hydrogen_Bonding”] Describe hydrogen bonding in water.

[a]  Hydrogen bonds are intermolecular bonds that form between the partially positive (hydrogen) side of one water molecule and the partially negative (oxygen) side of another water molecule.

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c12d422507a40″ question_number=”2″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.1.Structure_of_Water_and_Hydrogen_Bonding”] Using the diagram below as an example, describe how hydrogen bonds can form between molecules besides water.

[a] Hydrogen bonds can form between partially positive and partially negatively charged regions of any molecule. In the example below, there are two hydrogen bonds. In one, a partially negatively charged oxygen in a carbonyl group in thymine binds with a partially positively charged hydrogen in an amino group in adenine. In the second, a partially positively charged hydrogen in an amino group in thymine binds with a partially negatively charged nitrogen in adenine.

 

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c124173635e40″ question_number=”3″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.1.Structure_of_Water_and_Hydrogen_Bonding”] What is heat of vaporization? Why does water have a very high heat of vaporization, and how do organisms exploit this to regulate body temperature?

[a] Heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a liquid into a gas. Because the breaking of hydrogen bonds requires energy, water has a very high heat of vaporization. That means that when water is converted into water vapor (which happens when sweat evaporates from human skin or a dog’s tongue), it carries away a lot of heat energy, lowering the temperature of the body that it evaporated from. This is how evaporative cooling works, and it’s a key thermoregulatory adaptation in humans and other animals.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.1.Structure_of_Water_and_Hydrogen_Bonding” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c11872fac1e40″ question_number=”4″] Describe cohesion, adhesion and surface tension, and explain how these key properties of water result from hydrogen bonding.

[a] Cohesion involves hydrogen bonds between water molecules. It’s responsible for water’s high heat of vaporization, high specific heat, and high surface tension. Surface tension is the force exerted by the water molecules on the surface of a body of water. This creates a kind of web or net upon which insects like water striders can stand, and which also resists evaporation. Adhesion involves hydrogen bonds between water molecules and other polar substances, such as the cellulose walls making up the xylem of plants. Adhesion is responsible for capillary action. Working together, evaporation, cohesion, and adhesion make it possible for trees to pull water from their roots up to their leaves.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c111c15892640″ question_number=”5″ topic=”1.1.Structure_of_Water_and_Hydrogen_Bonding”] In terms of hydrogen ions, hydroxide ions, and pH, describe the difference between an acidic and a basic solution.

[a] Acidic solutions have more hydrogen ions (protons or H+) than hydroxide ions (represented by OH) The pH of an acidic solution is below 7. Bases are substances that have more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions, and their pH is above 7.

[!]1.2.Elements of Life[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c110279065a40″ question_number=”6″ topic=”1.2.Elements_of_Life”] Describe the biological importance of carbon, and explain why carbon plays the role that it does in living things.

[a] Carbon is the central atom in biological molecules. Because carbon has four valence electrons, it can form a wide variety of covalent bonds, including single, double, and triple bonds with itself and other elements. This enables carbon to form rings, chains, and branched molecules of any length and shape. This makes possible the formation of complex molecules that, at a molecular level, underlie life’s properties: replication, energy transfer, encapsulation, etc.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c10e4346bc640″ question_number=”7″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.2.Elements_of_Life”] Explain the biological importance of hydrogen.

[a] Hydrogen is a key atom in almost every biological molecule. One of its key roles is transferring chemical energy: energy-rich molecules (like sugars, starches, fats, and oils) have lots of hydrogen. Hydrogen ions (or protons) are used to create acidic environments within parts of cells or in body cavities like the stomach.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c10c843dd1640″ question_number=”8″ topic=”1.2.Elements_of_Life”] Describe the biological importance of nitrogen.

[a] Nitrogen is a key part of proteins, making up a central part of the amino group found in every amino acid. Nitrogen is also in the nitrogenous bases that make up nucleotides.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c10ac534e6640″ question_number=”9″ topic=”1.2.Elements_of_Life”] Describe the biological importance of oxygen.

[a] Oxygen is a key part of almost all biological molecules. Oxygen is required for aerobic cellular respiration.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c106d760d5a40″ question_number=”10″ topic=”1.2.Elements_of_Life”] The Earth’s atmosphere is unique in that it contains a large proportion of free oxygen (O2). Where did that oxygen come from?

[a] About 3.5 billion years ago, photosynthetic bacteria started releasing free O2 as a waste product of photosynthesis. That’s the source of the oxygen in our atmosphere.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c1051857eaa40″ question_number=”11″ topic=”1.2.Elements_of_Life”] Describe the biological importance of phosphorus.

[a] Phosphorus, as part of a phosphate group (-PO4), plays roles in energy transfer and information transfer. The phosphate group is a key part of life’s energy transfer molecule, ATP. Phosphate groups are part of the sugar-phosphate backbone of life’s key informational molecules, DNA and RNA. Phosphate groups also play a key role in the structure of phospholipids, the key structural molecules in cell membranes.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c103594effa40″ question_number=”12″ topic=”1.2.Elements_of_Life”] Describe the biological importance of sulfur.

[a] Sulfur is a key part of the structure of proteins. Two amino acids, methionine and cystine, contain sulfur. Covalent bonds can form between spatially adjacent sulfhydryl groups in cysteine residues in a polypeptide. This creates a disulfide bridge, which is a key part of the tertiary structure of proteins.

[!]1.3.Monomers and Polymers[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0ff6b7aeee40″ question_number=”13″ topic=”1.3.Monomers_and_Polymers”] What are monomers?  How do they connect to form polymers?

[a] Three of the four macromolecule families that make up living things — carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids — are built from smaller building blocks called monomers.  Living things build macromolecules with specific three-dimensional shapes and functions by combining monomers into polymers through a process called dehydration synthesis.

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0fdac7203e40″ question_number=”14″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.3.Monomers_and_Polymers”] Explain dehydration synthesis.

[a] Living things combine monomers into polymers through enzyme-catalyzed dehydration synthesis reactions.  In these reactions, a hydroxyl group (an —OH) is pulled off of one monomer (or a group of already connected monomers), and a hydrogen atom is pulled off the other. The —H and —OH combine to form water (hence, dehydration synthesis).

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0fc12a9d7240″ question_number=”15″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.3.Monomers_and_Polymers”] Describe hydrolysis.

[a] Living things digest or recycle polymers through hydrolysis (“breaking with water”). Enzymes insert a water molecule between the monomers making up the polymer. This breaks the bond that held the two monomers together.

[!]1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0fa53a0ec240″ question_number=”16″ topic=”1.3.Monomers_and_Polymers”] What are the four types of macromolecules that make up living organisms.

[a] Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0f6408c1d240″ question_number=”17″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] What are the three types of carbohydrates?

[a] Carbohydrates include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0f1987455240″ question_number=”18″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Describe the basic structure and biological importance of monosaccharides.

[a] Monosaccharides (such as glucose or fructose) are simple sugars, composed of a single carbohydrate monomer. Monosaccharides are often energy sources, powering cellular respiration. Glucose is also the product of photosynthesis.

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0efd96b6a240″ question_number=”19″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Describe the basic structure and biological importance of disaccharides.

[a] Disaccharides (such as lactose and sucrose) are composed of two monosaccharides. Disaccharides are often used for energy transfer. Lactose (milk sugar) transfers energy from a mammalian mother to her offspring. Sucrose (shown below) is composed of one glucose (a) bonded to one fructose (b). Sucrose is used to transfer energy from the leaves of a plant to other, non-photosynthetic parts.

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0ee3fa33d640″ question_number=”20″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Describe some of the biochemical and evolutionary issues connected with lactose tolerance and intolerance.

[a] Lactose is a disaccharide. It’s the key sugar in milk. Milk-drinking mammals can digest lactose when they’re babies, but stop producing the lactose-digesting enzyme lactase once they’re weaned. In other words, most mammals are lactose intolerant (except when they’re babies). If these mammals, as adults, ingested lactose, they’d experience diarrhea and flatulence.

In a few populations of humans, the domestication of ruminants (mammals like cows, goats, and camels) was accompanied by the spread of a mutation that allowed humans to continue to produce lactase throughout their lifespan, enabling them to digest milk products. But other populations (the majority of humanity) are lactose intolerant (as are many individuals within the cultures that descend from the ancestral milk-drinkers).

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0ec5b5994240″ question_number=”21″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Describe the basic structure and biological importance of polysaccharides.

[a] Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers, composed of 3 or more monosaccharides linked together. Starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose and are used for energy storage (starch in plants, glycogen in animals). Cellulose (also a polymer of glucose) is used to build the cell walls of plants.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0ea9c50a9240″ question_number=”22″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Starch and cellulose are both polysaccharides, yet their biological functions are different. Describe the function of each, and explain their differences.

[a] Both starch and cellulose are polymers of glucose. Starch is used by plants to store energy; cellulose is used to build cell walls. Starch can be used for energy storage because the bond that connects the glucose monomers in starch is easily hydrolyzed by enzymes in many species, including humans. Cellulose, by contrast, can’t be digested by humans. That’s because the bonds between the glucose monomers in cellulose have a configuration that few animal enzymes can hydrolyze. As a result, cellulose, when ingested, serves as a source of fiber, but not energy.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0e5f438e1240″ question_number=”23″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] While humans and many other animals can’t digest cellulose for food energy, a few animals — such as ruminants and termites — can. Explain.

