[qwiz dataset=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-Molecules of Life Click on Challenge” quiz_timer=”true” random=”true” dataset_intro=”false” spaced_repetition=”false”]

[h]Molecules of Life Click-On Challenge

[i]Notice the timer in the top right. Your goal is to answer the questions below with accuracy and speed. A good strategy: once through slowly, then additional trials to try to climb to the top of the leaderboard.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge|56660fe365d10″ question_number=”1″] Water

Hydrogen bond

Terrific. The dash between the two molecules represents a hydrogen bond.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Look for a bond between the two water molecules. 
A part of a water molecule with a partially negative charge

Superb! In this diagram, the bottom of each oxygen atom (in red) would have a partially negative charge.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  The oxygen atoms have a partially negative charge. Think about how many oxygens there are in a water molecule , and what color they would have to be in this representation. 
A part of a water molecule with a partially positive charge

Nice job! In this diagram, the hydrogen atoms (in gray) have a partially positive charge.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: The hydrogen atoms have a partially positive charge. Think of water’s formula, and you’ll be able to figure out which atoms are the hydrogens. 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge|565165f9de510″ question_number=”2″] Carbohydrates

Could be glucose or fructose

Yes! “A” could represent a simple sugar like glucose or fructose.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Both glucose and fructose are monosaccharides, or simple sugars. Look for something that’s made of ONE unit, as opposed to two or more units chained together. 
Could represent starch or cellulose.

Way to go! “C” represents a linear polysaccharide such as starch or cellulose.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. You’re looking for a molecule that’s a linear polysaccharide (multiple sugars linked together in a straight chain).
A disaccharide such as lactose or sucrose.

Nice! “B,” with two simple sugars linked together, represents a disaccharide.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. Disaccharides are composed of two linked monosaccharides (simple sugars).
When mammals have too much sugar in their bloodstream, they convert it into this molecule.

Nicely done! It’s glycogen, at “D.”

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: You’re looking for glycogen, a branched polysaccharide, made up of many linked glucose monomers.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge|561b8e66e5d10″ question_number=”3″] Representations of various molecules

A polypeptide

Yes. “A” is a polypeptide. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  A polypeptide is a chain of linked amino acids. 
ATP, or a monomer of DNA or RNA

Way to go! “B” is a nucleotide.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  You’re looking for a nucleotide. This is a molecule with three sub-parts, one of which is a 5 carbon sugar. Find that five carbon sugar!
The monomer of proteins

Very nice! “C” is an amino acid, the monomer of proteins.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  You’re looking for an amino acid. There’s a central carbon, an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a few other attached pieces. 
Forms the framework of cell membranes

Thumbs up! It’s the phospholipid, at “D.” 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  You’re looking for a phospholipid. There are two long hydrocarbon “tails,” and a hydrophilic “head” that contains a phosphate group
Could be a membrane component, or a lipid-soluble hormone

 Nice. “E” is a steroid.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: You’re looking for a steroid. These molecules contain four fused carbon rings.  

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge|55e8ea6446d10″ question_number=”4″] Protein structure basics

Primary structure

Yes! “A” is primary structure

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The other levels (secondary, tertiary, etc) emerge from interactions determined by that sequence.
Alpha helix

Way to go! “B’ is an alpha helix.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  A helix is a coil (the shape you find in a spring).
Beta pleated sheet

Very nice! “C” is a beta pleated sheet.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  A pleat is a fold. Pleated sheets have multiple folds.
Tertiary structure

Thumbs up. “D” is a representation of tertiary (third-level) structure)

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  In tertiary structure, a polypeptide folds up into a complex, 3 dimensional shape.
Quaternary structure

That’s right! “E” represents quaternary structure.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Quaternary structure involves two or more polypeptide chains binding together. 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge|55b09984ac110″ question_number=”5″] Protein structure, applications

Directly determined by genes.

Terrific. Primary structure is genetically determined.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. You’re looking for the primary structure. 
Because it can span a membrane, this protein structure is often seen in receptors and channels.

Outstanding! Alpha helices  (at “B”) are frequently seen spanning membranes to form receptors and channels.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: You’re looking for an alpha helix. 
This level of structure is determined by interactions between amino acid side chains (or R-groups).

Impressive! Tertiary structure (at “D”) is caused by interactions between side chains.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME. Find a level of structure with loops and turns. These are caused by hydrogen, covalent, and ionic bonds between side chains.
Hemoglobin, insulin, and many other proteins require this level of structure.

Great work. Hemoglobin and insulin consist of multiple polypeptide chains.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Both hemoglobin and insulin consist of multiple polypeptide chains. 

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge|2caccf8e7c0c5″ question_number=”6″] Proteins: tertiary interactions

The number of the polypeptide backbone.

Good work. “1” represents the polypeptide backbone.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: An animal’s backbone runs along the entire length of its torso. Find something that runs the along the entire length of this representation of a protein.
An ionic bond between two R-groups

Fantastic! “5” is an ionic bond.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Within a protein, ionic bonds occur between charged functional groups.  Where to you see functional groups with charges? 
A hydrophobic cluster (or its number)

Exactly. “4” represents a hydrophobic cluster.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Find two clustered side chains where there are hydrophobic regions (caused by lots of non-polar methyl groups).
A disulfide bridge

Excellent! “3” is a disulfide bridge.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  A disulfide bridge is a covalent bond between two sulfur atoms.
A hydrogen bond.

Correct! “2” shows a tertiary interaction involving a hydrogen bond.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Hydrogen bonds are typically represented by a dotted line.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge|b7dd80e6189d5″ question_number=”7″] Monomers to polymers (and back)

Hydrolysis

Awesome. When enzymes add water to the bond that connects two monomers within a polymer, it splits the monomers apart. That’s hydrolysis. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:   When enzymes add water to the bond that connects two monomers within a polymer, it splits the monomers apart. That’s hydrolysis. 
Dehydration synthesis

Awesome! When two monomers are bonded together through removal of a water molecule, that’s dehydration synthesis.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  When two monomers are bonded together through removal of a water molecule, that’s dehydration synthesis.

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge|2130072f83712f” question_number=”8″] Amino acids

Amino group

Yes! “2” is the amino group.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: An amino functional group has a nitrogen atom.
A carboxyl group

Way to go! “3” is the carboxyl group.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  A carboxyl group includes a carbon atom that’s double bonded to an oxygen. 
The side chain.

Thumbs up! “4” represents the side chain. There can be twenty varieties.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  The side chain is a variable group. There are twenty varieties. A generic side chain is represented by “R.”

[q json=”true” hotspot_user_interaction=”label_prompt” show_hotspots=”” dataset_id=”Molecules of Life Click-on Challenge|22cb7bc4cf7a2e” question_number=”9″] Biomolecules concept map

The letter that would represent a monosaccharide.

Awesome. Monosaccharides, at “A.” are the monomers of carbohydrates. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Monosaccharides are simple sugars. That would make them the monomers of which type of biomolecule?
The letter that could represent glucose, sucrose, or starch.

Correct! Glucose, sucrose, and starch are all carbohydrates.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME:  Glucose is a simple sugar. Sucrose and starch are all polymers of simple sugars. That makes them examples of …
the letter that would represent lipids

Excellent. “C” would represent lipids.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: What biomolecule family includes oils (as well as steroids, waxes, and phospholipids)?
The letter that would represent fatty acids.

Correct! Fatty acids are one of the key building blocks of lipids.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: One of the components of fats and oils are fatty acids.
The letter that would represent proteins

Nice job!  ”E” is protein.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Amino acids are the monomers of which biomolecule family?
This letter could represent hemoglobin, insulin, or keratin, or the spike on a SARS virus.

Exactly. These are all examples of proteins.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: These are all examples of a molecule that’s synthesized at ribosomes during the process of translation.
The letter that would represent nucleic acids.

Impressive! “G” represents nucleic acids.

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: These are the molecules of heredity. Think of what DNA stands for, and you’ll have the answer.
This letter would represent nucleotides.

Nice!  ”H” represents nucleotides. 

HINT FOR NEXT TIME: Nucleotides are the monomers of molecules that are mostly found in the nucleus of the cell.

[/qwiz]