[a] The animals that can digest cellulose for food energy have formed mutualistic relationships with microorganisms. Among the mammals, ruminants (cows, goats, deer, etc.) have symbiotic relationships with bacteria that can break off the glucose monomers in cellulose. As a result, ruminants can digest grass and other fibrous plants, and use these foods for energy. Termites have a symbiotic relationship with a protist (a single-celled eukaryote, which carries its own bacterial endosymbiont). This enables termites to use wood as a food source from which they can acquire matter and chemical energy.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0e40fef37e40″ question_number=”24″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Describe the basic chemistry, overall structure, and biological importance of lipids.

[a] Lipids are molecules that are either non-polar or have large nonpolar regions. Many lipids are built of one or more fatty acids (shown below), which are hydrocarbon chains that end in a carboxyl group.  Lipids are used for energy storage, waterproofing, as essential components of cell membranes, and as building blocks for steroid hormones.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0e22ba58ea40″ question_number=”25″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] List the four key types of lipids. Briefly describe the function of each.

[a] Lipids include

  • triglycerides (fats and oils), which are used for energy storage and insulation;
  • waxes, which are used for waterproofing;
  • phospholipids, which are the key structural components of cell membranes;
  • and steroids, which are signaling molecules (steroid hormones).

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0e0475be5640″ question_number=”26″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Describe the chemical structure, properties, and functions of of fat.

[a] Fats are triglycerides, with three saturated fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule (a 3-carbon alcohol). Saturated fatty acids, with no double bonds, are straight. This allows the fat molecules to form weak intermolecular bonds with one another (called “London Dispersion forces). These bonds enable a cluster of fat molecules to maintain their shape at room temperature, which is why fats (like butter and lard) are solids. Fat is used for energy storage and insulation.

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0de3dd17de40″ question_number=”27″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Why are oils liquid at room temperature?

[a] Oils (like fats) are triglycerides. In oils, one or more of the fatty acids is unsaturated and has at least one double bond. This bends the hydrocarbon chains, preventing oil molecules from bonding with one another. As a result, oils are liquid at room temperature. The primary function of oil is energy storage.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0dca40951240″ question_number=”28″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Describe the structure of phospholipids.

[a]   The central molecule in a phospholipid is a 3-carbon alcohol called glycerol (2). Bonded to the glycerol on one side are two fatty acids, forming the hydrophobic tail (3). On the other side of the glycerol is the hydrophilic head, which contains a negatively charged phosphate group. As a result, phospholipids have a polar, hydrophilic “head,” and a non-polar, hydrophobic “tail.”

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0da753e2b640″ question_number=”29″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Explain the relationship between the structure of a phospholipid and the role that these molecules play in cell membranes.

[a] When phospholipids are mixed with water, the hydrophilic heads face out (interacting with water molecules), while the tails face inward, forming a water-free zone. In addition, the tails are attracted to one another by very weak intermolecular forces (called London Dispersion forces, or hydrophobic bonds). This interaction forms the basic structure of membranes, the phospholipid bilayer.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0d8b63540640″ question_number=”30″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates_and_Lipids”] Describe the structure and function of steroids and waxes.

[a] Steroids consist of four or five fused carbon rings, often with hydrocarbons attached. They’re the starting point for steroid hormones (important signaling molecules). Cholesterol is a steroid that plays a stabilizing role in cell membranes.

Waxes consist of two or more hydrocarbon chains that are bonded together. They play an important waterproofing role, especially in leaves, where waxes coat the surface of leaves, reducing water loss.

[!]1.5.Proteins[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0d6acaad8e40″ question_number=”31″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids”] Name the monomer of proteins, and describe that monomer’s structure.

[a] Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Amino acids are built around a central carbon, attached to an amine group (2), a carboxyl group (3), a hydrogen atom, and a variable R group (4). The R group also called a “side chain” can be polar, non-polar, acidic, or basic. Interactions between amino acids (covered in another card) determine the protein’s three-dimensional shape.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0d4c8612fa40″ question_number=”32″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids”] Describe the biological importance of proteins. See if you can list 5 key functions of proteins. Here’s a hint: each functions starts with one of the following letters: MESTES

Importance for the AP exam: Medium 

[a] Proteins functions include

  • Motion (as in the proteins actin and myosin, which interact to create muscle tissue);
  • Controlling chemical reactions as enzymes;
  • Structure (as in the flexible protein collagen or the more fibrous keratin, which makes hair, feathers, and nails;
  • Transport (as in hemoglobin, which carries oxygen)
  • Energy storage (albumin)
  • Transmitting signals (as in protein hormones like insulin or protein neurotransmitters like serotonin).

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0d3095844a40″ question_number=”33″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids”] What are peptide bonds? How do they work?

[a] Amino acids bond with one another through peptide bonds. These bonds form through a dehydration synthesis reaction that’s catalyzed by ribosomes during protein synthesis. In a peptide bond, the carboxyl group of one amino acid binds to the amino group of the next, resulting in a bond between a carbon atom and a nitrogen atom. The carbon is double-bonded to oxygen, making a carbonyl group. The nitrogen is bonded to hydrogen. 

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” question_number=”34″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0d16f9017e40″] Describe primary protein structure.

[a] The first level of structure is primary structure: it consists of the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. This sequence is genetically determined and emerges as ribosomes translate messenger RNA into polypeptide chains, with each amino acid’s position and identity spelled out by codons (3 base sequences) in mRNA.

In the diagram below, each sphere represents one of the linked amino acids making up a protein’s primary structure.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” question_number=”35″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0cf8b466ea40″] Describe secondary protein structure.

[a] Secondary protein structure involves interactions between carbonyl groups and amino groups in the polypeptide backbone. These interactions can cause a polypeptide to twist into a coiled alpha helix (left), or form a regularly folded structure called a pleated sheet (right).

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” question_number=”36″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0cd81bc07240″] Describe tertiary protein structure.

[a] Interactions between amino acid side chains (also called R-groups) result in a tertiary structure. These interactions involve hydrogen bonds (2), ionic bonds (5), covalent bonds (3), or hydrophobic clustering (4). The result is a complex, three-dimensional shape.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” question_number=”37″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0cb52f0e1640″] Describe quaternary protein structure.

[a] Multiple polypeptides can interact to form a quaternary structure, which is found in proteins such as hemoglobin (shown below), which consists of four, interconnected, polypeptides. The bonds that stabilize a quaternary structure include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic interactions.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0c96ea738240″ question_number=”38″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids”] In relationship to the C-terminus and the N-terminus, describe how molecular directionality works in proteins, and explain why this is biologically significant.

[a] Every protein has an amino group on one end (the amino or N-terminus), and a carboxyl group on the other end (the carboxyl or C-terminus). This turns out to be biologically significant during both protein synthesis and protein digestion.

  • During protein synthesis, ribosomes can only add new amino acids at the carboxyl terminus of a polypeptide chain.
  • During protein digestion, protein-digesting enzymes will have active sites that can pull proteins apart in specific ways. Some will break off amino acids from the amino side (but be unable to do so from the carboxyl side). Others attack the carboxyl end. Others can hydrolyze peptide bonds in the middle of a polypeptide chain.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0c7af9e4d240″ question_number=”39″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids”] Describe the structure and function of hemoglobin, and explain the molecular cause of sickle cell disease.

[a] Hemoglobin is a quaternary protein made of four polypeptide chains. It transports oxygen in red blood cells.

People with sickle cell disease inherit a mutation in which the amino acid valine (with a nonpolar side chain) substitutes for glutamic acid (with an acidic side chain). Consequently, when blood becomes deoxygenated, the mutated hemoglobin molecules form hydrophobic bonds with one another, causing them to aggregate into fibers (B). This reduces hemoglobin’s capacity to carry oxygen and deforms the shape of red blood cells, which become elongated and spiked. This causes these cells to become trapped in capillaries, blocking blood flow and causing pain and tissue damage.

[!]1.6.Nucleic Acids[/!]

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0c5f09562240″ question_number=”40″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids”] Describe the biological importance of nucleic acids.

[a] DNA is the molecule of heredity. It’s the informational part of the chromosomes that get passed from one generation to the next during reproduction, and from mother cell to daughter cells during growth and development.

While RNA is a hereditary molecule in some viruses, its key role is information transfer, as in messenger RNA.  RNA can also act as an enzyme, catalyzing reactions.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0c4318c77240″ question_number=”41″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids”] Name the monomer of nucleic acids, and describe this monomer’s structure. Describe how these monomers are different in DNA and RNA.

[a] The monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides, which consist of a 5-carbon sugar (at 2), a phosphate group (at 1), and one of four nitrogenous bases (at 3). The phosphate group is connected to the 5’ carbon in the sugar, and the nitrogenous base is connected to the 1’ carbon. In DNA, the sugar is deoxyribose, and the bases are adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. In RNA, the sugar is ribose, and the bases are adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine.

[q json=”true” yy=”4″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0c24d42cde40″ question_number=”42″ topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids”] Describe the structure of DNA.

[a] DNA consists of two nucleotide strands. Within each strand, the nucleotides connect by sugar-phosphate bonds. The strands connect by hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases with complementary shapes: adenine bonds with thymine; cytosine binds with guanine. The binding requires that the nucleotides be oriented upside-down relative to one another. Hence, the two strands are antiparallel, with one strand running 5’ to 3’ in one direction, and the other running 5’ to 3’ in the opposite direction.

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0c0b37aa1240″ question_number=”43″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids”] Nucleic acids are life’s key information molecule. How do they store information?

[a] Nucleic acids store information in their sequence of nucleotides. That sequence can be translated into the primary structure of a protein, allowing information to become molecular structures that carry out specific functions (as in enzymes and other protein molecules).

[q json=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative Flashcards Dataset, v2.0|1c0bef471b6240″ question_number=”44″ unit=”1.Chemistry_of_Life” topic=”1.5-6.Proteins_and_Nucleic_Acids”] What are the base-pairing rules in DNA? Why are these rules important?

[a] The base-pairing rules allow for DNA to be accurately copied from one generation of organisms or cells to the next. The rules are A binds with T and C binds with G.

[/qdeck]

 


3. Unit 1 Cumulative Quiz

[qwiz style=”width: 550px !important; min-height: 400px !important;” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 1 Cumulative Quiz (2.0)” dataset=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0″ dataset_intro=”false”]

[h]Unit 1 Cumulative Quiz

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c0b7d30d4be40″ question_number=”1″ topic=”1.1.Structure_of_Water_and_Hydrogen_Bonding”]During a process called transpiration, water is pulled up the stems of plants through tiny, long tubes that run the length of the stem. Which of the following is responsible for holding water molecules together as they get pulled up through these tubes?

[c]IHN1cmZhY2UgdGVuc2lvbg==[Qq]

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[c]IGhlYXQgb2YgdmFwb3JpemF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

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[c]IGNvaG VzaW9u[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiBUaGUgZm9yY2UgdGhhdCYjODIxNztzIGtlZXBpbmcgd2F0ZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzIHRvZ2V0aGVyIGlzIGNvaGVzaW9uLCBhbmQgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBnZW5lcmF0ZWQgYnkgaHlkcm9nZW4gYm9uZHMu[Qq]

[c]IGFkaGVzaW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBZGhlc2lvbiBpcyB0aGUgZm9yY2UgdGhhdCBlbmFibGVzIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyB0byBhZGhlcmUgdG8gdGhlIHNpZGVzIG9mIHRoZSB0dWJlcyAoY2FsbGVkIHh5bGVtKSB0aGF0IHRoZXkmIzgyMTc7cmUgYmVpbmcgcHVsbGVkIHVwIHRocm91Z2guIFdoYXQgZm9yY2UgZW5hYmxlcyB0aGUgd2F0ZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzIHRvIHN0aWNrIHRvZ2V0aGVyPyBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUganVzdCBvbmUgc3lsbGFibGUgYXdheSBmcm9tIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c0b49f7cf2640″ question_number=”2″ topic=”1.1.Structure_of_Water_and_Hydrogen_Bonding”] During a process called transpiration, water is pulled up the stems of plants through tiny, long tubes that run the length of the stem. Transpiration only works because water molecules stay connected to the walls of these tubes as they get pulled up through the stem. What’s the name for the force behind that connection?

[c]IGNvaGVzaW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIHZlcnkgY2xvc2UgKG9ubHkgYSBzeWxsYWJsZSBhd2F5KS4gQ29oZXNpb24gZGVzY3JpYmVzIGhvdyB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZXMgc3RpY2sgdG8gb25lIGFub3RoZXIuIFdoYXQgZGVzY3JpYmVzIGhvdyB3YXRlciBzdGlja3MgdG8gb3RoZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzPw==[Qq]

[c]IHN1cmZhY2UgdGVuc2lvbg==[Qq]

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[c]IGhlYXQgb2YgdmFwb3JpemF0aW9uLg==[Qq]

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[c]IGFkaG VzaW9u[Qq]

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[c]IGV2YXBvcmF0aW9u[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBFdmFwb3JhdGlvbiBpcywgdWx0aW1hdGVseSwgZ2VuZXJhdGluZyB0aGUgdGVuc2lvbiB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgcHVsbGluZyB3YXRlciBtb2xlY3VsZXMgdXAgdGhlIHN0ZW0gb2YgYSBwbGFudC4gQnV0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGUgcHJvcGVydHkgdGhhdCBkZXNjcmliZXMgaG93IHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyAmIzgyMjA7c3RpY2smIzgyMjE7IHRvIG90aGVyIHBvbGFyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyAoc3VjaCBhcyB0aG9zZSBtYWtpbmcgdXAgdGhlIHdhbGxzIG9mIHRoZSBjb25kdWN0aXZlIHR1YmVzIGluIGEgcGxhbnQpLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c0af3d2173240″ question_number=”3″ topic=”1.3.Monomers and Polymers”] The diagrams below represent various types of biological molecules, or subunits of biological molecules.

All of the molecules above are built from smaller subunits. As these subunits are being combined,

[c]IHBlcHRpZGUgYm9uZHMgYXJlIGZvcm1lZC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQZXB0aWRlIGJvbmRzIGFyZSB0aGUgYm9uZHMgdGhhdCBjb25uZWN0IHRoZSBhbWlubyBhY2lkcyBpbiBhIHBvbHlwZXB0aWRlIChvciBwcm90ZWluKS4gSW4gdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYmVsb3csIG51bWJlciA0IGluZGljYXRlcyBhIHBlcHRpZGUgYm9uZC4=

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]Think of something that happens as all of these molecules are formed.

[c]IHRoZXJlIGlzIGEgbmV0IGVuZXJneSBvdXRwdXQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbG1vc3QgYWxsIHN5bnRoZXNpcyByZWFjdGlvbnMgcmVxdWlyZQ==IGVuZXJneSB0byBtb3ZlIGZvcndhcmQu[Qq]

[c]IGEgbW9sZWN1bGUgb2Ygd2F0ZXIgaXMgYWRkZWQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNb2xlY3VsZXMgb2Ygd2F0ZXIgYXJlIA==YWRkZWQ=IGluIGh5ZHJvbHlzaXMgcmVhY3Rpb25zLCB3aGljaCB0eXBpY2FsbHkgYnJlYWsgbGFyZ2UgbW9sZWN1bGVzIGFwYXJ0IGludG8gdGhlaXIgY29uc3RpdHVlbnQgbW9ub21lcnMu

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IGEgbW9sZWN1bGUgb2Ygd2 F0ZXIgaXMgcmVtb3ZlZC4=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQWxsIG9mIHRoZXNlIG1vbGVjdWxlcyAoYW5kLCBpbiBmYWN0LCBhbG1vc3QgYWxsIGJpb2xvZ2ljYWwgbW9sZWN1bGVzKSwgYXJlIGZvcm1lZCB0aHJvdWdoIGRlaHlkcmF0aW9uIHN5bnRoZXNpcyByZWFjdGlvbnMu

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c0a945c2fae40″ question_number=”4″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] Which of the following biomolecules makes up the cell walls of plants?

[c]IENhcmJvaH lkcmF0ZXM=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZSA=Y2VsbHVsb3NlIChzaG93biBiZWxvdykgaXMgdGhlIHByaW1hcnkgY29tcG9uZW50IG9mIGNlbGwgd2FsbHMuIA==[Qq]

[c]IExpcGlkcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBPbmUgdHlwZSBvZiBsaXBpZCAodGhlIHBob3NwaG9saXBpZCkgbWFrZXMgdXAgY2VsbCA=bWVtYnJhbmVzLCBidXQgbm90IGNlbGwgd2FsbHMuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IGhvdyB3b3VsZCB5b3UgY2xhc3NpZnkgdGhlIG1vbGVjdWxlIGJlbG93Pw==

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IFByb3RlaW5z[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiBob3cgd291bGQgeW91IGNsYXNzaWZ5IHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSBiZWxvdz8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IE51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiBob3cgd291bGQgeW91IGNsYXNzaWZ5IHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSBiZWxvdz8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c09d31c54c240″ question_number=”5″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] Which of the following includes molecules used for waterproofing, energy storage, and cell membranes?

[c]IENhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDYXJib2h5ZHJhdGVzIGluY2x1ZGUgc2ltcGxlIHN1Z2FycyAobW9ub3NhY2NoYXJpZGVzIGFuZCBkaXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzIGxpa2UgZ2x1Y29zZSBhbmQgc3Vjcm9zZSwgcmVzcGVjdGl2ZWx5KSwgYW5kIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlcyBsaWtlIGNlbGx1bG9zZSBhbmQgc3RhcmNoLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGluayBvZiB0aGUgbGFzdCBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSBiZWxvdy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IExpcG lkcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBMaXBpZHMgaW5jbHVkZSBmYXRzLCBvaWxzLCBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWRzLCBhbmQgd2F4ZXMsIGFuZCB0aGVpciBmdW5jdGlvbnMgaW5jbHVkZSB3YXRlcnByb29maW5nLCBlbmVyZ3kgc3RvcmFnZSwgYW5kIG1ha2luZyB1cCBjZWxsIG1lbWJyYW5lcy4=[Qq]

[c]IFByb3RlaW5z[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQcm90ZWlucyBhcmUgcG9seW1lcnMgb2YgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHMgYW5kIG1ha2UgdXAgZXZlcnl0aGluZyBmcm9tIG11c2NsZSB0aXNzdWUgdG8gZW56eW1lcyB0byBlZ2cgd2hpdGVzLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGluayBvZiB0aGUgbGFzdCBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBuYW1lIG9mIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZSBiZWxvdy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IE51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOdWNsZWljIGFjaWRzIGluY2x1ZGUgc3Vic3RhbmNlcyBsaWtlIEROQSBhbmQgUk5BIChkZW94eXJpYm9udWNsZWljIGFjaWQgYW5kIHJpYm9udWNsZWljIGFjaWQsIHJlc3BlY3RpdmVseSksIGFuZCB0aGVpciBmdW5jdGlvbiBpcyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBzdG9yYWdlIGFuZCB0cmFuc2Zlci4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhpbmsgb2YgdGhlIGxhc3QgcGFydCBvZiB0aGUgbmFtZSBvZiB0aGUgbW9sZWN1bGUgYmVsb3cu

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c09784e850640″ question_number=”6″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] The diagram below represents a plant stem, to which are attached a variety of cells with different functions. In all of these cells, the walls of the cells are composed of

[c]IEdsdWNvc2U=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHVjb3NlIGlzIGEgdHlwZSBvZiBtb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkZSBvciBzaW1wbGUgc3VnYXIuIEdsdWNvc2UgaXMgY3JlYXRlZCBieSBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcyBhbmQgaXMgdXNlZCBhcyBhbiBpbW1lZGlhdGUgZW5lcmd5IHNvdXJjZS4gVG8gbWFrZSBjZWxsIHdhbGxzLCBwbGFudHMgY29tYmluZSBudW1lcm91cyBnbHVjb3NlIG1vbm9tZXJzIGludG8gdGhlIGVuenltZS1yZXNpc3RhbnQgcG9seW1lciBzaG93biBiZWxvdy4gV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHRoaXMgcG9seW1lciBjYWxsZWQ/

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IFN1Y3Jvc2U=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdWNyb3NlIGlzIGEgdHlwZSBvZiBkaXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgYW5kIGlzIHR5cGljYWxseSB1c2VkIHRvIHRyYW5zcG9ydCBlbmVyZ3kgZnJvbSBvbmUgcGFydCBvZiBhIHBsYW50IHRvIG90aGVyIHBhcnRzIChzbyB5b3UmIzgyMTc7ZCBsaWtlbHkgc2VlIGl0IGF0IEIsIEMsIG9yIEQgYWJvdmUpLiBUbyBtYWtlIGNlbGwgd2FsbHMsIHBsYW50cyBjb21iaW5lIG51bWVyb3VzIGdsdWNvc2UgbW9ub21lcnMgKGNyZWF0ZWQgYnkgY2hsb3JvcGxhc3RzIGR1cmluZyBwaG90b3N5bnRoZXNpcykgaW50byBhbiBlbnp5bWUtcmVzaXN0YW50IHBvbHltZXIsIGFzIHNob3duIGJlbG93Lg==

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]What’s this polymer called?

[c]IENlbGx1 bG9zZQ==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gUGxhbnQgY2VsbCB3YWxscyBhcmUgcHJpbWFyaWx5IGNvbXBvc2VkIG9mIGNlbGx1bG9zZSwgdGhlIHN0cnVjdHVyYWwgZm9ybXVsYSBmb3Igd2hpY2ggaXMgc2hvd24gYmVsb3cu

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IFN0YXJjaA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFyY2ggaXMgYSBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZSB1c2VkIGZvciBlbmVyZ3kgc3RvcmFnZSBpbiBwbGFudHMuIEl0JiM4MjE3O3MgZWFzaWx5IGJyb2tlbiBkb3duIGJ5IGVuenltZXMgdG8gbGliZXJhdGUgZ2x1Y29zZSwgd2hpY2ggY2FuIGJlIHVzZWQgZm9yIGVuZXJneS4gRm9yIHN0cnVjdHVyZXMgbGlrZSBjZWxsIHdhbGxzLCBwbGFudHMgdXNlIGFub3RoZXIgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUsIHdoaWNoIGlzIHNob3duIGJlbG93LiBXaGF0IGlzIGl0Pw==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c0945157f6e40″ question_number=”7″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] The diagrams below represent various types of biological molecules, or subunits of biological molecules.

Which molecule above forms the key structural component of the cell membrane?

[c]IEE=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBwb2x5cGVwdGlkZSBvciBwcm90ZWluLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB0aGUgbW9sZWN1bGUgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIGlzIGEgdHlwZSBvZiBsaXBpZCwgYW5kIGl0IGZvcm1zIGEgc3RydWN0dXJlIGxpa2UgdGhlIG9uZSBiZWxvdy4=

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IEI=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBudWNsZW90aWRlLCBhIG1vbm9tZXIgb2YgbnVjbGVpYyBhY2lkcy4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIG1vbGVjdWxlIHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBpcyBhIHR5cGUgb2YgbGlwaWQsIGFuZCBpdCBmb3JtcyBhIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBsaWtlIHRoZSBvbmUgYmVsb3cu

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IE M=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iLiBDIGlzIGEgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkLCB0aGUgYmFzaWMgc3RydWN0dXJhbCBjb21wb25lbnQgb2YgdGhlIGNlbGwmIzgyMTc7cyBtZW1icmFuZS4=[Qq]

[c]IEQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLCBidXQgeW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIG9uIHRoZSByaWdodCB0cmFjay4gRCBpcyBhIHRyaWdseWNlcmlkZSwgb25lIG9mIHR3byBsaXBpZHMgaW4gdGhpcyBzZXQgb2YgbW9sZWN1bGVzLiBUaGUgYW5zd2VyIGlzIHRoZSBvdGhlciBsaXBpZC4gV2hlbiBpdCYjODIxNztzIGluIHRoZSBtZW1icmFuZSwgaXQgZm9ybXMgYSBzdHJ1Y3R1cmUgbGlrZSB0aGUgb25lIGJlbG93Lg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c091fd4c12e40″ question_number=”8″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] The diagrams below represent various types of biological molecules, or subunits of biological molecules.

Molecules that would be categorized as lipids include

[c]IG9ubHkgQS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIG1ha2UgdXAgYSBwb2x5cGVwdGlkZSwgd2hpY2gsIHdoZW4gYSBiaXQgbG9uZ2VyIGFuZCBmb2xkZWQgdXAgaW50byBhIHNwZWNpZmljIHNoYXBlLCBiZWNvbWVzIGEgcHJvdGVpbi4=[Qq]

[c]IG9ubHkgQi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCIGlzIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZSwgYSBidWlsZGluZyBibG9jayBvZiBudWNsZWljIGFjaWRzIGxpa2UgRE5BIG9yIFJOQS4=[Qq]

[c]IGJvdGggQSBhbmQgQi4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBXIGlzIGEgcG9seXBlcHRpZGUsIGFuZCBYIGlzIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZS4=[Qq]

[c]IEEsIEIsIGFuZCBDLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBIGlzIGEgcG9seXBlcHRpZGUsIGFuZCBCIGlzIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZS4gYnV0IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSByaWdodCBhYm91dCBDLCB3aGljaCBpcyBhIHBob3NwaG9saXBpZC4=[Qq]

[c]IEMgYW 5kIEQu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQm90aCBDIGFuZCBEIGFyZSBsaXBpZHMuIEMgaXMgYSBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWQgYW5kIEQgaXMgYSB0cmlnbHljZXJpZGUgKHRoZSBraW5kIG9mIG1vbGVjdWxlIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgZmF0cyBhbmQgb2lscyku[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c08f5ebeb2640″ question_number=”9″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] Which of the molecules below is a key component of cell membranes?

[c]IDEg[Qq][c]IDIg[Qq][c]ID M=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIGlzIGEgZmF0dHkgYWNpZC4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludC4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIGEgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkLCBhbmQgdGhlICYjODIyMDtwaG9zcGhvJiM4MjIxOyBwYXJ0IG9mIHRoZSBuYW1lIHN0YW5kcyBmb3IgJiM4MjIwO3Bob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cC4mIzgyMjE7[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyIGlzIGEgdHJpZ2x5Y2VyaWRlIChhbHNvIGtub3duIGFzIGEgdHJpYWN5bGdseWNlcmlkZSk6IHRoZXNlIGFyZSB0aGUgbW9sZWN1bGVzIHRoYXQgbWFrZSB1cCBmYXRzIGFuZCBvaWxzLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgYSBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWQsIGFuZCB0aGUgJiM4MjIwO3Bob3NwaG8mIzgyMjE7IHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIG5hbWUgc3RhbmRzIGZvciAmIzgyMjA7cGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwLiYjODIyMTs=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gMyBpcyBhIHBob3NwaG9saXBpZCwgdGhlIGtleSBzdHJ1Y3R1cmFsIGNvbXBvbmVudCBvZiBjZWxsIG1lbWJyYW5lcyAoc2hvd24gYXQgJiM4MjIwO0EmIzgyMjE7IGJlbG93KQ==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c08d0ab2ce640″ question_number=”10″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] Which of the molecules below is used for energy storage and insulation?

[c]IDEg[Qq][c]ID Ig[Qq][c]IDM=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAxIGlzIGEgZmF0dHkgYWNpZC4gSXQmIzgyMTc7cyBhIHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIG1vbGVjdWxlIHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciwgd2hpY2ggaXMgYWxzbyBjYWxsZWQgYSB0cmlnbHljZXJpZGUuIFRoaW5rIG9mIHRoZSBwcmVmaXggJiM4MjIwO3RyaSwmIzgyMjE7IGFuZCB1c2UgdGhlIGhpbnQgSSBqdXN0IGdhdmUgeW91IHRvIGZpZ3VyZSBvdXQgdGhlIGFuc3dlciB0aGUgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[f]IEZhYnVsb3VzLiAyIGlzIGEgdHJpZ2x5Y2VyaWRlLCBjb21tb25seSBrbm93biBhcyBmYXQgb3Igb2lsIChkZXBlbmRpbmcgb24gdGhlIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBvZiB0aGUgZmF0dHkgYWNpZHMpLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAzIGlzIGEgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkLiBUaGVzZSBtb2xlY3VsZXMgYXJlIHRoZSBrZXkgc3RydWN0dXJhbCBjb21wb25lbnQgb2YgY2VsbCBtZW1icmFuZXMuIFlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBhIHRyaWdseWNlcmlkZSwgYSBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0IGhhcyB0aHJlZSBmYXR0eSBhY2lkcy4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c08474c6f5a40″ question_number=”11″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] The diagrams below represent various types of biological molecules, or subunits of biological molecules.

In a cell, if molecule B were part of a polymer, its function would most likely be

[c]IGVuY29kaW5nIGdlbmV0 aWMgaW5mb3JtYXRpb24u[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQiBpcyBhIG51Y2xlb3RpZGUuIE51Y2xlb3RpZGVzIGFyZSB0aGUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgbW9sZWN1bGVzIGxpa2UgRE5BIGFuZCBSTkEsIG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZHMgdGhhdCBzdG9yZSBhbmQgY29tbXVuaWNhdGUgZ2VuZXRpYyBpbmZvcm1hdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[c]IHRyYW5zcG9ydGluZyBtYXRlcmlhbHMgaW50byB0aGUgY2VsbC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBCIGlzIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZS4gTnVjbGVvdGlkZXMgYXJlIHRoZSBtb25vbWVycyBvZiBudWNsZWljIGFjaWRzLCB3aGljaCBpbmNsdWRlIHN1YnN0YW5jZXMgbGlrZSBETkEgYW5kIFJOQS4gVGhpbmsgb2YgdGhlc2UgbW9sZWN1bGVzJiM4MjE3OyBmdW5jdGlvbiwgYW5kIHlvdSYjODIxNztsbCBoYXZlIHRoZSBhbnN3ZXIgdGhlIG5leHQgdGltZSB5b3Ugc2VlIHRoaXMgcXVlc3Rpb24u[Qq]

[c]IGxvbmctdGVybSBzdG9yYWdlIG9mIGVuZXJneS4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMb25nLXRlcm0gZW5lcmd5IHN0b3JhZ2UgaXMgdGhlIGZ1bmN0aW9uIG9mIEQsIGEgdHJpZ2x5Y2VyaWRlIChmYXQgb3Igb2lsKS4gQiBpcyBhIG51Y2xlb3RpZGUuIE51Y2xlb3RpZGVzIGFyZSB0aGUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgbnVjbGVpYyBhY2lkcywgd2hpY2ggaW5jbHVkZSBzdWJzdGFuY2VzIGxpa2UgRE5BIGFuZCBSTkEuIFRoaW5rIG9mIHRoZXNlIG1vbGVjdWxlcyYjODIxNzsgZnVuY3Rpb24sIGFuZCB5b3UmIzgyMTc7bGwgaGF2ZSB0aGUgYW5zd2VyIHRoZSBuZXh0IHRpbWUgeW91IHNlZSB0aGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uLg==[Qq]

[c]IHN0YWJpbGl6aW5nIHRoZSBwbGFzbWEgbWVtYnJhbmU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFiaWxpemluZyB0aGUgcGxhc21hIG1lbWJyYW5lIGlzIHRoZSBmdW5jdGlvbiBvZiBjaG9sZXN0ZXJvbCwgYSB0eXBlIG9mIHN0ZXJvaWQgdGhhdCBpcyBub3Qgc2hvd24gaW4gdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0gYWJvdmUuIEIgaXMgYSBudWNsZW90aWRlLiBOdWNsZW90aWRlcyBhcmUgdGhlIG1vbm9tZXJzIG9mIG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZHMsIHdoaWNoIGluY2x1ZGUgc3Vic3RhbmNlcyBsaWtlIEROQSBhbmQgUk5BLiBUaGluayBvZiB0aGVzZSBtb2xlY3VsZXMmIzgyMTc7IGZ1bmN0aW9uLCBhbmQgeW91JiM4MjE3O2xsIGhhdmUgdGhlIGFuc3dlciB0aGUgbmV4dCB0aW1lIHlvdSBzZWUgdGhpcyBxdWVzdGlvbi4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c08220bb11a40″ question_number=”12″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] One of the following molecules will, when mixed with water, organize itself into a bilayer. Which one?

[c]IDEg[Qq][c]IMKgMiA=[Qq][c]ID M=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgYSBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiAyIHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSB0cmlnbHljZXJpZGUsIHRoZSB0eXBlIG9mIG1vbGVjdWxlIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgb2lscyBhbmQgZmF0cy4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhlIG1vbGVjdWxlIHRoYXQgZm9ybXMgYSBiaWxheWVyIGhhcyA=dHdvIGZhdHR5IGFjaWQgdGFpbHMu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudDogMyBpcyBhIHBob3NwaG9saXBpZCwgYW5kIHdoZW4gbWl4ZWQgd2l0aCB3YXRlciwgb25lIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBpdCBjYW4gc3BvbnRhbmVvdXNseSBmb3JtIGlzIGEgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkIGJpbGF5ZXIu

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c07ff1efebe40″ question_number=”13″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

All of the molecules shown above are

[c]IGxpcGlkcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJbiBhIGxpcGlkLCB5b3UgdHlwaWNhbGx5IHNlZSBhIGxvbmcgaHlkcm9jYXJib24gY2hhaW4uIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHRoaXMgaXMgYSBjbGFzcyBvZiBtYWNyb21vbGVjdWxlcyB0aGF0IGluY2x1ZGVzIG1vbm9zYWNjaGFyaWRlcyAobGlrZSB0aGUgZ2x1Y29zZSBzaG93biBhYm92ZSksIGRpc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMsIGFuZCBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZXMu[Qq]

[c]IHByb3RlaW5z[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQcm90ZWlucyAoc3VjaCBhcyBveHlnZW4tY2FycnlpbmcgaGVtb2dsb2JpbiBvciB0aGUgY29udHJhY3RpbGUgcHJvdGVpbiBteW9zaW4pIGFyZSBwb2x5bWVycyBvZiBhbWlubyBhY2lkcy4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogdGhpcyBpcyBhIGNsYXNzIG9mIG1hY3JvbW9sZWN1bGVzIHRoYXQgaW5jbHVkZXMgbW9ub3NhY2NoYXJpZGVzIChsaWtlIHRoZSBnbHVjb3NlIHNob3duIGFib3ZlKSwgZGlzYWNjaGFyaWRlcywgYW5kIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlcy4=[Qq]

[c]IGNhcmJvaH lkcmF0ZXM=[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gQWxsIG9mIHRoZSBtb2xlY3VsZXMgc2hvd24gYWJvdmUgYXJlIGNhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXMu[Qq]

[c]IG51Y2xlaWMgYWNpZHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBOdWNsZWljIGFjaWRzLCBzdWNoIGFzIEROQSBvciBSTkEsIGFyZSBwb2x5bWVycyBvZiBudWNsZW90aWRlcy4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogd2hhdCYjODIxNztzIHNob3duIGFib3ZlIGlzIGEgY2xhc3Mgb2YgbWFjcm9tb2xlY3VsZXMgdGhhdCBpbmNsdWRlcyBtb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMgKGxpa2UgdGhlIGdsdWNvc2UgaW4gdGhlIGRpYWdyYW0pLCBkaXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzLCBhbmQgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c07de86584640″ question_number=”14″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

If molecule “C” were a component of plant cell walls, then it would most likely be

[c]IGNlbGx1 bG9zZQ==[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIENlbGx1bG9zZSBpcyB0aGUgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgdGhhdCBtYWtlcyB1cCBwbGFudCBjZWxsIHdhbGxzLg==[Qq]

[c]IGdseWNvZ2Vu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHljb2dlbiBpcyBhIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlLCBidXQgb25lIHRoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB1c2VkIGZvciBlbmVyZ3kgc3RvcmFnZSBpbiBhbmltYWxzLg==[Qq]

[c]IGFsYnVtaW4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGJ1bWluIGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbi4gWW91JiM4MjE3O3JlIGxvb2tpbmcgZm9yIGEgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUu[Qq]

[c]IHN0YXJjaA==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBTdGFyY2ggaXMgYSBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZSwgYnV0IG9uZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgdXNlZCBmb3IgZW5lcmd5IHN0b3JhZ2UgaW4gcGxhbnRzLg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c07b49d823e40″ question_number=”15″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.

Molecules “C” and “D” are

[c]IG1vbm9zYWNjaGFyaWRlcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBNb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMgYXJlIHRoZSBtb25vbWVycyBvZiBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGVzLiBUaGV5IGFyZSB0aGUgc2ltcGxlc3Qgb2Ygc3VnYXJzIGFuZCBjb25zaXN0IG9mIG9ubHkgb25lIG1vbm9tZXIuICYjODIyMDtDJiM4MjIxOyBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO0QmIzgyMjE7IGNvbnNpc3Qgb2YgbWFueSBzdWdhciBtb25vbWVycyBsaW5rZWQgdG9nZXRoZXIuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgcHJlZml4IGZvciAmIzgyMjA7bWFueT8mIzgyMjE7[Qq]

[c]IGRpc2FjY2hhcmlkZXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEaXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzIGFyZSBzdWdhcnMgdGhhdCBjb25zaXN0IG9mIHR3byBtb25vc2FjY2hhcmlkZXMgbGlua2VkIHRvZ2V0aGVyLCBhcyBpcyBzaG93biBpbiAmIzgyMjA7QiwmIzgyMjE7ICYjODIyMDtDJiM4MjIxOyBhbmQgJiM4MjIwO0QmIzgyMjE7IHdoaWNoIGNvbnNpc3Qgb2YgbWFueSBzdWdhciBtb25vbWVycyBsaW5rZWQgdG9nZXRoZXIuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHdoYXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgcHJlZml4IGZvciAmIzgyMjA7bWFueT8mIzgyMjE7[Qq]

[c]IHBvbHlzYWNj aGFyaWRlcw==[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIEMgYW5kIEQgYXJlIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlcy4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c078f5cc3fe40″ question_number=”16″ topic=”1.4.Carbohydrates and Lipids”] Four different biological molecules are represented in the diagram below. Molecule A is glucose. Molecules B, C and D are composed of glucose subunits that are covalently linked together.


If molecule “C” 1) originates in a plant and 2) consists of glucose monomers connected by bonds that allow that molecule to be broken down by humans for energy, then that molecule must be

[c]IGNlbGx1bG9zZQ==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDZWxsdWxvc2UgaXMgdGhlIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlIHRoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgcGxhbnQgY2VsbCB3YWxscy4gV2UgaW5nZXN0IGNlbGx1bG9zZSBldmVyeSB0aW1lIHdlIGVhdCBmcnVpdHMgb3IgdmVnZXRhYmxlcywgYnV0IHdlIGxhY2sgdGhlIGVuenltZXMgdG8gYnJlYWsgYXBhcnQgY2VsbHVsb3NlIGludG8gZ2x1Y29zZSBtb25vbWVycyBmcm9tIHdoaWNoIHdlIGNvdWxkIGRlcml2ZSBlbmVyZ3kuIEZvb2RzIGhpZ2ggaW4gY2VsbHVsb3NlLCBhcyBhIGNvbnNlcXVlbmNlLCBhcmUgdmVyeSBsb3cgY2Fsb3JpZSAodGhpbmsgb2YgbGV0dHVjZSBvciBjZWxlcnkpLiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYSBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZSB0aGF0IHdlIGNhbiBicmVhayBkb3duIGZvciBlbmVyZ3k/[Qq]

[c]IGdseWNvZ2Vu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBHbHljb2dlbiBpcyBhIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlIHRoYXQgY2FuIGJlIGJyb2tlbiBkb3duIGJ5IGh1bWFucyBmb3IgZW5lcmd5LCBidXQgaXQgZG9lc24mIzgyMTc7dCBjb21lIGZyb20gcGxhbnRzLiBNYW1tYWxzIHN5bnRoZXNpemUgZ2x5Y29nZW4gd2hlbiB0aGV5IGVhdCBzdWdhciBhbmQgc3RvcmUgaXQgaW4gbGl2ZXIgYW5kIG11c2NsZSB0aXNzdWUgZm9yIGxhdGVyIHVzZS4gV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIGEgcG9seXNhY2NoYXJpZGUgbWFkZSBieSBwbGFudHMgdGhhdCB3ZSAoYW5kIG90aGVyIGFuaW1hbHMpIGNhbiBicmVhayBkb3duIGZvciBlbmVyZ3k/[Qq]

[c]IGFsYnVtaW4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbGJ1bWluIGlzIGEgcHJvdGVpbiAoZm91bmQgaW4gZWdnIHdoaXRlLCBhbW9uZyBvdGhlciBwbGFjZXMpLiBZb3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgYSBtb2xlY3VsZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgYSBjYXJib2h5ZHJhdGUsIGFuZCBtb3JlIHNwZWNpZmljYWxseSwgYSBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZSBtYWRlIGJ5IHBsYW50cyB0aGF0IHdlIChhbmQgb3RoZXIgYW5pbWFscykgY2FuIGJyZWFrIGRvd24gZm9yIGVuZXJneS4=[Qq]

[c]IHN0YX JjaA==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgU3RhcmNoIGlzIGEgcGxhbnQtZGVyaXZlZCBwb2x5c2FjY2hhcmlkZSB0aGF0IGh1bWFucyAoYW5kIG90aGVyIGFuaW1hbHMpIGNhbiBicmVhayBkb3duIGludG8gZ2x1Y29zZSBmb3IgZW5lcmd5Lg==[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c076573edf640″ question_number=”17″ topic=”1.5.Proteins”] The diagrams below represent various types of biological molecules, or subunits of biological molecules.

Which molecule is synthesized at a ribosome?

[c]IE Eg[Qq][c]IEIg[Qq][c]IEMg[Qq][c]IEQ=[Qq]
[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgTW9sZWN1bGUgMSBpcyBhIGNoYWluIG9mIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzLiBJbiBsaXZpbmcgc3lzdGVtcywgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHMgKDEgYmVsb3cpIGFyZSBjb21iaW5lZCB0byBmb3JtIHByb3RlaW5zIGF0IHJpYm9zb21lcyAoMiBiZWxvdyku

Cg==[Qq]


[f]IE5vLiBCIGlzIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZS4gSGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludC4gTG9vayBhdCB0aGUgZGlhZ3JhbSBiZWxvdy4gV2hhdCYjODIxNztzIDE/

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDIGlzIGEgcGhvc3Bob2xpcGlkLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBMb29rIGF0IHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgMT8=

Cg==

[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEIGlzIGEgdHJpZ2x5Y2VyaWRlLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50LiBMb29rIGF0IHRoZSBkaWFncmFtIGJlbG93LiBXaGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgMT8=

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c0740332fb640″ question_number=”18″ topic=”1.5.Proteins”] Within a polypeptide, the bond linking the monomers (indicated by the arrow and green circle below) is a(n) _________.

[c]IGlvbmljIGJvbmQ=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiA=QW4gaW9uaWMgYm9uZCBpcyBhbiBhdHRyYWN0aW9uIGJldHdlZW4gcG9zaXRpdmVseSBhbmQgbmVnYXRpdmVseSBjaGFyZ2VkIGlvbnMuIA==VGhleSYjODIxNztyZSBpbXBvcnRhbnQgaW4gcHJvdGVpbnMgYXMgYSBraW5kIG9mIHRlcnRpYXJ5IGludGVyYWN0aW9uIChiZXR3ZWVuIHNpZGUgY2hhaW5zKS4gRm9yIGV4YW1wbGUsIGJvbmQgbnVtYmVyIDQgYmVsb3cgaXMgYW4gaW9uaWMgYm9uZC4=

[Qq]

Here’s a hint: the name for the bond that connects amino acids, indicated by the arrow and green circle below, begins with the same letter as the word “polypeptide.”

[c]IGh5ZHJvZ2VuIGJvbmQ=[Qq]

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Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]Here’s a hint: the name for the bond that connects amino acids, indicated by the arrow and green circle below, begins with the same letter as “polypeptide.”

[c]IHBlcHRpZG UgYm9uZA==[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudC4gVGhlIGJvbmQgdGhhdCBjb25uZWN0cyBhbWlubyBhY2lkcyB3aXRoaW4gYSBwb2x5cGVwdGlkZSBpcyBhIHBlcHRpZGUgYm9uZC4=[Qq]

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Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]Here’s a hint: the name for the bond that connects amino acids, indicated by the arrow and green circle below, begins with the same letter as “polypeptide.”

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c06f805bf1a40″ question_number=”19″ topic=”1.5.Proteins”] Amino acids differ from one another because

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[f]IE5vLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgbm8gcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwcyBvbiBhbWlubyBhY2lkcy4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c06b9287e0e40″ question_number=”20″ topic=”1.5.Proteins”] The image below shows myoglobin, an oxygen-carrying globular protein found in the cytosol of muscle tissue. Globular proteins, as the name indicates, are folded up into a kind of messy sphere (a glob). In such proteins, one would expect to find

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[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c0669fee9c640″ question_number=”21″ topic=”1.5.Proteins”] In proteins, the beta-pleated sheet and alpha helix result from

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[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” topic=”1.5.Proteins” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c0644be2b8640″ question_number=”22″]Which level of protein structure is directly determined by genes?

[c]ID E=[Qq]

[f]TmljZSEgSXQmIzgyMTc7cyB0aGUgcHJpbWFyeSBzdHJ1Y3R1cmUu[Qq]

[c]IDI=[Qq]

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[c]IDM=[Qq]

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[c]IDQ=[Qq]

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[c]IDU=[Qq]

[f]Tm8uIFRoZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBsZXZlbCB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgY3JlYXRlZCBieSB0aGUgY2VsbCAmIzgyMjA7cmVhZGluZyYjODIyMTsgbWVzc2FnZXMgc2VudCBmcm9tIEROQSAodXN1YWxseSBpbnZvbHZpbmcgYSBiaXQgb2YgZ2VuZSBlZGl0aW5nLCBhIHRvcGljIHdlJiM4MjE3O2xsIGFkZHJlc3MgaW4gVW5pdCA2KS4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c061d29616240″ question_number=”23″ topic=”1.5.Proteins”] Actin filaments (which make up a key part of the cytoskeleton) are capable of growing at either end. The “plus” end (also called the “barbed end”) grows faster, while the “minus” end (also called the “pointed end”) grows more slowly.

The figure below shows the growth rates at the plus and minus ends of actin filaments as a function of actin monomer concentration.

Actin filaments of defined length are added to a solution of actin monomers at concentrations indicated as A, B, C, D, or E. Which concentration will let you grow actin filaments at the plus end, but not the minus end?

[c]IENvbmNlbnRyYXRpb24gYXQgQSBvciBC[Qq]

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[c]IENvbmNlbnRyYXRpb24gYXQgQiBvciBD[Qq]

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[c]IENvbmNlbnRyYXRp b24gYXQgQyBvciBE[Qq]

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[c]IENvbmNlbnRyYXRpb24gYXQgRCBvciBF[Qq]

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[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c05d053d8fe40″ question_number=”24″ topic=”1.6.Nucleic_Acids”] In the diagram below, letter Y represents a(n)

[c]IHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwcyBjb25uZWN0IHRoZSBkZW94eXJpYm9zZSBzdWdhcnMsIGFuZCB0aGVzZSBzdWdhcnMgYXJlIHJlcHJlc2VudGVkIGFzIHBlbnRhZ29ucy4=[Qq]

[c]IGRlb3h5cmlib3 NlIHN1Z2FyLg==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gJiM4MjIwO1kmIzgyMjE7IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBkZW94eXJpYm9zZSBzdWdhci4=[Qq]

[c]IG5pdHJvZ2Vub3VzIGJhc2Uu[Qq]

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[c]IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQu[Qq]

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[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c05a1c2eb2e40″ question_number=”25″ topic=”1.6.Nucleic_Acids”] In the diagram below, letter X represents a(n)

[c]IHBob3NwaGF0 ZSBncm91cC4=[Qq]

[f]IFdheSB0byBnby4gJiM4MjIwO1gmIzgyMjE7IHJlcHJlc2VudHMgYSBwaG9zcGhhdGUgZ3JvdXAu[Qq]

[c]IGRlb3h5cmlib3NlLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEZW94eXJpYm9zZSBpcyBvbmUgb2YgdGhlIHN1Z2FycyBpbiBETkEuICYjODIyMDtYJiM4MjIxOyBjb25uZWN0cyB0aGUgc3VnYXJzIChzaG93biBhdCAmIzgyMjA7WSYjODIyMTspLg==[Qq]

[c]IG5pdHJvZ2Vub3VzIGJhc2Uu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbml0cm9nZW5vdXMgYmFzZXMgZm9ybSB0aGUgaW50ZXJuYWwgcnVuZ3Mgb2YgdGhlIEROQSBsYWRkZXIuICYjODIyMDtYJiM4MjIxOyAoYWxvbmcgd2l0aCAmIzgyMjA7WSYjODIyMTspIGlzIG9uIHRoZSBvdXRzaWRlIG9mIHRoZSBsYWRkZXIuIFdoYXQgbWFrZXMgdXAgdGhlIGxhZGRlcj8=[Qq]

[c]IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbWlubyBhY2lkcyBhcmUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgcHJvdGVpbiwgYW5kIHRoaXMgaXMgYSBtb2xlY3VsZSBvZiBETkEu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c057c822cee40″ question_number=”26″ topic=”1.6.Nucleic_Acids”] In the diagram below, letter Z represents a(n)

[c]IHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cC4=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwcyBhcmUgb24gdGhlIG91dHNpZGUgb2YgRE5BLg==[Qq]

[c]IGRlb3h5cmlib3NlLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBEZW94eXJpYm9zZSBpcyB0aGUgc3VnYXIgb24gdGhlIG91dHNpZGUgb2YgRE5BLg==[Qq]

[c]IG5pdHJvZ2Vu b3VzIGJhc2Uu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgJiM4MjIwO1omIzgyMjE7IGlzIG9uZSBvZiB0aGUgZm91ciBuaXRyb2dlbm91cyBiYXNlcy4=[Qq]

[c]IGFtaW5vIGFjaWQu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBBbWlubyBhY2lkcyBhcmUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgcHJvdGVpbi4gVGhpcyBpcyBETkEu[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c05529956e640″ question_number=”27″ topic=”1.6.Nucleic_Acids”] In the diagram below, the bonds connecting G and C (guanine and cytosine) are ________ bonds.

[c]IGNvdmFsZW50[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDb3ZhbGVudCBib25kcyBhcmUgc3Ryb25nIGJvbmRzIGZvcm1lZCB3aGVuIGF0b21zIHNoYXJlIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4gVGhleSBtYWtlIHVwIHByZXR0eSBtdWNoIGV2ZXJ5IGJvbmQgaW4gRE5BLCBleGNlcHQgdGhlIG11Y2ggd2Vha2VyIGJvbmRzIGJldHdlZW4gRyBhbmQgQy4gV2hhdCBhcmUgdGhvc2Ugd2Vha2VyIGJvbmRzICh3aGljaCBwbGF5IGEga2V5IHJvbGUgaW4gaW50ZXJhY3Rpb25zIGJldHdlZW4gd2F0ZXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzKSBjYWxsZWQ/[Qq]

[c]IHBlcHRpZGU=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQZXB0aWRlIGJvbmRzIGFyZSB0aGUgYm9uZHMgdGhhdCBob2xkIGFtaW5vIGFjaWRzIHRvZ2V0aGVyIGluIHByb3RlaW5zLiBUaGVyZSBhcmUgbm8gcGVwdGlkZSBib25kcyBpbiBETkEgKGJlY2F1c2UgaXQmIzgyMTc7cyBub3QgYSBwcm90ZWluLCBidXQgYSBudWNsZWljIGFjaWQpLg==[Qq]

[c]IGh5ZH JvZ2Vu[Qq]

[f]IEV4Y2VsbGVudCEgVGhlIGJvbmQgYmV0d2VlbiB0aGUgbml0cm9nZW5vdXMgYmFzZXMgQyBhbmQgRyAoY3l0b3NpbmUgYW5kIGd1YW5pbmUpIGFyZSBoeWRyb2dlbiBib25kcy4=[Qq]

[c]IGlvbmlj[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBJb25pYyBib25kcyBhcmUgdGhlIGJvbmRzIGZvcm1lZCB3aGVuIGF0b21zIHRyYWRlIGVsZWN0cm9ucy4gSW9uaWMgYm9uZHMgZG9uJiM4MjE3O3QgcGxheSBhIHJvbGUgaW4gRE5BJiM4MjE3O3Mgc3RydWN0dXJlLiBUaGUgYW5zd2VyIGlzIGEgbXVjaCB3ZWFrZXIgYm9uZDogdGhlIHR5cGUgdGhhdCBwbGF5cyBhIGtleSByb2xlIGluIGludGVyYWN0aW9ucyBiZXR3ZWVuIHdhdGVyIG1vbGVjdWxlcy4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c0528b080de40″ question_number=”28″ topic=”1.6.Nucleic_Acids”] Which of the following biomolecule families includes DNA and RNA?

[c]IENhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBDYXJib2h5ZHJhdGVzIGluY2x1ZGUgc2ltcGxlIHN1Z2FycyAobW9ub3NhY2NoYXJpZGVzIGFuZCBkaXNhY2NoYXJpZGVzIGxpa2UgZ2x1Y29zZSBhbmQgc3Vjcm9zZSwgcmVzcGVjdGl2ZWx5KSwgYW5kIHBvbHlzYWNjaGFyaWRlcyBsaWtlIGNlbGx1bG9zZSBhbmQgc3RhcmNoLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB3aGF0IGRvZXMgdGhlICYjODIyMDtBJiM4MjIxOyBpbiBETkEgYW5kIFJOQSBzdGFuZCBmb3I/[Qq]

[c]IE51Y2xlaW MgYWNpZHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iISBETkEgYW5kIFJOQSBhcmUgbnVjbGVpYyBhY2lkcyAoZGVveHlyaWJvbnVjbGVpYyBhY2lkIGFuZCByaWJvbnVjbGVpYyBhY2lkLCByZXNwZWN0aXZlbHkpLg==[Qq]

[c]IExpcGlkcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMaXBpZHMgaW5jbHVkZSBmYXRzLCBvaWxzLCBwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWRzLCBhbmQgd2F4ZXMuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHdoYXQgZG9lcyB0aGUgJiM4MjIwO0EmIzgyMjE7IGluIEROQSBhbmQgUk5BIHN0YW5kIGZvcj8=[Qq]

[c]IFByb3RlaW5z[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQcm90ZWlucyBhcmUgcG9seW1lcnMgb2YgYW1pbm8gYWNpZHMgYW5kIG1ha2UgdXAgZXZlcnl0aGluZyBmcm9tIG11c2NsZSB0aXNzdWUgdG8gZW56eW1lcyB0byBlZ2cgd2hpdGVzLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB3aGF0IGRvZXMgdGhlICYjODIyMDtBJiM4MjIxOyBpbiBETkEgYW5kIFJOQSBzdGFuZCBmb3I/[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ xx=”3″ multiple_choice=”true” unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c046770a5f240″ question_number=”29″ topic=”1.6.Nucleic_Acids”] Which one of the biomolecules listed below contains nitrogenous bases and phosphate groups?

[c]IENhcmJvaHlkcmF0ZXM=[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbW9ub21lcnMgb2YgY2FyYm9oeWRyYXRlcyBhcmUgbW9ub3NhY2NoYXJpZGVzLCBvciBzaW1wbGUgc3VnYXJzLCB3aGljaCBoYXZlIG5laXRoZXIgbml0cm9nZW5vdXMgYmFzZXMgbm9yIHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cHMuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBhIGNsYXNzIG9mIGJpb2xvZ2ljYWwgbW9sZWN1bGVzIHRoYXQgYXJlIG1hZGUgb3V0IG9mIG1vbm9tZXJzIGxpa2UgdGhlIG9uZXMgYmVsb3cu
Cg==[Qq]

[c]IExpcGlkcw==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBMaXBpZHMgYXJlIG1hZGUgdXAgb2YgZmF0dHkgYWNpZHMgYW5kIG90aGVyIGNvbXBvbmVudHMuIE9uZSB0eXBlIG9mIGxpcGlkIChwaG9zcGhvbGlwaWRzLCB3aGljaCBtYWtlIHVwIGNlbGwgbWVtYnJhbmVzKSBkb2VzIGNvbnRhaW4gYSBwaG9zcGhhdGUgZ3JvdXAsIGJ1dCB5b3UmIzgyMTc7bGwgbmV2ZXIgZmluZCBuaXRyb2dlbm91cyBiYXNlcyBpbiBsaXBpZHMuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHlvdSYjODIxNztyZSBsb29raW5nIGZvciBhIGNsYXNzIG9mIGJpb2xvZ2ljYWwgbW9sZWN1bGVzIHRoYXQgYXJlIG1hZGUgb3V0IG9mIG1vbm9tZXJzIGxpa2UgdGhlIG9uZXMgYmVsb3c=
Cg==[Qq]

[c]IFByb3RlaW5z[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBQcm90ZWlucyBhcmUgbWFkZSB1cCBvZiBhbWlubyBhY2lkcywgd2hpY2ggaGF2ZSBuZWl0aGVyIG5pdHJvZ2Vub3VzIGJhc2VzIG5vciBwaG9zcGhhdGUgZ3JvdXBzLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiB5b3UmIzgyMTc7cmUgbG9va2luZyBmb3IgYSBjbGFzcyBvZiBiaW9sb2dpY2FsIG1vbGVjdWxlcyB0aGF0IGFyZSBtYWRlIG91dCBvZiBtb25vbWVycyBsaWtlIHRoZSBvbmVzIGJlbG93
Cg==[Qq]

[c]IE51Y2xlaW MgYWNpZHM=[Qq]

[f]IE5pY2Ugam9iISBOdWNsZWljIGFjaWRzIGFyZSBtYWRlIG91dCBvZiBudWNsZW90aWRlcywgd2hpY2ggY29uc2lzdCBvZiBhIGZpdmUtY2FyYm9uIHN1Z2FyLCBhIG5pdHJvZ2Vub3VzIGJhc2UsIGFuZCBhIHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cC4=[Qq]

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c0438dfb82240″ question_number=”30″ unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” topic=”1.6.Nucleic_Acids”] Which of the following statements about DNA is correct?

[c]IFRoZSBudW1iZXIgb2YgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3Vwcy BhbmQgbml0cm9nZW5vdXMgYmFzZXMgaXMgZXF1YWwu[Qq]

[f]IENvcnJlY3QhIEROQSBpcyBtYWRlIG9mIG51Y2xlb3RpZGVzLCBhbmQgZXZlcnkgbnVjbGVvdGlkZSBjb25zaXN0cyBvZiBhIHN1Z2FyICgxKSwgYSBwaG9zcGhhdGUgKDIpLCBhbmQgYSBuaXRyb2dlbm91cyBiYXNlICgzKS4gU28gdGhlIG51bWJlciBvZiBuaXRyb2dlbm91cyBiYXNlcyBhbmQgcGhvc3BoYXRlIGdyb3VwcyBoYXMgdG8gYmUgZXF1YWwu

Cg==

[Qq]

[c]IFRoZSBudW1iZXIgb2YgZ3VhbmluZSBudWNsZW90aWRlcyBhbmQgdXJhY2lsIG51Y2xlb3RpZGVzIGlzIGVxdWFsLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBGaXJzdCwgdXJhY2lsIGlzIGEgbml0cm9nZW5vdXMgYmFzZSB0aGF0JiM4MjE3O3MgZm91bmQgb25seSBpbiBSTkEsIG5vdCBETkEuIFNlY29uZCwgdGhlIGJhc2UtcGFpcmluZyBydWxlcyBpbiBETkEgYXJlIEEtVCBhbmQgQy1HLiBUaGF0IG1lYW5zIHRoYXQgdGhlIGFtb3VudCBvZiBndWFuaW5lIGhhcyB0byBiZSBlcXVhbCB0byB0aGUgYW1vdW50IG9mIGN5dG9zaW5lLiBIZXJlJiM4MjE3O3MgYSBoaW50OiBzdHVkeSB0aGlzIGRpYWdyYW0gb2YgYSBudWNsZW90aWRlLCB0aGUgYnVpbGRpbmcgYmxvY2sgb2YgRE5BLg==

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]Notice that every nucleotide consists of a sugar (1), a phosphate (2), and a nitrogenous base (3), and use that to answer this question the next time you see it.

[c]IFRoZSBudW1iZXIgb2YgYWRlbmluZSBudWNsZW90aWRlcyBhbmQgY3l0b3NpbmUgbnVjbGVvdGlkZXMgaXMgZXF1YWwu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgYmFzZS1wYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGluIEROQSBhcmUgQS1UIGFuZCBDLUcuIFRoYXQgbWVhbnMgdGhhdCB0aGUgYW1vdW50IG9mIGFkZW5pbmUgaGFzIHRvIGJlIGVxdWFsIHRvIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgdGh5bWluZSBhbmQgdGhhdCB0aGUgYW1vdW50IG9mIGd1YW5pbmUgaGFzIHRvIGJlIGVxdWFsIHRvIHRoZSBhbW91bnQgb2YgY3l0b3NpbmUu

Cg==

SGVyZSYjODIxNztzIGEgaGludDogc3R1ZHkgdGhpcyBkaWFncmFtIG9mIGEgbnVjbGVvdGlkZSwgdGhlIGJ1aWxkaW5nIGJsb2NrIG9mIEROQS4=

Cg==

[Qq]

Notice that every nucleotide consists of a sugar (1), a phosphate (2), and a nitrogenous base (3), and use that to answer this question the next time you see it.

[c]IFRoZSBudW1iZXIgb2Ygc3VnYXIgbW9sZWN1bGVzIGlzIGRvdWJsZSB0aGUgbnVtYmVyIG9mIHBob3NwaGF0ZSBncm91cHMu[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGUgbnVtYmVyIG9mIHN1Z2FyIG1vbGVjdWxlcyBpcyBlcXVhbCB0byB0aGUgbnVtYmVyIG9mIHBob3NwaGF0ZXMuIEhlcmUmIzgyMTc7cyBhIGhpbnQ6IHN0dWR5IHRoaXMgZGlhZ3JhbSBvZiBhIG51Y2xlb3RpZGUsIHRoZSBidWlsZGluZyBibG9jayBvZiBETkEu

Cg==

Cg==

[Qq]Notice that every nucleotide consists of a sugar (1), a phosphate (2), and a nitrogenous base (3), and use that to answer this question the next time you see it.

[q json=”true” xx=”1″ multiple_choice=”true” dataset_id=”Unit 1 Cumulative MC Quiz Dataset v2.0|1c02e048d85240″ question_number=”31″ unit=”1.Chemistry of Life” topic=”1.6.Nucleic_Acids”] The nucleotide sequence below is part of the template strand for the gene coding protein Q. If during DNA replication a complementary strand was synthesized from this sequence, which nucleotide would be inserted at the point indicated by “*” ?

[c]IEEg[Qq][c]IEMg[Qq][c]IE cg[Qq][c]IFQg[Qq][c]IFU=

Cg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGNoZWNraW5nIHlvdXIgdW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBvZiB0aGUgYmFzZS1wYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGZvciBETkE6IEEgKGFkZW5pbmUpIGJvbmRzIHdpdGggVCAodGh5bWluZSk7IEMgKGN5dG9zaW5lKSBib25kcyB3aXRoIEcgKGd1YW5pbmUpLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGNoZWNraW5nIHlvdXIgdW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBvZiB0aGUgYmFzZS1wYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGZvciBETkE6IEEgKGFkZW5pbmUpIGJvbmRzIHdpdGggVCAodGh5bWluZSk7IEMgKGN5dG9zaW5lKSBib25kcyB3aXRoIEcgKGd1YW5pbmUpLg==[Qq]

[f]IFllcy4gVGhlIG51Y2xlb3RpZGUgQyAoY3l0b3NpbmUpIGFsd2F5cyBib25kcyB3aXRoIEcgKGd1YW5pbmUp[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGNoZWNraW5nIHlvdXIgdW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBvZiB0aGUgYmFzZS1wYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGZvciBETkE6IEEgKGFkZW5pbmUpIGJvbmRzIHdpdGggVCAodGh5bWluZSk7IEMgKGN5dG9zaW5lKSBib25kcyB3aXRoIEcgKGd1YW5pbmUpLg==[Qq]

[f]IE5vLiBUaGlzIHF1ZXN0aW9uIGlzIGFib3V0IEROQSByZXBsaWNhdGlvbiwgbm90IHRyYW5zY3JpcHRpb24uIFRoZSBSTkEgYmFzZSBVIChVcmFjaWwpIGlzbiYjODIxNzt0IGludm9sdmVkLiBUcnkgdGhpcyBhZ2FpbiwgZm9jdXNpbmcgb24gRE5BIHJlcGxpY2F0aW9uIGFuZCB0aGUgYmFzZS1wYWlyaW5nIHJ1bGVzIGZvciBETkEu[Qq]

[/qwiz]


4. Unit 1 Click On Challenge

[qwiz style=”width: 550px !important; min-height: 400px !important;” quiz_timer=”true” random=”true” dataset_intro=”false” spaced_repetition=”false” use_dataset=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Unit 1 Click-On Challenge (2.0)”]

[h]Molecules of Life Click-On Challenge

[i]

[/qwiz]